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History and Development of logic

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History and Development of logic

  1. 1. Group 2 M-F 3:40-5:20PM
  2. 2. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  3. 3. Nyaya Philosophy (5th century BCE) Attainment of knowledge to be free from sin through the use of logical arguments Pre-Aristotelian Logic Period • Art of Argumentation (Eleatics, Sophists & Megarics) • Dialectics (Zeno of Elea) • Definition and Induction (Plato & Socrates) Aristotelian Logic Period Syllogism (Aristotle) Post-Aristotelian Logic Period • Hypothetical Syllogism (Theophrastus) • Logic as Part of Philosophy (Eudemus) • Logic of Chrysippus • Theory of the Compound Categorical Syllogism (Galen) • Coinage of the term “logic” (Boethius) • Theory of Universals (Peter Abelard) • Modal Logic (William of Occam) • Displacement of Logic Modern Logic Period • Symbolic Logic (Leibniz) • Inductive Method (Bacon) • Mathematical Logic (Frege, Whitehead, & Russell) • Three Traditions of the Development of Logic • Formalization of Logical Systems (Goedel) • Logic in Technology
  4. 4. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  5. 5. NYAYA PHILOSOPHY Originated in India in 5th century CE Authored by Siddhartha Gautama “nyaya” means LOGICAL ARGUMENT or SYLLOGISM Attainment of knowledge to be free from sin through the use of logical arguments
  6. 6. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  7. 7. PRE-ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC PERIOD  Arguments about the origin of the universe  Later on, arguments of determining the validity of thought-experiences  Used ARGUMENTS to be considered trustworthy  Eleatics, Sophists & Megarics devoted to the ART OF ARGUMENTATION
  8. 8. ZENO OF ELEA Founder of Dialectics The dialectical method is discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject, who wish to establish the truth of the matter guided by reasoned arguments.
  9. 9. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  10. 10. ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC PERIOD ARISTOTLE  First thinker to devise a logical system  Ideas: •reduction and absurdum of Zeno •propositional structure and negation of Parmenides •argumentative techniques of Plato  developed the SYLLOGISTIC METHOD  Father of Logic
  11. 11. ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC PERIOD A syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. ORGANON Aristotle’sTreatises in Reasoning Came to be called LOGIC
  12. 12. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  13. 13. Post-Aristotelian Logic Period Theophrastus Hypothetical Syllogism Hypothetical syllogism is a valid argument form which is a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises. Eudemus Logic as a constitutive part of Philosophy
  14. 14. Post-Aristotelian Logic Period CHRYSIPPUS  One of the founders of Stoic school  Developed a form of logic in which the fundamental elements were whole propositions
  15. 15. Post-Aristotelian Logic Period GALEN Developed theTheory of the Compound Categorical Syllogism BOETHIUS  Coined the term “LOGIC”  Translated Aristotle’s works into Latin
  16. 16. Post-Aristotelian Logic Period PETER ABELARD  First major logician of the Middle Ages  Reconstructed and refined logic of Aristotle and Chryssipus  originated theTheory of Universals WILLIAM OF OCCAM  Devoted his attention to Modal Logic
  17. 17. Post-Aristotelian Logic Period Mid-15th Century Existence of negative reactions against LOGIC LOGIC RHETORIC
  18. 18. Nyaya Philosophy Pre- Aristotelian Logic Period Aristotelian Logic Period Post - Aristotelian Logic Period Modern Logic Development of Logic
  19. 19. Modern Logic Period GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ Father of Symbolic Logic SIR FRANCIS BACON Father of Modern Logic
  20. 20. Modern Logic Period End of 19th century GOTTLOB FREGE Theory of Quantification ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD BERTRAND RUSSELL Principia Mathematica
  21. 21. Modern Logic Period ThreeTraditions ALGEBRAIC SCHOOL by Boole, Pierce & Venn LOGICIST SCHOOL by Russell,Wittgenstein, Frege MATHEMATICAL SCHOOL by Euclid
  22. 22. Modern Logic Period 20th century Kurt Goedel Formalization of Logical Systems Contribution of Logic to technology

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