• Organ Transplantation is unique among surgical procedures
• Procedure cannot take place without the donation of an organ or a
partial organ from another person.
• Since 198, more than 390,000 organs have been transplanted.
• Organ transplantation is medical procedure in which an organ is removed
from one body and placed in the body of an recipient, to replace a damage or
• The donor and recipient may be at the same location ,or organs me be
transported from a donor site to another location.
• Organs and tissues that are transplanted within the same persons are called
• Transplantation that are recently performed between two subjects of the
same species are called allografts.
• An Isograft is a graft of tissue between two individuals who are genetically identical (i.e. monozygotic twins)
• Isografts are differentiated from other types of transplants while they are anatomically identical to allografts, they
do not trigger an immune response.
• Split Transplants
• Sometime a deceased donor organ, usually a liver may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and
child. This is not usually a preferred option because the transplantation of a whole organ is usually more successful.
• Xenografts tissue or organs from an individual of one species transplanted into or grafted onto an organism of
another species, genus or family.
Organs that can be transplanted
Types of Donor
• Living donor
• In living donors, the door remains alive and donates a renewable tissues, cell
or fluid (ex: skin, blood) or donates an organ (primarily single kidney
donation, partial donation of liver, lung lobe).
• Diseased donors
• People who have been declared brain dead and whose organs are kept viable
by ventilators or other mechanical mechanism until they can be excised for
• Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune
system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue.
Types of Rejections
• Hyper acute rejections
• Acute rejection
• Chronic rejection
• Hyperacute rejection occurs a few minutes after the transplant when the
antigens are completely unmatched. Tissue must be removed to save the life
• Acute rejection may occur any time from the first week after the transplant
to 3 months afterward. All recipients have some type of acute rejections
• Chronic rejection can take place over many years. The body’s constant
immune response against the new organ slowly damages the transplanted
tissue or organ