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  1. 1. Nazilla.Kassaei
  2. 2. The ELT curriculum, by Dennis Finney
  3. 3.  Assessing learner’s need Developing objectives Planning the syllabus Selecting teaching approach Deciding on assessment procedures
  4. 4. A.V.Kelly any definition must include: Richards and Platt Curriculum states: Stern, Richards, Johnson, • educational purpose of the Planner’s intention Nunan program Changes in thought on Procedures language & language • Content, teaching Pupil’s actual learning procedure, learning experience experience Educational policy Hidden learning • Means to assess language pedagogy educational ends Curriculum change
  5. 5. The content model classical humanismThe objective model reconstructionismThe Process model progressivism The product of learningMixed-focus curriculum The process of learning
  6. 6. Origin: Plato and Aristotle Focus: content Classical humanism Underpins grammar-based curriculum Purpose: to transmit the knowledge of language to learners Content: selection of individual grammar points and lexis Drilling of grammatically correct sentences, memorization of list of vocabularies Assessment: the ability to produce grammatically accurate language
  7. 7. It doesn’t take into account the problems of learners It can’t cope with wider purposes of educationIt can’t justify the transmission of culture
  8. 8. Origin : scientific management of education And Behavioral psychology Focus: objectives of teaching-learning program Purpose: to bring about a social change(reconstructionism) Learning is an observable change in behavior that can be measured.
  9. 9. 1. To describe unambiguously the behavior to be performed This model provides2. To describe the condition under 1. Clarity of goals which performance is to occur 2. Ease of3. To state of evaluation acceptable performance 3. Accountability
  10. 10. this model can be appropriatein the area of vocationaltraining and subjects whichrequire transmition ofspecific skillsKelly Emphasizes on limits that such objectives place on creativity and cognitive and affective aspects of learning in their reduction of education to an instrument for behavioral change. Tumposky
  11. 11.  Purpose: to enable the individuals to progress toward self-fulfilment Goals of education are defined in terms of process by which learner develops his understanding It moves toward learner-centered curriculum It rests on the concepts of learners’ need and interest
  12. 12. Need analysis Focus on learning and learnerEvaluation of every stage Emphasizing on the processNeed for interaction between different aspect of design
  13. 13. Mixed-focus curriculumThe framework proposed by Johnson has three dimensions:1. Policy, aims of curriculum2. Pragmatics, what is possible to achieve3. Participant in decision-making process, which has four stages: curriculum planning end specification program implementation implementation in classroom
  14. 14.  The needs of learners The needs of planning committee The needs of society The needs of teachers
  15. 15. To Brindley(1989) a product-oriented veiw of needs Language necessary for particular future purpose Gathering information for the purpose of setting broad goals related to language content. a process-oriented view of needs Learner motivation, learning styles,learner-defined language behavior Gathering information about learners guides learning process
  16. 16. Course content : goals and objectivesDifferent kinds of objectives:1. Performance objective2. Process-related objective3. Instructional objective
  17. 17. Variable focus language is learned language is acquired language is used function-based
  18. 18.  It would allow the designer, the most freedom to respond to changing needs of learners It provides a framework for teacher who may not be able to go fully communicative It provides the experienced teacher with a framework that allows in how the syllabus can create space for learner-teacher negotiation in real-life communication.
  19. 19. Purpose To determine whether the curriculum goals have been met or not To determine the effectiveness of curriculum and evaluate the language programme itself The systematic collection and analysis of all relevant information necessary to promote the improvement of a curriculum and assess its effectiveness, as well as participant’s attitudes in the particular context. Brown formative Two types of evaluation summative
  20. 20. The role of Materials in thelanguage classroom: finding the balance Jane crawford
  21. 21. Negative point of view “textbooks reduce the role of teachers to the one of managing preplanned events” “textbooks are for poor teachers, those without imagination” “some materials fail to present appropriate language models” “some materials fail to contextualize language activities” “some materials foster inadequate cultural understanding” “some materials lack equity in gender representation”
  22. 22. Deficiency view Textbooks compensate for teachers’ deficiencies Allwright Difference view Materials are carriers of decisions best made by someone other than the teacher because of some differences
  23. 23. • To assist inexperienced1 teachers2 • Agent for change3 • Structuring tool
  24. 24. negotiation To provide sth. To negotiate aboutaccountabiliy To show what is being done orientation To know what is happening
  25. 25. Language is functional and must be contextualized Language development requires learnerengagement in purposeful use of languageThe language used should be realistic and authentic
  26. 26. Classroom materials will usually seek to include audio visual componentEffective teaching materials foster learner autonomy Materials need to be flexible enough to cater to individual and contextual differences
  27. 27. Learning needs to engage learners both affectively and cognitively Technologically complex world, second language learners need to develop the ability to deal with written as well as spoken genre
  28. 28. 1. They must work with examples of genre but with the focus on meaning2. They must analyze examples of the genre to determine its social purpose3. They must build up their knowledge of the topic through discussion ,reading and so on,4. They must engage a joint construction as a whole group or in smaller groups.