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Testing Microservices

What is the most optimized testing strategy for a distributed system of loosely coupled modules that communicate with each other through APIs.

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Testing Microservices

  1. 1. Microservices Testing Strategy Rajni Singh, Manager, Quality Assurance
  2. 2. What are Microservices? Micro-services is an architecture consisting of focused, small services that together create a complete application or task. Every instance of a microservice represents a single responsibility within the solution. Key features of microservices architecture: • Self-contained and componentized • Decentralized data management • Resilient to failures • Built around a single business need • Reasonably small micros
  3. 3. Important testing scenarios A good use case of a microservices architecture would include the following scenarios: 1. The system is too big and complex that it becomes difficult to manage. 2. The system is expected to handle high traffic & load and needs to be scalable. 3. Testing between internal microservices and a third- party services. 4. Testing for microservices which needs to be exposed to the public domain.
  4. 4. Challenges in testing microservices • Timely availability of all the services for testing. • Complicated extraction of logs during testing and data validation. • Identifying the scope of testing at each service level and integration testing as each component operate on separate services and rely on each other to cover their module and integration with an external service. • The availability of testing environment considering the development strategy is agile. • Distributed and independent nature of a microservice architecture results in the isolation of each component of the architecture from the rest. Thus it needs individual testing and cover all independent services. • Monitoring multiple log files, databases, and servers increases the complexity of tracking down issues or verifying processes.
  5. 5. Microservices testing strategy Bottom-up testing approach is an optimized solution which includes: • Test the domain • Tests closer to the code • Integrate Early • Use Mocks / Stubs • Focus is on Test Pyramid • Helps visualize/categorize test coverage better
  6. 6. Microservices testing types UI testing Integration testing End to end testing Contract testing Unit testing Exploratory testing Scopeoftesting Executiontime Number of tests
  7. 7. • Focuses on one unit (class/module) of a domain • Verifies functionality of one unit • White box & API testing Unit testing helps us in the following ways: • Isolates the logic in places where setting-up all the cases and covering edge scenarios is much easier than at a service level. • Internal dependencies are stubbed and mocked. • Non-functional requirements such as end-user authentication, throttling, monitoring, etc. are implemented at each and every microservice level. Unit testing A1 G3 X1 Z2 D1 C3 A9 D6 B4 D7 B1 X2 Individual module/Class testing
  8. 8. • Individual microservice signatures (end points) are the focus with other services that will consume the service under test. • Test doubles (mocks) are used to simulate the behavior of consumer microservices. • One end-point at a time is tested. • Each service is treated as a black box. • Tests are end-to-end within the bounds of the service. • Assertion are on response e.g. JSON body. Contract testing helps: • Stub-out dependencies. • Ensure defect identification within workflows. • Identify defect for each service in isolation. • Decrease complexity to test individual services. • Stabilize services and providers. • Set-up test data easily. • Get instant feedback on individual service. • Identify unused interface at initial level. Contract testing Mock Authentication Service Mock Catalog Service Mock Payment Service Mock Fulfilment Service Cart Service POST /cart/{:product_id} HTTP Request JSON HTTP Response
  9. 9. Test Client • An integration test verifies the communication paths and interactions between components to detect interface defects. This is a critical part of testing a microservices for proper inter-service communication. • Integration testing is done with data stores and external components. Integration Testing Helps • Inter-service communication issues. • Provide additional coverage from unit and contract testing for each integration point. • Identify defsect for the following cases of integration point: o Integration with data stores o Gateway Integration o Inter-service/external component integration Integration testing Resource Domain External Client ORM Stubbed Service Data Store
  10. 10. • End-to-end testing verifies that the entire process flows correctly, including all services and DB integration. • End-to-end testing is more business facing as system is deployed and treated as a black box. • It verifies environment setup, configuration, firewall, proxies, load balancer are correctly configured as well. End-to-end testing helps: • Ensure complete correctness and health of the application. • Reduce future risk due to coverage gap. • Analyze user experience while using end-to-end workflow and various aspects of the application. End-to-end testing Authentication Service Catalog Service Payment Service Fulfilment Service Cart Service Place and order Verify that the order is placed Mock Mastercard Mock Logistics
  11. 11. • User interface testing is most important as it tests the system as an end-user and the end user input is random and very erratic. • All the databases, interfaces, internal and third-party services must work together seamlessly to get the expected results. • This is done to verify and validate the user interface. User Interface testing helps: • Provide perspective of end user and therefore can identify the hidden issue which was not identified earlier during functional testing. • Compatibility with multiple browsers and devices. UI testing UI Cart Service Authentication Service Payment Service Fulfilment Service Mock Mastercard Mock Logistics
  12. 12. Tools to test microservices Tool Type of Testing Type of License SOAP UI API Free open source version and Pro Version Rest- Assured Open source Postman Open source SOAtest Open source PRACT Contract Testing Open source PACTO Janus AppDynamics Monitoring Free 14-day Trial, then from $230 monthly. TraceView $39.50/host/month NewRelic Free plan, then from $149 per month. Jmeter Performance testing Open source NeoLoad Licensed Loadrunner Licensed
  13. 13. • Established best practices like the Test Pyramid • Common tests across all Microservices can turn into a bottleneck, therefore should be reduced, for example by performing more consumer-driven contract tests. • With suitable tools Stubs can be created from Microservices. Conclusion Nagarro drives technology-led business breakthroughs for industry leaders and challengers. When our clients want to move fast and make things, they turn to us. Some of our clients include Siemens, GE, Lufthansa, Viacom, Estēe Lauder, ASSA ABLOY, Ericsson, DHL, Mitsubishi, BMW, the City of New York, T- Systems, SAP and Infor. Working with these clients, we continually push the boundaries of what is possible to do through technology, and in what time frame. Today, we are more than 5,000 experts across 20 countries. Together we form Nagarro, the global services division of Munich-based Allgeier SE.