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Introduction CIM

Introduction to computer integrated manufacturing. Discussed definition of manufacturing, manufacturing system, importance of automation

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Computer Integrated
Manufacturing
Dr. Nafis Ahmad
Professor
Department of IPE, BUET
Email:nafis@ipe.buet.ac.bd
Ch 1 Introduction
Sections:
1. Production Systems
2. Automation in Production Systems
3. Manual Labor in Production Systems
4. Automation Principles and Strategies
5. Organization of the Book
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems,
and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 1
Manufacturing
 Manufacturing  manus (hand) + factus (make)
 made by hand
 Small shops  Factories
 Handicraft techniques  Machines
 Workers see the entire product  Specialization
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems,
and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 2
The Realities of Modern
Manufacturing
 Globalization - Once underdeveloped countries (e.g.,
China, India, Mexico) are becoming major players in
manufacturing
 International outsourcing - Parts and products once made
in the United States by American companies are now
being made offshore (overseas) or near-shore (in Mexico
and Central America)
 Local outsourcing - Use of suppliers within the U.S. to
provide parts and services
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems,
and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 3
More Realities of Modern
Manufacturing
 Contract manufacturing - Companies that specialize in
manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under
contract to other companies
 Trend toward the service sector in the U.S. economy
 Quality expectations - Customers, both consumer and
corporate, demand products of the highest quality
 Need for operational efficiency - U.S. manufacturers must
be efficient in their operations to overcome the labor cost
advantage of international competitors
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems,
and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 4
Modern Manufacturing Approaches
and Technologies
 Automation - automated equipment instead of labor
(reduces labor cost, decreases production cycle times,
increases product quality and consistency)
 Material handling technologies - manufacturing usually
involves a sequence of activities; material handling
provides transportation, storage and tracking of
materials through the plant
 Manufacturing systems - integration and coordination
of multiple automated or manual workstations through
material handling technologies
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems,
and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 5

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Introduction CIM

  • 1. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Dr. Nafis Ahmad Professor Department of IPE, BUET Email:nafis@ipe.buet.ac.bd
  • 2. Ch 1 Introduction Sections: 1. Production Systems 2. Automation in Production Systems 3. Manual Labor in Production Systems 4. Automation Principles and Strategies 5. Organization of the Book ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 1
  • 3. Manufacturing  Manufacturing  manus (hand) + factus (make)  made by hand  Small shops  Factories  Handicraft techniques  Machines  Workers see the entire product  Specialization ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 2
  • 4. The Realities of Modern Manufacturing  Globalization - Once underdeveloped countries (e.g., China, India, Mexico) are becoming major players in manufacturing  International outsourcing - Parts and products once made in the United States by American companies are now being made offshore (overseas) or near-shore (in Mexico and Central America)  Local outsourcing - Use of suppliers within the U.S. to provide parts and services ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 3
  • 5. More Realities of Modern Manufacturing  Contract manufacturing - Companies that specialize in manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under contract to other companies  Trend toward the service sector in the U.S. economy  Quality expectations - Customers, both consumer and corporate, demand products of the highest quality  Need for operational efficiency - U.S. manufacturers must be efficient in their operations to overcome the labor cost advantage of international competitors ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 4
  • 6. Modern Manufacturing Approaches and Technologies  Automation - automated equipment instead of labor (reduces labor cost, decreases production cycle times, increases product quality and consistency)  Material handling technologies - manufacturing usually involves a sequence of activities; material handling provides transportation, storage and tracking of materials through the plant  Manufacturing systems - integration and coordination of multiple automated or manual workstations through material handling technologies ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 5
  • 7. Modern Manufacturing Approaches and Technologies  Flexible manufacturing - to compete in the low- volume/high-mix product categories  Quality programs - to achieve the high quality expected by today's customers  Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) - to integrate design, production, and logistics  Lean production - more work with fewer resources ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 6
  • 8. Production System Defined “A collection of people, equipment, and procedures organized to accomplish the manufacturing operations of a company” Two categories:  Facilities – the factory and equipment in the facility and the way the facility is organized (plant layout)  Manufacturing support systems – the set of procedures used by a company to manage production and to solve technical and logistics problems in ordering materials, moving work through the factory, and ensuring that products meet quality standards ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 7
  • 9. The Production System Fig. 1.1 Blue collar White collar ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 8
  • 10. Production System Facilities Facilities include the factory, production machines and tooling, material handling equipment, inspection equipment, and computer systems that control the manufacturing operations  Plant layout – the way the equipment is physically arranged in the factory  Manufacturing systems – logical groupings of equipment and workers in the factory  Production line  Stand-alone workstation and worker ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 9
  • 11. Manufacturing Systems Three categories in terms of the human participation in the processes performed by the manufacturing system: 1. Manual work systems - a worker performing one or more tasks without the aid of powered tools, but sometimes using hand tools 2. Worker-machine systems - a worker operating powered equipment 3. Automated systems - a process performed by a machine without direct participation of a human ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 10
  • 12. Manual Work System (Fig. 1.2.a) A manual work system consists of one or more workers performing one or more tasks without the aid of powered tools. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 11
  • 13. Worker-Machine System (Fig. 1.2.b) A human worker operates a powered machine, such as a machine tool or other production machine. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 12
  • 14. Automated System (Fig. 1.2.c) An automated system is one in which a process is performed by a machine without the direct participation of a human worker. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 13
  • 15. Automated System  A semi-automated machine performs a portion of the work cycle under some form of program control, and a human worker tends to the machine for the remainder of the cycle, by unloading and loading it, or performing some other task each cycle.  A fully automated machine has the capacity to operate for extended periods of time with no human attention. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 14
  • 16. Manufacturing Support Systems “People and procedures by which a company manages its production Operations”  Design the process and equipment  Plan and control the production orders  Satisfy product quality requirements ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 15
  • 17. Manufacturing Support Systems Involves a cycle of information-processing activities that consists of four functions: • Business functions – principal means of communicating with customer The production order will be in one of the following forms: 1. an order to manufacture an item to the customer’s specifications 2. a customer order to buy manufacturer’s product 3. an internal company order based on a forecast of future demand ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 16
  • 18. Manufacturing Support Systems • Product design - research and development, design engineering, prototype shop • Manufacturing planning – the information and documentation that constitute the product design flows into the manufacturing planning function • Process planning: consists of determining the sequence of individual processing and assembly operations needed to produce the part • Master Production Schedule (MPS) is a listing of the products to be made, the dates on which they are to be delivered, and the quantities of each • Materials Requirement Planning (MRP): planning of individual components and subassemblies that make up each product • Capacity planning is concerned with manpower and machine resources of the firm ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 17
  • 19. Manufacturing Support Systems • Manufacturing control – concerned with managing and controlling the physical operations in the factory to implement the manufacturing plans • Shop floor control deals with the problem of controlling the progress of the product as it is being processed, assembled, moved, and inspected in the factory • Inventory control attempts to strike a proper balance between the risk of too little inventory (with possible stock-out of materials) and the carrying cost of too much inventory, i.e. what to order and when to order • Quality control ensures that the quality of product and its components meet the standards specified by the product designer ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 18
  • 20. Information Processing Cycle in Manufacturing Support Systems Fig. 1.3 ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 19
  • 21. Automation in Production Systems Two categories of automation in the production system: 1. Automation of manufacturing systems in the factory 2. Computerization of the manufacturing support systems  The two categories overlap because manufacturing support systems are connected to the factory manufacturing systems  Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 20
  • 22. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Fig. 1.4 Opportunities for automation and computerization in a production system ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 21
  • 23. Automated Manufacturing Systems  processing  assembly  inspection  material handling They are called automated because they perform their operations with a reduced level of human participation compared with the corresponding process (sometimes virtually no human participation) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 22
  • 24. Automated Manufacturing Systems Examples:  Automated machine tools  Transfer lines  Automated assembly systems  Industrial robots that perform processing or assembly operations  Automated material handling and storage systems to integrate manufacturing operations  Automatic inspection systems for quality control ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 23
  • 25. Automated Manufacturing Systems Three basic types: 1. Fixed automation 2. Programmable automation 3. Flexible automation ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 24
  • 26. Fixed Automation “A manufacturing system in which the sequence of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration” Typical features:  Suited to high production quantities  High initial investment for custom-engineered equipment  High production rates  Relatively inflexible in accommodating product variety ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 25
  • 27. Fixed Automation The economic justification for fixed automation is found in products that are produced in very large quantities  Transfer lines  Automated assembly lines ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 26
  • 28. Programmable Automation “A manufacturing system designed with the capability to change the sequence of operations to accommodate different product configurations” Typical features:  High investment in general purpose equipment  Lower production rates than fixed automation  Flexibility to deal with variations and changes in product configuration  Most suitable for batch production  Physical setup and part program must be changed between jobs (batches) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 27
  • 29. Programmable Automation The operation sequence is controlled by a program, which is a set of instructions coded so that they can be read and interpreted by the system. New programs can be prepared and entered into equipment to produce new products.  Numerically controlled (NC) machine tools  Industrial robots  Programmable logic controllers ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 28
  • 30. Flexible Automation “An extension of programmable automation in which the system is capable of changing over from one job to the next with no lost time between jobs” Typical features:  High investment for custom-engineered system  Continuous production of variable mixes of products  Medium production rates  Flexibility to deal with soft product variety ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 29
  • 31. Product Variety and Production Quantity for Three Automation Types Fig. 1.5 ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 30
  • 32. Computerized Manufacturing Support Systems Objectives of automating the manufacturing support systems:  To reduce the amount of manual and clerical effort in product design, manufacturing planning and control, and the business functions  Integrates computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) in CAD/CAM  CIM includes CAD/CAM and the business functions of the firm The term CIM denoted the pervasive use of computer systems to design the products, plan the production, control the operations, and perform the various information-processing functions needed in a manufacturing firm. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 31
  • 33. Reasons for Automating 1. To increase labor productivity 2. To reduce labor cost 3. To mitigate the effects of labor shortages 4. To reduce or remove routine manual and clerical tasks 5. To improve worker safety 6. To improve product quality 7. To reduce manufacturing lead time 8. To accomplish what cannot be done manually 9. To avoid the high cost of not automating ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 32
  • 34. Manual Labor in Production Systems Is there a place for manual labor in the modern production system?  Answer: YES  Two aspects: 1. Manual labor in factory operations 2. Labor in manufacturing support systems ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 33
  • 35. Manual Labor in Factory Operations The long term trend is toward greater use of automated systems to substitute for manual labor  When is manual labor justified?  Some countries have very low labor rates and automation cannot be justified  Task is too technologically difficult to automate  Short product life cycle  Customized product requires human flexibility  To cope with ups and downs in demand  To reduce risk of product failure ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 34
  • 36. Labor in Manufacturing Support Systems  Product designers who bring creativity to the design task  Manufacturing engineers who  Design the production equipment and tooling, and  Plan the production methods and routings  Equipment maintenance  Programming and computer operation  Engineering project work  Plant management ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 35
  • 37. Automation Principles and Strategies The preceding discussion leads us to conclude that automation is not always the right answer for a given production situation. A certain caution and respect must be observed in applying automation technologies. 1. The USA Principle 2. Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement 3. Automation Migration Strategy ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 36
  • 38. U.S.A Principle 1. Understand the existing process  Input/output analysis  Value chain analysis  Charting techniques and mathematical modeling 2. Simplify the process  Reduce unnecessary steps and moves 3. Automate the process  Ten strategies for automation and production systems  Automation migration strategy ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 37
  • 39. Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement If automation seems a feasible solution to improving productivity, quality or other measure of performance, then the following ten strategies provide a road map to search for these improvements. 1. Specialization of operations: The use of special-purpose equipment designed to perform one operation with the greatest possible efficiency. 2. Combined operations: Involves reducing the number of distinct production machines or workstations through which the part must be routed. Saves setup, material handling effort, waiting time, lead time. 3. Simultaneous operations: Reduces total processing time. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 38
  • 40. Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement 4. Integration of operations: Linking several workstations together into a single integrated mechanism, using automated work handling devices to transfer parts between stations. 5. Increased flexibility: Attempts to achieve maximum utilization of equipment for job-shop and medium- volume situations by using the same equipment for a variety of parts or products (reduce setup and programming time). 6. Improved material handling and storage: Reduces WIP and shortens manufacturing lead time. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 39
  • 41. Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement 7. On-line inspection: Permits corrections to the process as the product is being made (reduces scrap, improves quality) 8. Process control and optimization: Control at process/machine level 9. Plant operations control: Control at plant level 10. Computer-integrated manufacturing: Integration of factory operations with design and the business functions. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 40
  • 42. Automation Migration Strategy For Introduction of New Products A formalized plan for evolving the manufacturing systems used to produce new products as demand grows. 1. Phase 1 – Manual production  Single-station manned cells working independently  Advantages: quick to set up, low-cost tooling 2. Phase 2 – Automated production  Single-station automated cells operating independently  As demand grows and automation can be justified 3. Phase 3 – Automated integrated production  Multi-station system with serial operations and automated transfer of work units between stations ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 41
  • 43. Automation Migration Strategy Fig. 1.6 ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 42
  • 44. Organization 1. Overview of Manufacturing 2. Automation and Control Technologies 3. Material Handling and Identification Technologies 4. Manufacturing Systems 5. Quality Control in Manufacturing Systems 6. Manufacturing Support Systems ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 43
  • 45. Organization Fig.1.7 ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 44
  • 46. Thanks! Any questions? You can find me at: @ahmadn nafis@ipe.buet.ac.bd 46