Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents a review of related literature both foreign and local.This also presents the different variables relative to the study.2.1 Related Literature2.1.1 Foreign Literature Barnes (1954) indicates that Social Network Theory views socialrelationships in terms of nodes and ties. Social Network is a social structure madeup of individuals (or organizations) called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) byone or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship,common interest, financial exchange, likes/dislikes, or relationships of beliefs,knowledge or prestige. Moreover Abhyankar (2011) pointed out that from the very beginning;human beings always associated themselves to some form of social structure asthey evolved across generations. All human beings crave social life, but not allcan have time and resources to enjoy social circle where they can communicate,collaborate and freely express themselves with like-minded peers for satisfyingtheir different needs like security, assets, skills, relationships, science andtechnology, events, politics, history, literature, art, etc. There is no end to the listof fundamental principles that can drive people to create platforms forcommunication and interaction, mutually beneficial for the whole community. According to Abhyankar (2011), “Social Network” is an onlinecommunity where people across the globe (irrespective of demographic andgeographical differences) can develop network with different organizations orindividuals for a specific purpose. It creates a chain of linked/connected entities(individuals/organizations, communities, forums, groups etc.) like a tree withmultiple branches and nodes. These branches are the various groups,communities, forums etc. that an individual intends to join. Hence, a socialnetwork represents relationships between nodes (people) and flows between thebranches (groups, communities, forums, organizations etc.) College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  2. 2. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus DiMicco and Millen (2007) adds that Social network sites have beenwidely studied from a consumer perspective despite huge investment by manyorganizations in social technology, and a number of high profile failures andembarrassments stemming from their use. Of the few existing studies of socialnetwork site use in organisations, there are a couple looking at the uses of publicsocial network sites (such as Facebook and LinkedIn) in an organizationalcontext. Skeels and Grudin 2009), and a handful more looking at uses of private,internal sites (Brzozowski, 2009) A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site thatfocuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations amongpeople, who, for example, share interests and/or activities. A social networkservice consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her sociallinks, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes consideredas a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network serviceusually means an individual-centered service whereas online community servicesare group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities,events, and interests within their individual networks. Social media are becoming increasingly popular among politicians andtheir organizations as a means to disseminate political messages, learn about theinterests and needs of constituents and the broader public, raise funds, and buildnetworks of support. These activities often take place on privately run socialnetworking sites that allow political figures and institutions to communicate withthe public in unmediated, high-profile fora. In Canada, many parliamentarianshave created accounts on popular sites such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace andFlickr. The content posted on these sites may relate to policy issues and theofficial work of politicians or to aspects of their personal lives (Clark, 2010). Some people argue that social media remove barriers to collective actionand empower citizens to influence and monitor the work of policy-makers byoffering a low-cost and, in some cases, more personal and compelling means ofraising funds, spreading information and recruiting supporters from a broad rangeof backgrounds. In addition, some note that, by enabling people to connect acrosslong distances, new information and communication technologies, including College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  3. 3. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campussocial media, have been instrumental in the growth of transnational politicalmovements. However, results of a recent Nanos poll suggests that social media–basedpolitical activism remains at the fringes in Canada (Clark, 2010). According tothese findings, approximately 50% of Canadians believe that Facebook groupsshould have minimal to no impact on government, and approximately 30% have anegative to somewhat negative view of the use of Facebook groups to share ideasand mobilize activity. At the same time, others argue that these numbers arepromising, given that the culture of social media activism is still at an early stagein its development; they emphasize that, according to the same poll,approximately 30% of Canadians held a positive or somewhat positive view ofFacebook-based campaigns. Young people in Canada demonstrate low levels of trust and interest inpolitical institutions and representatives, and are less likely to vote and joinpolitical parties than previous cohorts of young Canadians. Because young peopleare avid users of social media, these technologies are often discussed as onepossible means by which young people may become more engaged in thedemocratic process. Proponents of this argument also note that young peopleexpect immediacy and interactivity when communicating, an assumption thatmight be better accommodated by social media tools than by the complex,bureaucratic communication channels of many governing institutions. The use of social networking as a public relations tool is certainly a hotthings among organizations. The velocity and accessibility brought by these siteswhen it comes to information is truly impeccable. A lot of things may still comeup in the future, but as for now, if you want your business to get noticed, you maywant to use social media. The dawn of the Internet as an innovation in itself has probably propelleda lot of changes and advancements in a lot of sectors. Through the websites thatthey put up, they are able to inform people about their products and services in amore efficient way. The use of electronic mail has also helped them gauge theiraudience’s needs and wants as well as addressing to them in a quick way. Themost recent innovation in online business would be the usage of social media as amarketing tool. Social networking sites, in particular have helped organizations College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  4. 4. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campusin terms of their public relations with their target audiences. The invasion ofvarious businesses in these sites have been rampant, mainly because of itsadvantages that has proven to be very effective in increasing visibility, revenue,and influence. Read on to learn more about the power of social media marketing.2.1.2 Local Literature In this Digital Age, everyone seems to make his or her presence felt in thevirtual world to validate his or her existence. Getting connected through socialnetworks and blog sites seems to be the norm, not just among individuals, but alsoamong companies and businesses. With this, the Honor Award Program (HAP) ofthe Civil Service Commission (CSC) has ventured into social media to strengthenits promotional strategies of the Program. Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT)Chairman Ivan John E. Uy said that social networking sites can be a useful tool inpublic service delivery. “The use of Facebook and Twitter in government officesprovides better access to the public,” he said in an interview aired over DZRB.There are 24 million Internet users in the Philippines, 51% of which use socialnetworking sites. Social media is an effective platform for informationdissemination and engagement.“It’s about time to engage with our stakeholders.There are 1.4 million government workers all over the country. Filipinos shouldhear of the inspiring stories of our outstanding public servants. Being onFacebook is one way to reach out to the public that we serve,” said CSCChairman Francisco T. Duque III. The Pangasinan provincial government is vigorously pushing peopleempowerment, including generating greater public awareness on variousgovernment programs through the use of social networking sites. Pursuing thisthrust, the provincial government led by Gov. Amado Espino Jr. conducted amulti-sector bloggers’ orientation seminar last June 1 at the PangasinanDevelopment and Training Center here. The participants included provincialdepartment heads, chiefs of hospitals, administrative officers and staff, and ITpersonnel of different departments of the provincial government. Vangie Padilla, a social media specialist and resource speaker, said Espinowanted to raise the level of quality of public service given to the 2.6 million College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  5. 5. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite CampusPangasinenses. Since there are now some 300,000 Pangasinenses who are onFacebook, Padilla said Espino thought of coping with the times by “switchingfrom the traditional to cyberspace.” “Since Pangasinan is now dubbed as No. 1 province in many aspects, Gov.Espino opts to explore greater heights of bringing government service closer tothe people, having seen the intense impact of social media like Facebook, Twitterand YouTube among Pangasinenses,” Padilla said. Coinciding with the half-dayorientation was the launching of Espino’s social networking sites –, The public is invited to get in touch with the governor, learn more aboutthe province and the various programs and projects of the provincial governmentusing these social networking sites in just few clicks. Provincial employees laudedthe project, expressing their full support to the cause by putting their own grouppage so they can post their regular activities and enable the public to keep track ofthe efforts of the provincial government. A series of orientation seminars is underway for all provincial employees,high school and college students, Sangguniang Kabataan officials, and varioussectors in the province. Tutorial for government employees on social networkingis also set to fully realize the project. The Philippines has been on the World Wide Web since the early 90s.MozCom was the first commercially available Internet provider in thePhilippines, starting in 1994. In early 2000, via the Electronic Commerce Act or Republic Act 8792, thePhilippine government mandated that every department should have a presence onthe web. This was to allow the public access to information as well as a means tocommunicate with their duly elected politicians.There are different levels of web presence required of the government. Thehierarchy, from the most basic to the highest, is: Emerging Web Presence level could be just a simple static website with details of the respective agency and contact information. College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  6. 6. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus Enhanced Web Presence includes regularly updated data, a portal to other departments or government agencies, and a section where users can download documents. Interactive Web Presence means more dynamic websites. Information must be updated on a daily or weekly basis. Documents and forms can be downloaded before submitting them to the agency. Search features should also be available. Transactional Web Presence means the user can perform secure transactions completely on the site, without the need for filling out paper forms and documents. The fifth and most important level is Fully Integrated Web Presence. Here the government agency should be able to provide all requirements through two-way communication such email or instant messaging. There should be social networking information, and documents and forms should be available from a single website. This gives the public a direct means of sending feedback, and increases opportunities for almost instantaneous responses from the agency in question.At this point, many departments just barely qualify for the third level, while a feware already exploring the fourth level. Very few governments around the worldhave the equivalent of the fifth level of web presence. All government websites operate under guidelines set by the Office of thePresident to standardize the quality of government web presence. This isimplemented and monitored by the Department of Trade and Industry( These are followed according to the different types of serviceprovided by the department, which include the agency working with the public,another government agency or a business. Some departments already allowapplications online, filing or permits and payment. E-commerce services are alsoin place for the convenience of businesses and corporations. The standardizationallows the agencies to scale their deployment on the web in phases, which ensuresthat they are able to bring the best service without unnecessary expense orinconvenience to the public. In recent months, certain government agencies have proven to be valuablein providing information to the public. Such services are useful particularly in College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  7. 7. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campustimes of crisis, both natural and man-made, such as war in countries where thereare many Filipinos, or random natural calamities. Part of the government’s job isto make information available to the public. In the past, this was done throughTV, radio or printed newspapers. However this means that the information is atleast a few hours old. The Internet makes all information available almost in realtime, making it the ideal tool in reporting news as it happens, not as it happenedhours ago. Any Filipino citizen should know where to look for information regardingour government. You need look no further than The Official Website of theRepublic of the Philippines ( This site is a portal to othergovernment websites and is managed at the Office of the President of thePhilippines. It includes news reports, official press releases and a directory ofother government websites. The government website directory includes the Officeof the President ( and the Office of the Vice President( But due to the recent earthquake in Japan, many citizens are questioningthe capability of our government to react to a natural calamity of that magnitude.The official website of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology orPHIVOLCS ( provides information on disastersarising from volcanic eruptions, earthquake and tsunami. PHIVOLCS,meanwhile, operates under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST)( Since the civil war in Libya started in February, thousands of OverseasFilipino Workers have been clamoring to return to the Philippines. The unstablepolitical climate in the Middle East highlights the need for a single source ofinformation for OFWs and their families. There are a number of governmentagencies working together to help these displaced workers evacuate quickly andsafely. The first is the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) (,which has been in negotiations with the governments on nations in turmoil andthe neighboring countries where our countrymen can seek refuge. Anotherinvaluable resource is the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)( College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  8. 8. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus As we move into the 21st century, more and more government agenciesare working to improve their web presence to include social networking, which isnow more than just a new buzzword thrown around in meetings. The informationthat was disseminated across various demographics at Edsa II shows that it’s notjust the youth you can reach with technology. Older generations will not be leftbehind. The sites are becoming increasingly easy to use and the convenience isstarting to outweigh the alternatives. Waiting in line at the Land TransportationOffice (LTO) ( for your driver’s license will soon be partof the past.The Internet is information, it is convenience, it is here. You had best embrace it,or you’ll be the only one who’ll be waiting in line.2.2 Related Studies2.2.1 Foreign Studies Online social networking presents both opportunities and risks to youngpeople. According to Davies and Cranston (2008), Online social networkingpresents many opportunities to young people by making it easier for them to,amongst other things: publish creative works to local and global audiences; stay intouch and communicate with peers; find and interact with people with sharedinterests; organize and co-ordinate political engagement and action; for virtualvolunteering; and to engage in self expression. However, online social networkingcan also expose young people to new risks. Risks from: inappropriate content;commercialism and unsuitable advertising; inappropriate or offensive conduct onSNS; criminal activities such as identity theft; and inappropriate contact (onlineand offline) from strangers – which may include grooming and in the most seriouscases, sexual abuse. For many young people, online social networking is not a distinct activity,but is part of day-to-day life, communication and interaction with peers. This canlead to some risks crossing over into, and potentially being amplified by, SNS.Both young people and youth workers identify bullying on SNS as one of themost significant negative issues linked to online social networking (Davies andCranston,2008). College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  9. 9. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus Moreover, Davies and Cranston (2008) said that group andcommunication tools on social networking sites can provide ways to keep youngpeople in touch with services and with each other, to build bridges betweendifferent groups, and to promote ongoing collaboration on projects between face-to-face sessions. Social network sites can provide a platform for sharing youngpeople’s creative efforts, or for enabling young people to have a public voice onissues that affect them. Online social networking also offers the potential for newforms of online outreach work or for working with groups with shared interestsfrom across a wide geographical area (e.g. online work with socially excludedyoung people, young people from rural areas) Young people can be seen as valued stakeholders within the greatersociety. Youth participation opens the door, not only for the meaningful inclusionof young people in decision-making processes that affect their lives, but also inthe planning, design and delivery of related goods and services. There is a strong argument in favor of youth participation from a humanrights perspective. The internationally recognized UN Convention on the Rightsof the Child outlines the rights of children and young people to participate indecision-making processes that affect their lives. The mere presence of a youthdelegate at a high levelmeeting or conference may challenge a greater consciousness of youth issues andconcerns during deliberations. UNESCO has developed the concept of youthmainstreaming, which goes beyond the dimension of youth specific themes andlooks at the importance of a youth perspective on all aspects of social, politicaland economic life. It “denotes a process for a meaningful engagement and broad integrationof young people into structures and activities of social development on a dailybasis. It requires consistent, committed youth-adult cooperation at every level,where young people are recognized as equal and valuable partners. A youthmainstreaming approach aims to support young people to fulfil their roleseffectively and to take their right place in the society”. College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service
  10. 10. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus College of Arts and Science Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service