Importance of gene transfer in antibiotic resistance
Importance of gene transfer in antibiotic resistance Afiqah, ehsan, farah husna, nadhirah, hajar
Antibiotic resistance• Not following doctor prescription• Bacteria itself• Mutation• Gene transfer
How the bacteria itself become resistance to antibiotics• Efflux offensive antibiotics located in the cell membrane, before the antibiotic can cause harm to the cellular machinery.• Ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), are another source of resistance bacteria use to protect themselves from antibiotics. It bind to the ribosome and change their shapes.• adding acetyl (COCH3) or phosphate (PO32-) groups to a specific site on the antibiotic and cause harmless to the cells.
mutation• One of the ways to create resistance bacterial cells is through mutation.• Mutations may prevent an antibiotic from binding to the ribosome (kanamycin)
Ribosomal mutation• provide antibiotic resistance for the organism but will make the bacterium to become more susceptible to another antibiotics• slow the process of protein synthesis• slow growth rates of bacterium
Gene transfer• Gene transfers play a major role in antibiotic resistance• Some resistance bacteria cells able to transmit their plasmid (copies of DNA) to neighboring cells by using three mechanisms explained before• Hence, all of them will become resistant to antibiotics• This process is called horizontal gene transfer
Importances of gene transfer in antibacterial resistance• Fast spreading of antibacterial resistance gene• Useful for introducing a cloned gene into bacterial cells• The antibiotic will become less effective in preventing infection• Can cause death as prolong antibiotic resistance• High cost in treating patients