Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Problems of naming


Published on

Here U can see one of the greatest problems of naming and world's famous examples of failures and Its consequences.

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Problems of naming

  1. 1. BelorussianStateTechnologicalUniversity The Main Problem of Naming 2012
  2. 2. The role of name research in the globaleconomy will continue to grow inimportance. The competition for yournew products today may not be yourtrue competition. The biggest challengefor your new product may be competingfor the attention of your customer.Having an insight into name research willhelp.
  3. 3. The goal of effective name research is tochoose a product name that reflects and fits the customer’s needs so precisely that the name sells the product.
  4. 4. Brand, Visual Brand and Verbal BrandIn order to better grasp the meaning of name research,one must first comprehend the distinctions betweenbrand, visual brand and verbal brand. Brand: Simply, a brand dwells within the part of the human mind that perceives a product’s intangible benefits differentiating an otherwise readily substitutable product in a highly customer-relevant way. Visual brand: A visual brand includes trademarks, such as logos, packaging and trade dress. Verbal brand: A verbal brand is the name, the language or words used to express your product idea to your customer. The verbal brand name is the only clear, identifiable aspect of the product that your customer uses in selection and purchase.
  5. 5. How to name easilyWhen you’re developing a name for abusiness, a product or a service, you have anumber of options: Use the founder or inventor’s name (Hewlett-Packard) Describe what you do (Southwest Airlines) Describe an experience or image (Sprint) Take a word out of context (Apple) Make up a word (Google)
  6. 6. Types of Names and Its InfluenceThe verbal brand name development generally works withinthe realm of marketing terms. From a legal perspective, yourtrademark attorney will scrutinize your names with variations ofwhat I refer to as the naming spectrum: Fanciful/neologisms - "invented" names Advantage: strong legal protection Disadvantage: Cost of educating the public Associative - indirect communication Advantage: communicates message plus legal protection Disadvantage: public needs some education - may confuse Descriptive - communicates directly Advantage: immediate communication to the customer Disadvantage: may be less distinctive and less protectable
  7. 7. All Brands Are GlobalToday, all brands are global in the wired andwireless world of Internet communications.Your companys branded products are easilyaccessible worldwide, even if your companyis primarily a domestic marketer.
  8. 8. The verbal brand name is the same, only the language is different.Right now you can go and orderHobNobs, a popular milkchocolate candy from theU.K., or find Japanese HelloPanda, biscuits for sale.Consider that an eBayshopper in Venice, Italy, seesbasically the same screen assomeone logging in fromVenice, Calif. The verbalbrand name is the same,only the language isdifferent.
  9. 9. How to TranslateThere are essentially five choices when consideringyour global linguistic strategy: Enter the market with the country of origin verbal brand name. Phonetically-translated verbal brand name. Directly-translated verbal brand name. Combination of original verbal brand name and phonetic translation. Combination of original verbal brand name and direct translation.
  10. 10. MisinterpretationRemember that one of the key componentsof the brief is to define geography. If yourmarketing area is defined as the U.S., NorthAmerica, Europe or Asia, foreign-languagename research and analysis is critical.Misinterpretation or implied negativity canlead to an embarrassing failure and retreatfrom the marketplace.
  11. 11. Hotdog ≠ Hot Dog
  12. 12. The Greatest Failures: ChevroletA commonly-cited naming faux pas is thetextbook case of Chevrolets Nova, introductionin South America. Although there is somecontroversy regarding the names impact, if any,on Latin American sales, the name "no va," ifpronounced as such, can mean "it wont go."
  13. 13. The Greatest Fails: Coca-Cola The Coca-Cola , brand was introduced to China as Ke-ke-ken-la. Imagine the shocker when Coca-Colas printed signs translated to "bite the wax tadpole" or "female horse stuffed with wax," depending on the dialect. After researching 40,000 Chinese characters that could be a phonetic equivalent, Coca- Cola brand managers settled on, "ko-kou-ko- le," which can be loosely translated as "happiness in the mouth."
  14. 14. The Greatest Fails: Coca-Cola
  15. 15. Schweppes Tonic WaterIn Italy, a promotionalcampaign forSchweppes TonicWater failed whenthe product namewas translated as‘Schweppes ToiletWater’. Subsequentcampaigns have hadbetter results.
  16. 16. Gerber in AfricaWhen baby food manufacturer Gerberstarted to sell its products in Africa it used thesame packaging as for Western markets. Thispackaging included a picture of a baby boyon the label. Surprised at low sales, Gerberdiscovered that in Africa, as most customerscan’t read English, Western companiesgenerally put pictures on the label of what’sinside.
  17. 17. Prepared by:Students of the 4d grade18MKBM groupTatiana TokarevaNadezhda Novitskaja