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Scientific Method
Nadeem Shokat
MS Clinical Psychology
nadeemsho@gmail.com
+92 302 3443 759
Scientific Method
The Scientific Method is a
standardized way of making
observations, gathering data,
forming theories, testing
predictions, and interpreting
results.
Characteristics of SM
They are orderly & systematic processes.
Scientists attempt to control external
factors that are not under direct
investigation.
Scientific methods are based on
assumptions or hypothesis.
They are basically conduced to develop or
test hypothesis
Steps of Scientific Method
1. Make an observation
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Test the hypothesis
4. Collect, Organize and Analyze the Data
5. Draw Conclusions
6. Communicate the results
Observation
Observation consists of receiving
knowledge of the outside world
through our senses, or recording
information using scientific tools and
instruments such as microscopes,
scanners or transmitters to extend their
vision or hearing.
Hypothesis
Based on your observation a Hypothesis is
formed that tries to explain your
observation or answer your question. A
hypothesis tries to predict or determine the
outcome of your experiment even before
the experiment is done. Predictions usually
stated in an “if ….. Then” statement.
For example: If I drop a rock then it will
fall down toward the ground. Hypothesis
must be testable!
Test the Hypothesis
Controlled Experiments are used to test
a hypothesis. A controlled experiment
is an experiment that tests only one
factor at a time by a control group is
compared with an experimental group.
Variables are not changed in the Control
Group.
Collect & Analyze Data
Data collected from experiments. Data is
defined as: recorded observations or
measurements:-
(qualitative = description, quantitative = number data)
Data is organized in tables, charts and
graphs so that it can be more easily
analyzed
Draw Conclusions
Scientists decide whether the results of the
experiment support a hypothesis. When the
hypothesis is not supported by the tests the
scientist must find another explanation for
what they have observed.
NO EXPERIMENT IS A FAILURE: All
experiments are observations of real events
Communicate Results
Results must be communicated in the
form of a written paper or presentation.
Communication helps other scientists
performing the same experiments to see
if the results of your experiment are the
same as their results. It also helps people
see if results are repeatable!
Theories
Theories are explanations for
some phenomena based on
observation, experimentation,
and reasoning.
Laws
Laws are summaries of many
experimental results and
observations. Laws are not the
same as theories because laws
tell only what happens, not why
it happens.
Goals of Scientific Methods
The scientific method is intended to
meet 4 goals;
Description
Prediction
Explanation
Application
Description
Description refers to the procedures
used to define, classify and
categorize subjects and their
relationships. Descriptions allow us
to establish generalizations.
Predictions
Descriptions of events often provide a
basis for prediction. Predictions are
sometimes made in the form of
hypotheses, which are tentative, testable
predictions concerning the relationships
between or among variables.
Explanation
The most important goal of scientific
research is explanation. Explanation is
achieved when the cause or causes of a
phenomenon are identified.
Application
In applied research, psychologists apply
their knowledge and research methods
to improve people’s lives. Psychologists
conduct basic research to gain
knowledge about behavior and mental
processes and to test theories.
Scientific Report
A scientific report is a document that
describes the process, progress, and
results of technical or scientific research
It might also include recommendations
and conclusion of the research.
Elements of Scientific Report
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Material & Methods (Experimental)
 Results
 Discussion
 Conclusion
 Reference
Thank You

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Scientific method 2

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Nadeem Shokat MS Clinical Psychology nadeemsho@gmail.com +92 302 3443 759
  • 5. Scientific Method The Scientific Method is a standardized way of making observations, gathering data, forming theories, testing predictions, and interpreting results.
  • 6. Characteristics of SM They are orderly & systematic processes. Scientists attempt to control external factors that are not under direct investigation. Scientific methods are based on assumptions or hypothesis. They are basically conduced to develop or test hypothesis
  • 7. Steps of Scientific Method 1. Make an observation 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis 4. Collect, Organize and Analyze the Data 5. Draw Conclusions 6. Communicate the results
  • 8. Observation Observation consists of receiving knowledge of the outside world through our senses, or recording information using scientific tools and instruments such as microscopes, scanners or transmitters to extend their vision or hearing.
  • 9. Hypothesis Based on your observation a Hypothesis is formed that tries to explain your observation or answer your question. A hypothesis tries to predict or determine the outcome of your experiment even before the experiment is done. Predictions usually stated in an “if ….. Then” statement. For example: If I drop a rock then it will fall down toward the ground. Hypothesis must be testable!
  • 10. Test the Hypothesis Controlled Experiments are used to test a hypothesis. A controlled experiment is an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by a control group is compared with an experimental group. Variables are not changed in the Control Group.
  • 11. Collect & Analyze Data Data collected from experiments. Data is defined as: recorded observations or measurements:- (qualitative = description, quantitative = number data) Data is organized in tables, charts and graphs so that it can be more easily analyzed
  • 12. Draw Conclusions Scientists decide whether the results of the experiment support a hypothesis. When the hypothesis is not supported by the tests the scientist must find another explanation for what they have observed. NO EXPERIMENT IS A FAILURE: All experiments are observations of real events
  • 13. Communicate Results Results must be communicated in the form of a written paper or presentation. Communication helps other scientists performing the same experiments to see if the results of your experiment are the same as their results. It also helps people see if results are repeatable!
  • 14. Theories Theories are explanations for some phenomena based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning.
  • 15. Laws Laws are summaries of many experimental results and observations. Laws are not the same as theories because laws tell only what happens, not why it happens.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Goals of Scientific Methods The scientific method is intended to meet 4 goals; Description Prediction Explanation Application
  • 19. Description Description refers to the procedures used to define, classify and categorize subjects and their relationships. Descriptions allow us to establish generalizations.
  • 20. Predictions Descriptions of events often provide a basis for prediction. Predictions are sometimes made in the form of hypotheses, which are tentative, testable predictions concerning the relationships between or among variables.
  • 21. Explanation The most important goal of scientific research is explanation. Explanation is achieved when the cause or causes of a phenomenon are identified.
  • 22. Application In applied research, psychologists apply their knowledge and research methods to improve people’s lives. Psychologists conduct basic research to gain knowledge about behavior and mental processes and to test theories.
  • 23. Scientific Report A scientific report is a document that describes the process, progress, and results of technical or scientific research It might also include recommendations and conclusion of the research.
  • 24. Elements of Scientific Report  Title Page  Table of Contents  Abstract  Introduction  Material & Methods (Experimental)  Results  Discussion  Conclusion  Reference