CASTING AND
WORKING OF
METALS
Materials Processing
• Materials processing is the science and technology by
which a material is converted into a useful s...
Categories of manufacturing
processes:
• The processes used to convert raw materials
into finished products perform one or...
Casting Process
• The processing of materials in liquid state is
commonly known as casting, in which the
molten material (...
Mechanical manufacturing processes
• Forging, rolling, extrusion, wire drawing, swaging, roll
forming, deep drawing are th...
– Forging
• Forging is a manufacturing
process involving the shaping of metal
using localized compressive forces.
Forging ...
– Extrusion
• Extrusion is a process used to
manufacture objects of a
fixed cross-sectional profile. A
material is forced ...
Machining Processes
• Machining is a term used to describe a variety of
material removal processes in which a cutting tool...
– Punching
• Punching is a forming process that
uses a punch press to force a tool,
called a punch, through the work
piece...
Consolidation or joining processes
• It is a technique of manufacturing. This process is
used to join the different compon...
– Welding
• It is a fabrication that joins
materials,
usually metals or thermoplastics,
by causing coalescence (to join
in...
– Adhesive bonding
• Adhesive bonding is used to fasten
two surfaces together, usually
producing a smooth bond. This
joini...
Powder Metallurgy
• It is a technique of manufacturing components in which we perform
working on the powder of metals. Tha...
Casting Technology
Casting is a manufacturing
process where a solid is
melted, heated to proper
temperature (sometimes
tre...
Types of Casting processes
• The casting process is subdivided into two main
categories: expendable and non-expendable cas...
Non-expendable mold casting
Non-expendable mold casting differs from
expendable processes, in that the mold need
not be re...
Advantages of Casting process:
There is no limitation of producing
castings of any size or weight.
This advantage is not i...
Dimensional modification is achieved.
Dimensional accuracy is achieved. Machining is
not required but surface finishing is...
• Weight saving is possible. Component made with
casting process is lighter than the component made
with other machining p...
Metallurgical Advantages of Casting of Metals:
• This process can give any required micro structure to obtain the
required...
Limitations of Casting process:
• Though casting is cheapest for Mass Production, it becomes non economical
for JOB produc...
• Basic Requirements of Casting processes
• (For both expendable and non-expendable)
1- Mold Production
• The material for...
• Production of mold must have following parts:
• The flask is the rigid metal or wood frame that holds the molding aggreg...
2- Melting Process
• A melting process must be capable of providing
molten material at the proper temperature and in
the d...
• 4- solidification process, better design and control at
this stage helps in getting quality output. Required
mechanical ...
Pattern
• A pattern is simply the duplicate or model or replica of the component which has
to be manufactured by the casti...
Selection of material for Pattern
• The following factors assist in selecting proper pattern
material:
a) The number of ca...
Materials used for making Patterns
• Wood
• The most common material for making pattern for sand casting is the wood.
• Ad...
• Metals
• Metal patterns are cast from wooden patterns.
• Advantages:
• They do not absorb moisture.
• They possess life ...
• Wax
• Wax patterns are used in investment casting.
• Advantages:
• Gives good surface finish
• Has ceramic coating
• Hig...
Four Important Qualities of Molding/Core Sands
• The sands used for making molds must have following four important
qualit...
To increase permeability, saw dust or wood dust is added (in large
amount for fine particle sands). For the facilitation, ...
• Types of Base Sands and their Properties:
• It is the type of sand which is used to make the mold with binder. They
have...
• Olivine Sand((Mg,Fe)2SiO4.
• Olivine is a mixture of orthosilicates of iron and magnesium
from the mineral dunite.(Dunit...
• Chromite Sand
• It is the solid solution of spinels.(MgAl2O4 )
• Chromite (Cr2O4) is the main content. Silica is in
very...
• Zircon Sand
• Zircon sand is a compound of approximately two-
thirds zirconium oxide (Zr2O) and one-third silica.
• Zirc...
• Chamotte
• Chamotte is made by calcining fire clay (Al2O3-SiO2) above 1,100 °C.
• Its fusion point is 1,750 °C i.e. give...
Binders and their types
Binders are used to adhere the particles of sand to each other for the
strength of molds. Or it is...
• Resins:
• Resin binders are natural or synthetic high melting
point gums.
• These are sticky and in liquid form.
• The t...
• Sodium Silicate:
• Sodium silicate [Na2SiO3] is a
high strength binder used with
silica molding sand.
• To cure the bind...
Shell Molding
• Introduction:
• Shell molding is newest of casting processes. Shell molding
replaces conventional sand mol...
• Preparation of the shell
• There are two methods to produce the shell. The
patterns are sprayed with a solution of lubri...
• (2) The sand mixture is spread over the steel pattern and then it is heated in the
oven up to 600-700oC. The resin harde...
• Disadvantages:
• Not for heavy
castings for ferrous
or non-ferrous
(only up to 10 kg).
• Steel pattern cost
is high.
• R...
INVESTMENT CASTING
• Introduction:
• It is a very old process-used in ancient china and Egypt and most recently
performed ...
• Production of wax patterns
• Wax patterns are made by pouring molten wax into the
master die and allowing it to harden. ...
• Investment of the wax pattern assembly for the production of mold
• After the initial layer of ceramic slurry, wax patte...
• Pouring of molten metal
• Molten metal is poured into the investment mold by
simply under gravity to ensure the complete...
• Advantages in investment casting:
• Complex shapes can be cast as single piece.
• Mass scale and high rate of production...
FULL MOLD CASTING
• Introduction:
• Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process in which an expanded
polys...
• Coating of ceramic material on the pattern
• Brush coating of ceramic material on the polystyrene pattern is done for
hi...
FULL MOLD CASTING
Advantages in full mold casting:
• Does not involve complex and large number of
operations like investment casting.
• Mass...
Disadvantages in full mold casting:
• The pattern is consumed, not re usable.
• The patterns are easily damaged or distort...
MULTIPLE USE MOLD CASTING
PROCESS ( DIE CASTINGH )
• Die casting is a metal casting process that is
characterized by forci...
• Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals,
specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead,
pewter( It is...
• Die castings are characterized by a very good surface
finish (by casting standards) and dimensional
consistency. It is c...
The principle of low pressure die casting
• the permanent die and the
filling system
are placed over the furnace
containin...
• Once the die cavity is filled,
the overpressure in the
furnace is removed, and
• the residual molten metal in
the tube f...
The advantages of low pressure die casting process are
• - the high yield achievable (typically over 90%)
• - the reductio...
The applications of low pressure die casting
• in the automotive
field are several,
even if this process
is often (and
red...
FORMS OF HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING
• Hot Chamber High Pressure Die Casting
The cylinder and piston, used to quickly inject...
Hot chamber process
• Hot chamber process: The pressure chamber
is connected to the die cavity and immersed
permanently in...
• Die casting is one of the metallurgical casting methods used since a
long time ago. The mold that gives the molded mater...
• CHAMBER
Contrary to the straight cylinder seen in cold chamber casting, the
chamber of hot chamber casting takes the sha...
1)The mould is closed and
sealed. The plunger is in the
upper position.
2)The plunger injects liquid metal
through the goo...
HOT CHAMBER
COLD CHAMBER PROCESS
• The molten metal is ladled into
the cold chamber for each shot.
There is less time exposure of
the ...
• Cold Chamber Process
The difference of this process with the hot-chamber
process is that the injection system is not sub...
Products of high pressure die-casting
Centrifugal casting or roto-casting
• Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting
technique that is typically used to ...
• In centrifugal casting, a permanent mold is rotated
continuously about its axis at high speeds (300 to
3000 rpm) as the ...
Centrifugal casting is carried out as follows:
• The mold wall is coated by a refractory ceramic coating (applying
ceramic...
• Casting
machines
may be either
horizontal or
vertical-axis.
Horizontal
axis machines
are preferred
for long, thin
cylind...
Features of Centrifugal Casting
• Castings can be made in almost any length, thickness and
diameter.
• Different wall thic...
• The casting is relatively free from defects.
• Non metallic impurities which segregate toward
the bore are machined off ...
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Casting and working of metal
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Casting and working of metal

2,219 views

Published on

Nadeem Mehrvi From U.E.T Lahore

Published in: Business
  • Its very very useful slides about the casting. Thank u..
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • nice presentation about casting
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • A very useful set of slides which will give level three students a good insight into these processes
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Casting and working of metal

  1. 1. CASTING AND WORKING OF METALS
  2. 2. Materials Processing • Materials processing is the science and technology by which a material is converted into a useful shape with a structure and properties that are optimized for the service environment. • Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials- processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. • Numerous processes and operations can be involved in the manufacture of products and components and many of them are associated with the production of a desired shape.
  3. 3. Categories of manufacturing processes: • The processes used to convert raw materials into finished products perform one or both of two major functions: first, they form the material into the desired shape; second, they alter or improve the properties of the material. Manufacturing processes can be categorized on the basis of liquid and solid states.
  4. 4. Casting Process • The processing of materials in liquid state is commonly known as casting, in which the molten material (mostly metals) is converted into a desired shape by pouring the material into the mold. Cast products can have extremely complex shapes but also posses structures that are produced by solidification and are therefore, subject to such defects as shrinkage and porosity.
  5. 5. Mechanical manufacturing processes • Forging, rolling, extrusion, wire drawing, swaging, roll forming, deep drawing are the mechanical manufacturing processes, are performed in solid state. These are performed on the basis of tendency to deform which can be referred as deformation processes, using temperature dependence. Deformation processes exploit the ductility of certain materials mostly metals and produce the desired shape by mechanically moving or rearranging the solid though a phenomenon known as plasticity. These processes can have high rates of production, but generally require powerful equipments and dedicated tools or dies. Their brief description is as follow: •
  6. 6. – Forging • Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: "cold," "warm," or "hot" forging or at room temperature. Warm or hot forgings are performed for the less ductile materials. Highly ductile can be forged at room temperature. It is usually hot working process. – Rolling • Rolling is a metal forming process in which metal piece is passed through a pair of rolls to lessen the crossectional area or thickness to get the required shape. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. It is usually hot working process.
  7. 7. – Extrusion • Extrusion is a process used to manufacture objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is forced through a die of the desired cross- section. It is also classified as warm, hot and cold extrusions depending upon the material nature. It is usually hot working process. – Wire drawing • Wire drawing is a manufacturing process in which a metal piece is pulled through a die orifice by means of a tensile force is applied from the outside. It is usually cold working process.
  8. 8. Machining Processes • Machining is a term used to describe a variety of material removal processes in which a cutting tool removes unwanted material from a work piece to produce the desired shape. It can be done at room temperature. The removal processes are capable of outstanding dimensional precision, but produce scrap when material is cut away to produce the desired shapes. • Basically it is used to finish the component, to make the accurate size. Punching, blanking and piercing, stamping are the well known machining processes. Their brief description is as follow: • •
  9. 9. – Punching • Punching is a forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the work piece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes through the work into a die. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production volumes. – Stamping • It is a type of forging. Stamping includes a variety of sheet- metal forming manufacturing processes, such using a machine press as stamping press, This could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produce the desired form on the sheet metal part, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is usually carried out on sheet metal. – Blanking and piercing • Blanking and piercing are shearing pro cesses in which a punch and die are used to modify webs. The tooling and processes are the same between the two, only the terminology is different: in blanking the punched out piece is used and called a blank; in piercing the punched out piece is scrap.
  10. 10. Consolidation or joining processes • It is a technique of manufacturing. This process is used to join the different components to join together to get a single article according to the requirement. Complex products can often be assembled from simple shapes but the joint areas are often affected by the joining process and may possess characteristics different from the original material. Welding, Brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding and mechanical joining are the well known techniques. •
  11. 11. – Welding • It is a fabrication that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence (to join into a single mass). It is mostly used for the assembling purposes. – Brazing • Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action (the ability of a liquid to flow against gravity where liquid spontaneously rises in a narrow space such as a thin tube). – Soldering • Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the work piece. •
  12. 12. – Adhesive bonding • Adhesive bonding is used to fasten two surfaces together, usually producing a smooth bond. This joining technique involves glues, epoxies, or various plastic agents that bond by evaporation of a solvent or by curing a bonding agent with heat, pressure, or time. – Mechanical joining • Mechanical Joining is a process for joining parts through mechanical methods, which often involve threaded holes. Joining parts using screws or nuts and bolts are common examples of mechanical joining. •
  13. 13. Powder Metallurgy • It is a technique of manufacturing components in which we perform working on the powder of metals. That powder metal is converted into the required component. High accuracy is achieved in this process. It is used only for small component manufacturing. In this process, no finishing and machining is required. – Steps: • Powdering of metal • Selection of binder • Mixing or blending with other powders to make homogeneous mixture. • Compacting (the process of shaping metal powder in a die through the application of high pressures.) • Sintering (it is an agglomeration process in which recrystallization of the mineral is achieved. The process of sintering is used to remove the porosity and increase the strength of materials. In this, the material does not melt.) •
  14. 14. Casting Technology Casting is a manufacturing process where a solid is melted, heated to proper temperature (sometimes treated to modify its chemical composition), and is then poured into a cavity or mold, which contains it in the proper shape during solidification. Thus, in a single step, simple or complex shapes can be made from any metal that can be melted. The resulting product can have virtually any configuration the designer desires.
  15. 15. Types of Casting processes • The casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the mold material, such as sand or metal, and pouring method, such as gravity, vacuum, or low pressure. • Expendable mold casting: • Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary, non-reusable molds. Sand casting, Plaste mold casting, Shell molding, Investment casting, Evaporative-pattern casting are the types of expandable mold casting.
  16. 16. Non-expendable mold casting Non-expendable mold casting differs from expendable processes, in that the mold need not be reformed after each production cycle. This technique includes at least four different methods: permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting.
  17. 17. Advantages of Casting process: There is no limitation of producing castings of any size or weight. This advantage is not in other manufacturing processes. Complicated shape castings can be produced. Complicated patterns are key to complex shapes. Hollow castings can be produced. Any composition of materials can be used for producing required casting. Any composition can be achieved. Mechanical manufacturing processes can do this job. Some casting processes are net shape; other is near net shape.
  18. 18. Dimensional modification is achieved. Dimensional accuracy is achieved. Machining is not required but surface finishing is required. In sand casting the finishing is required and machining also but for investment casting, machining is not required due to high accuracy but finishing can be required. Metal casting is a process highly adaptable to the requirements of mass production. Large numbers of a given casting may be produced very rapidly.
  19. 19. • Weight saving is possible. Component made with casting process is lighter than the component made with other machining processes. • Casting can be made with hair like precision or accuracy provided proper molding and casting technique is employed. • Only castings have the advantage of fibrous structure. Casting leaves component with its solid fibrous structure which inherit great compressive strength. So, component subjected to compressive strength are made with casting. • In soft material casting, melting is not always necessary, in some cases only pressing deformation is enough for soft material that is entered into the cavity. •
  20. 20. Metallurgical Advantages of Casting of Metals: • This process can give any required micro structure to obtain the required mechanical properties. We can change the microstructure by changing the grain boundaries. • Grain size control is possible in casting process by controlling the rate of solidification. High rate of solidification gives fine size grain which has high strength as compared to coarse size that is achieved at low rates of solidification. During the solidification, the uniformity of crystallization gives strength. So mechanical properties are controlled by the solidification rate. • If we perform sintering of the casting, high dense structure can be achieved. • Strength and lightness in certain light metal alloys, which can be produced only as castings. • Casting provides versatility. Wide range of properties can be attained by adjusting percentage of alloying elements. • Casting is one of cheapest method for mass production. •
  21. 21. Limitations of Casting process: • Though casting is cheapest for Mass Production, it becomes non economical for JOB production. • Sand casting leaves rough surface which needs machining in most of cases. It adds up the cost in production. • Cast products are superior for compressive loads but they are very poor in tensile or shock loads. They are brittle. • In sand casting, porosity is achieved. • To manufacture small sized castings with high accuracy, good machining and finishing; the type of casting chosen raise to go expensive. • It is almost impossible to design a part that cannot be cast by one or more of the commercial casting processes. But it will be the skill of a manufacturer to adopt such a casting process to get a) good results and b) lowest cost expenditures. • The various casting process are distinguished primarily by the mold material (whether sand, metal or other material) and pouring method (gravity, vacuum, low pressure or high pressure). All share the requirement tht the material should solidify in a manner that will maximize the properties and avoid the formation of defects.
  22. 22. • Basic Requirements of Casting processes • (For both expendable and non-expendable) 1- Mold Production • The material for making mold is sand, wax, ceramic materials and metallic materials. Metallic materials are used for specifically for non-expendable use mold. • The mold cavity having the desired shape and size must be produced with due allowance for shrinkage of solidifying material. Grey cast iron is used that doesn’t shrink due to the presence of the atoms of carbon atoms fibers at their place and has the ability to resist high pressure and to resist the vibration hazard effects while white cast iron shrinks. • Strength of casting is very important. Engine blocks are made of steel alloys to resist vibration. If simply steel is used, then it will be deformed earlier. The alignment is disturbed. • Either attempt single-use molds or double-use molds, but keep in front the economical factor. The more economical single-use molds are usually preferred for the production of smaller quantities. • A sand mold is shown in the figure below:
  23. 23. • Production of mold must have following parts: • The flask is the rigid metal or wood frame that holds the molding aggregate. • Cope is the name given to the top half of the flak or mold. • Drag refers to the bottom half of the flask or mold. • Core is a sand shaped that is used to produce the hollow castings. • Core print is added to the pattern, core or mold and is used to locate and support the core within the mold. • The molten metal and core combine to produce the Mold Cavity, the shaped hole into which the molten metal is poured and solidified to produse desried casting. • Riser is made for the information of comlete pouring of metal in the mold. • The Runner gives a flow to molten metal to mold cavity to compensate the shrinkage. • Gating System (pouring cup+sprue+runner)) is the network of connected channels used to deliver the molten metal to the mold cavity. • Metal travels down a sprue is the vertical portion of the gating system. • Pouring cup is the portion of gating system that initially recieves the molten metal and control its delievery to the rest of the mold. • Vents for the escape of gases. • The parting line is the interface that separate cope and drag in the flask. • Draft is the on the pattern or casting that permits to be withdrawn from the mold. • Casting is used to describe both the process and the product.
  24. 24. 2- Melting Process • A melting process must be capable of providing molten material at the proper temperature and in the desired quantity of acceptable quality and at reasonable cost. • To get the good quality, we have to decrease the tendency of metal to react with oxygen, to avoid the formation of oxide (corrosion). Because if metal converts into oxide, then the melting of pure metal will not be achieved. In this case we will get the molten oxidezed metal that will make the casting not fair. Non ferrous metals have high tendency of forming oxides than the ferrous metals. So avoid oxidation. For this purpose flux is added in metal during the metal process. The covering flux is added to avoid oxidation. This flux flows on the molten metal to provide the barrier to the contact of air with metal. For Al, chloride flux is used mostly. Since iron has low tendency to react with air, so in this case, the covering flux is not urgently required but the use of flux is better. • Cleaning fluxes are added in the molten metal to separate out the slag to avoid the porosity and weakness in the strength of mold for casting. • To remove the air bubbles from the molten metal, it is known as de-oxidation and for this purpose agents used are known as de-oxidizers. For alloying elements, Ferro alloys are used as de- oxidizers that give the de-oxidation, as well as alloying addition. Ferro alloys (M.P ranges 1300- 14000C) are the alloys of ferrous and non ferrous e.g. Fe-W, Fe-Si, Fe-Mo. If we don’t require the addition of alloying elements, then Al is added as de oxidizer. 3- Pouring Tech It is a technique by which the moulds are filled in with molten metal. There must be provisions for air or gases inside the mould to come out when the molten metal is poured in. When the hot metal enters the mould cavity, it may generate various gases due to chemical reactions. The mould design should allow these gases to escape, so that the molten metal can spread and fill the mould cavity completely. It helps in producing defect free, fully dense and quality casting components. Prior to the pouring, the mold produced must be heated to increase the strength of mold by the escape of gases, for no crack, to avoid porosity and thermal instability. The mold can burst due to the pressure of gases. For the escape of gases, besides provisions, some ingredients can also be applied. For example wood charcoal. Whenever the mold is used for pouring of metal, pour gate is organized.
  25. 25. • 4- solidification process, better design and control at this stage helps in getting quality output. Required mechanical properties of the casting can be achieved by controlling the rate of solidification of the molten metal. 5- After proper solidification, the casting should be removed from the mould i.e. casting removal. Generally, expendable moulds are broken apart and destroyed after each casting is produced without any difficulty. But, using re-usable moulds may cause major challenges from designers' point of view on the removal of casting from permanent moulds. 6- Various cleaning, finishing and inspection operations are performed after the casting removal from the mould.
  26. 26. Pattern • A pattern is simply the duplicate or model or replica of the component which has to be manufactured by the casting process. • Important property of a Pattern • It is slightly larger in the size than the original size casting to be produced because a pattern has: • Shrinkage allowance: • Almost all the metals shrink or contract volumetrically after solidification and therefore the pattern to obtain a particular sized casting is made over sized by an amount equal to shrinkage or contraction. • It depends upon mainly on the cast metal or alloy used for the casting and pouring temperature of the metal or alloy. The shrinkage allowance given to pattern for Aluminum casting is not suitable for the steel casting. • Machining allowance • It is given to the pattern for surface finishing of the casting produced, to remove surface imperfections, to require exact casting dimensions (actual size achievement by grinding). • How much machining allowance is applied to the pattern, depends upon: • Nature of metal: i.e. Ferrous and non-ferrous. Ferrous metals get scaled whereas non-Ferrous ones don’t. • Size and shape of casting: Longer castings tend to warp and need more allowance to be added to ensure that after machining the casting will be alright.
  27. 27. Selection of material for Pattern • The following factors assist in selecting proper pattern material: a) The number of castings to be produced. Metal pattern are preferred when the production quantity is large. b) The desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish. c) Nature of molding process. E.g. sand casting frequently use wood pattern while investment casting require wax pattern. d) Shape, complexity and size of casting. e) The chances of repeat order.
  28. 28. Materials used for making Patterns • Wood • The most common material for making pattern for sand casting is the wood. • Advantages: 1. in expensive and easyly available. • 2. for mass scale production. • 3. Easy machining and shaping. • 4. Easy to obtain good surface finish. • 5. Can be used for complex shapes and large castings. • 6. Light in weight. • 7. Can be repaired easily. • Limitations: • Absorbs moisture and hence swelling is there. • Short life patterns. • Poor wear and abrasion resistance. • Cannot withstand rough handling. • Weak as compared to metallic patterns. • Applications: • Wooden pattern are used where the number of castings to be produced is small and the pattern size is large. • Recently, ply wood (synthetic material like wood) is used for the heavy castings (40-50 tons). Natural wooden pattern used for the normal sized castings.
  29. 29. • Metals • Metal patterns are cast from wooden patterns. • Advantages: • They do not absorb moisture. • They possess life much longer than wooden patterns. • They do not warp. • Give good surface finish. • Excellent wear and abrasion resistant. • Good machine ability. • Limitations: • Expensive • Heavy in weight than wooden patterns. • A chance of rusting/oxidation. • Not easily repaired (Al patterns). • Machining is not easy as wooden patterns. • Applications: • Wooden and metallic patterns are used for mass scale production. • Patterns are also used, made by plastic, rubber, plaster and wax (investment casting) and poly styrene.
  30. 30. • Wax • Wax patterns are used in investment casting. • Advantages: • Gives good surface finish • Has ceramic coating • High dimensional accuracy • Not need machining • After being molded, the wax pattern is not taken out of the mold like other patterns as wooden, rubber and metal patterns; rather the mold is inverted and heated; the molten wax comes out. • Wax can be recycled. • Important notes: • Only both the wax and poly styrene patterns are consumable patterns. Both evaporate but wax has ability to only melt also. So wax (molten obtained after molding) can be recycled but polystyrene cannot be recycled (due to its fuming on heating). • Wood, rubber, metal patterns etc. are not consumable because they are taken out of the mold after molding.
  31. 31. Four Important Qualities of Molding/Core Sands • The sands used for making molds must have following four important qualities: • Refractoriness • It is the ability to withstand high temperatures without melting, fracture or deterioration. Refractoriness is provided by the basic nature of the sand. This property is very important for very high M.P metals/alloys such as steel whose high M.P depends upon the ingredients. Zircon sand has highest refractoriness and can be used to make sand mold. For low melting M.P metals, silica sand or chromite sand can be used. • Cohesiveness • Cohesiveness is the ability of molding sand to retain a given shape when packed into a flask. It is obtained by using binders such as clay (bentonite, kaolinite or illite) that becomes cohesive when moistened. Molasses (not for cores, only for molding sand), resins, oils and sodium silicate are also used. (Volcanic ash) • Permeability • It is the ability of mold or core to escape gases through the sand. It is a function of the size and shape of sand particles, the amount and type of clay used or any binder, the moisture content and the compacting pressure. Gases are produced due to sand ingredients also. If permeability is not there, there is a chance for cracking. Due to retention of air or gases in the molten metal, casting defects may be produced. •
  32. 32. To increase permeability, saw dust or wood dust is added (in large amount for fine particle sands). For the facilitation, vents are produced through the mold. • Collapsibility • It is the ability to accommodate metal shrinkage after solidification and provides easy removal of the casting through the mold on its disintegration (shakeout). • This property is sometimes enhanced by adding cereals or other organic materials, such as cellulose that burn out when they come into contact with the hot metal. This property can also be enhanced by adding talcum powder, graphite powder. Graphite powder plays role to avoid stickness of casting to the molding sand cavity. • Types of Molding Sands • Natural Molding Sands (2) Synthetic Molding Sands • Natural Molding Sands: • Natural sands are simply the base sands and natural sands have 5- 10% water and 10-15% clay. They have some good properties required for the molding but are not perfect.
  33. 33. • Types of Base Sands and their Properties: • It is the type of sand which is used to make the mold with binder. They have some applications without binders. • Silica Sand • On beach, coastal areas, in river beds mostly in India, Pakistan and Brazil of good quality. Sub-continent is rich in good quality sand. • Composition depends upon geological history, but main contents are not changed. Main component is silica (SiO2). It has 94 to 98 % silica. • Fusion point is 17600C (pure) but usually less melting point due to the presence of impurities. For high melting temperature metals, it is not used For Aluminum (low M.P), brass, bronze it is good to use but for steel (high M.P) it is not good. • It has poor refractoriness. It is mixed with other sands to get the good refractoriness. • Bad surface finish. Machining is required in the sand used casting process. • It is chemically reactive with certain basic metals. • It has high thermal expansion which can cause casting defects with high melting point metals. • It has low thermal conductivity which can lead to unsound casting. • Because of common and abundance, it is of low cost.
  34. 34. • Olivine Sand((Mg,Fe)2SiO4. • Olivine is a mixture of orthosilicates of iron and magnesium from the mineral dunite.(Dunite granular, green igneous rock composed of coarse grains of olivine, is the source of the world's supply of chromium. It weathers to a dun brown color) • It is free from silica. • It has good fusion point of 17600C. • It has good thermal stability so has good refractoriness. • Because it is free from silica, therefore it can be used with basic metals, such as manganese steels. • Olivine sand has high thermal conductivity. • Olivine has low thermal expansion. • This sand gives good surface finish. • It is relatively high costly than the silica sand.
  35. 35. • Chromite Sand • It is the solid solution of spinels.(MgAl2O4 ) • Chromite (Cr2O4) is the main content. Silica is in very small amount. • It has high fusion point of 18500C. • It has good refractoriness. • It has good chemical inertness. • It has high thermal conductivity. • It has low thermal expansion. • It gives good surface finish. • This sand is rare, so it is expensive. Therefore it’s only used with expensive alloy steel casting and to make cores. •
  36. 36. • Zircon Sand • Zircon sand is a compound of approximately two- thirds zirconium oxide (Zr2O) and one-third silica. • Zircon persists in sedimentary deposits and is a common constituent of most sands. • It has the highest fusion point of all the base sands at 2,600 °C. • It has very low thermal expansion. • It has a high thermal conductivity. • Because of these good properties it is commonly used when casting alloy steels and other expensive alloys. • This sand gives good surface finish. • It is expensive and not readily available.
  37. 37. • Chamotte • Chamotte is made by calcining fire clay (Al2O3-SiO2) above 1,100 °C. • Its fusion point is 1,750 °C i.e. gives relatively low refractoriness. • It has low thermal expansion. • This is mixed with other sands to improve refractoriness. • Its disadvantages are, coarse grains, which result in a poor surface finish. • It is the second cheapest sand but it is still twice as expensive as silica. • Silica and chamotte sands have bad surface finish and chromite, olivine and zircon sands have good refractoriness but they all have not sufficient cohesiveness. So these natural sands are not perfect in properties. So we prepare synthetic molding sands using moisture, binders, additives etc. • Important Note: • Corrosion is the reverse of extraction. • Synthetic Molding Sand: • The main ingredients of any synthetic molding sand are: • Base sand, • Binder, and • Moisture • Molding sands are prepared synthetically to produce the good molding properties.
  38. 38. Binders and their types Binders are used to adhere the particles of sand to each other for the strength of molds. Or it is also defined as it is the glue that holds the mold together. Binders improve cohesiveness. • Types of Binders: • Clay and water • Oil • Resin • Sodium silicate • • Clay and water: • A mixture of clay and water is used as binder. • It is used where the clay content is less than 15% in the molding sand. • Oils: • Oil use as a binder has restricted conditions. • Long time use or overheating makes the mold hard and brittle. • However due to their increasing cost, they have been mostly phased out. • The oil also required careful baking at 100 to 200 °C to cure, otherwise wasting of mold.
  39. 39. • Resins: • Resin binders are natural or synthetic high melting point gums. • These are sticky and in liquid form. • The two common types used are urea formaldehyde (CH2O)(UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins. • PF resins have a higher heat resistance than UF resins and cost less. • There are also cold-set resins, which use a catalyst instead of a heat to cure the binder. • Resin binders are quite popular because different properties can be achieved by mixing with various additives. • Other advantages include good collapsibility, low gassing, and they leave a good surface finish on casting.
  40. 40. • Sodium Silicate: • Sodium silicate [Na2SiO3] is a high strength binder used with silica molding sand. • To cure the binder, carbon dioxide gas is used, after making mold, which creates the following reaction: • The mold produced using this binder is hard but has excellent surface quality. • Na2O(SiO2) + CO2---------- Na2CO3 + SiO2 + Heat
  41. 41. Shell Molding • Introduction: • Shell molding is newest of casting processes. Shell molding replaces conventional sand molds by shell molds made up of relatively thin, rigid shells of approximately uniform wall thickness. The molten metal is filled in the shell mold and then allowed to solidify. • Steps: • Metal pattern production • First of all, a metal or steel pattern having the profile of the required casting. Let say a flask is to be produced. Cop and drag part of the steel pattern are produced. • Preparation of molding sand • The mixture of silica sand and the thermosetting phenolic resin is used to produce the molding sand to produce the mold shell. The phenolic resin gives good strength and epoxide resin gives better strength. There use is depending upon the metal used to be cast. •
  42. 42. • Preparation of the shell • There are two methods to produce the shell. The patterns are sprayed with a solution of lubricating agent or release agent containing silicone to prevent the shell sticking to the metal pattern in both the cases. • (1) The steel pattern is preheated in oven 175-270oC. The pattern is placed over the dump box and then inverted. The molding sand is dumped over the steel pattern. Heat from the pattern partially cures the molding sand and the shell is produced of desired thickness drying and makes the resin sticky present in it. The pattern and sand mixture are then inverted, allowing the excess (uncured) sand to drop free. The pattern with adhering shell is then placed in an oven, where additional heating completes the curing process to give rigidity.
  43. 43. • (2) The sand mixture is spread over the steel pattern and then it is heated in the oven up to 600-700oC. The resin hardens and hence the shell is produced. • The thickness of the shell depends on the pattern temperature and time of contact but typically ranges between 10 and 20 mm. High temperatures produces high thickness of the shell. • Stripping of the shell • The hardened shell, with tensile strength between 350 and 450 psi, is then stripped from the steel pattern. • Clamping of two or more shells in a pouring jacket • Two or more cooled shells are then clamped or glued together with a thermosetting adhesive to produce a mold. Before this, we use carbon powder or talcum powder as parting agent for easy disintegration or to release easily. To provide extra support during the pour of molten metal, shell molds are often placed in a pouring jacket surrounded by the sand or steel shots. • Pouring of molten metal • The molten metal is poured into the shell. The metal should not come out of parting line. Otherwise, we will require machining. The heat of molten metal starts burning resin binder of the mold and the gases evolved escape through the permeable shell walls. • • To get the casting • By the time the casting has solidified, the binder has completely burn out and the shell mold disintegrates easily. So, casting is extracted. Since shell is no re-useable so it is an expendable mold casting process.
  44. 44. • Disadvantages: • Not for heavy castings for ferrous or non-ferrous (only up to 10 kg). • Steel pattern cost is high. • Resins costs are comparatively high. • Uneconomical on small scale production. Advantages: For complex shape castings. For both ferrous and non-ferrous. No separate runner, risers and sprue are not required. Excellent surface finish. High dimensional accuracy. Use of resin produces smooth surface of casting. Cleaning, machining and other finishing cost can be significantly reduced. Low labor cost. Thin shells provide easy permeability. The burn out resin gives good collapsibility and shakeout characteristics. Pouring jacket sand is re-useable.
  45. 45. INVESTMENT CASTING • Introduction: • It is a very old process-used in ancient china and Egypt and most recently performed by dentists and jewelers for a number of years. Products such rocket components and jet engine turbine blades required the fabrication of high precision complex shapes from high melting point metals that are not easily machined. It offers unlimited freedom to complexity of shapes and types of materials to be cast. • After being molded, the wax pattern is not taken out of the mold like other patterns like wooden, rubber and metal patterns. • This process is also known as lost wax casting process because wax pattern during process melts on heating and comes out of the mold, in which the molten metal is poured. • Steps: • Production of master pattern • A modified replica of the desired product made from metal, steel, plastic or wood is made for the production of master die. • Production of master die from the master pattern • A die is produced from the master pattern usually of metal or steel. It is made of usually of Al because Al has tendency to extract heat very rapidly and material cools down rapidly after melting.
  46. 46. • Production of wax patterns • Wax patterns are made by pouring molten wax into the master die and allowing it to harden. Release agents, such as silicone sprays or talcum powder are used to assist in pattern removal from the master die. • Assembling of wax pattern on common wax sprue • Using heated tools and melted wax, a number of patterns can be attached to a central wax sprue and runner system to create a pattern cluster or a tree. If the product is sufficiently complex that is pattern could not be withdrawn from a single master die, the pattern may be made in pieces and assembled prior to attachment. • Coating of the cluster or tree with a thin layer of investment material • The wax pattern and wax sprue assembly is dipped into water slurry of finely ground refractory material. A thin but very smooth layer of investment material is onto the wax pattern, ensuring a smooth surface and good details in final product.
  47. 47. • Investment of the wax pattern assembly for the production of mold • After the initial layer of ceramic slurry, wax pattern assembly is then invested to produce mold. The initially invested wax pattern assembly is re-dipped in the ceramic slurry but this time, refractory sand is showered on the wet ceramic and then dried for high temperature uses. Repeat the procedure to get the required thickness of the shell. Allow the investment to fully harden. • Removal of wax pattern from the mold • The wax pattern is removed from the investment mold by inverting the mold, melting the wax pattern in the oven at 300-400oC. The melted wax pattern comes out. Due to this step this process is called lost-wax process. • Heating of mold prior to pouring of molten metal • After removing the wax pattern, investment mold is heated at 800-900oC. This baking ensures complete removal of wax from the mold, cures the mold to give the aided strength, and allows the molten metal to retain its heat and flow more readily into all of thin details and sections and good dimensional accuracy. • Filling of unbounded sand in the flask around the investment shell mold: • That investment shell mold is kept in flask and filled with the unbounded sand giving vibration to ensure the compaction, to provide extra support during the pour of molten metal.
  48. 48. • Pouring of molten metal • Molten metal is poured into the investment mold by simply under gravity to ensure the complete filling of mold. When complex thin sections are involved, the molten metal is poured assisted by positive air pressure. • Removal of solidified casting from the mold • After solidification, techniques such as mechanical vibration or sand blasting are used to break the mold and remove the mold material from the metal casting. • Separation of casting from sprue • For this purpose cutting or machining is applied, to get the castings in their useable form. • Inspection and testing • Inspection and testing is done on the sample of casting to investigate about its quality and standard achievement.
  49. 49. • Advantages in investment casting: • Complex shapes can be cast as single piece. • Mass scale and high rate of production. • Thin sections can be produced. • Excellent dimensional accuracy. • Excellent details and smoother surface. • Machining can be completely eliminated or greatly reduced. • Castings do not contain any disfiguring parting line. • Sounder and denser castings free from defects. • Wax melted is re-usable. • The economic value of this process lies in its ability to produce intricate shapes in various alloys that could probably not be produced at all by another casting process. • Disadvantages investment casting: • A complex process and expensive. • High cost of dies to make the wax pattern. • For small casting 2-2.5 kg. • Pattern is expendable i.e. one wax pattern is to make one investment mold. • Slow process.
  50. 50. FULL MOLD CASTING • Introduction: • Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is used which is then surrounded by un-bonded sand and remains in the mold, a full mold is formed. The metal is then poured directly into the mold, which vaporizes the polystyrene upon contact and the metal fills the space that was previously occupied by the pattern. Typical materials that can be cast with this process are aluminum, iron, steels, nickel alloys, copper alloys. • Steps: • Production of Pattern • The pattern is made of expanded polystyrene. This polystyrene is available in the form of polystyrene sheets. Polystyrene is very soft and light material with low specific gravity. When small quantities are required, patterns can be cut by hand or machined from the polystyrene sheet. Since polystyrene is soft, so to cut it; sharp cutter is used. • For large quantities of identical parts, a metal mold or die is generally used to mass-produce the evaporative patterns. The pre-expanded hard beads are then injected into a heated metal die or mold, usually made from aluminum. They are filled in the die and fuse, after which they are cooled in the mold. The resulting pattern, a replica of the product to be cast, consists of about 2.5 % polymer and 97.5 % air. • Pattern dies can be quite complex, and large quantities of pattern can be accurately and rapidly produced. When size or complexity is great or geometry prevents easy removal, the pattern making can be divided into multiple segments or slices which are then assembled by hot-melting gluing. • Assembling of pattern on sprue • Pre-formed material in the form of a pouring basin, sprue, runner segments, and risers can be attached with hot-melt glue to form a complete gating and pattern assembly. Small casting patterns can be assembled into a tree or cluster containing sprue.
  51. 51. • Coating of ceramic material on the pattern • Brush coating of ceramic material on the polystyrene pattern is done for high temperature metal castings and meal from the sand. Now the pattern is inside the ceramic coating. In case of Alumina, 6600C melting temperature can be achieved. • Production of full mold • The assembled pattern coated with ceramic is placed in the one piece flask and it is covered with fine un-bonded sand, keeping the sprue pouring un-imbedded at the top for the pouring purpose; thus a full mold is formed. Vibration ensures that the sand compacts all around the pattern and fills all the cavities. • Pouring of molten metal • After making full mold, the molten metal is poured into the mold through the sprue which vaporizes the polystyrene upon contact and the metal fills the space that was previously occupied by the pattern; thus casting is produced. Then the metal is left to be solidified. • Removal of solidified casting from the mold • After the casting has cooled and solidified, the loose, un-boned sand is dumped from the flask, freeing the casting and attached gating system. The backup sand can be re-used. The coating of the ceramic is removed by sand blasting or giving vibration.
  52. 52. FULL MOLD CASTING
  53. 53. Advantages in full mold casting: • Does not involve complex and large number of operations like investment casting. • Mass scale production. • For heavy castings like lathe m/c bed also for 40-50 tons. • For intricate shapes. • No cores are required. • Risers not required for many castings. • For both ferrous and non-ferrous. • High precision. • Smooth surface finish. • Machining and finishing operations can often be reduced or totally eliminated.
  54. 54. Disadvantages in full mold casting: • The pattern is consumed, not re usable. • The patterns are easily damaged or distorted due to their low strength. • If a die is used to create the patterns there is a large initial cost. • The pattern cost can be high due to the expendable nature of the pattern. •
  55. 55. MULTIPLE USE MOLD CASTING PROCESS ( DIE CASTINGH ) • Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under low/high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process.
  56. 56. • Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter( It is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally 85– 99% tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and lead) and tin based alloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used. • The casting equipment and the metal dies represent large capital costs and this tends to limit the process to high volume production. Manufacture of parts using die casting is relatively simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low. It is especially suited for a large quantity of small to medium sized castings, This is why die casting produces more castings than any other casting process.
  57. 57. • Die castings are characterized by a very good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency. It is classified as (a) Low pressure die casting (b) And high pressure die casting • The increasing number of applications in the field of Engineering is the best proof of the successful use of Aluminium alloys in foundry. • This is probably one of the most dynamic field of manufacturing and engineering. The well-known advantages associated to the use of Aluminium alloys is (a) light weight, (b) Good mechanical behaviour and (c) good corrosion resistance, etc.
  58. 58. The principle of low pressure die casting • the permanent die and the filling system are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. • The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing (by means of a pressurized gas, typically ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 bars) the molten metal to rise into a ceramic tube (which is called stalk), which connects the die to the furnace Generally speaking, the pressure used is roughly equivalent to 2 meters of an Aluminum column.
  59. 59. • Once the die cavity is filled, the overpressure in the furnace is removed, and • the residual molten metal in the tube flow back into the stalk feeder • this improves the yield of the process, which becomes significantly high. • The low injection velocity and the relatively high cycle time lead to a good control of the fluid-dynamics of the process, avoiding the defects originated by turbulence phenomena. • Castings up to 70 kg weight can be produced, with tolerances of 0.3- 0.6 %.
  60. 60. The advantages of low pressure die casting process are • - the high yield achievable (typically over 90%) • - the reduction of machining costs, • thanks to the absence of feeders, • - the excellent control of process parameters which can be obtained, with a high degree of automation, the good metallurgical quality, (thanks to a homogeneous filling and a controlled solidification dynamics, resulting in good mechanical and technological properties of the castings.)
  61. 61. The applications of low pressure die casting • in the automotive field are several, even if this process is often (and reductively) associated only to the production of wheels only. • Some examples of low pressure die casting products are.
  62. 62. FORMS OF HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING • Hot Chamber High Pressure Die Casting The cylinder and piston, used to quickly inject the molten metal into the die under pressure, are immersed in the molten metal. Used for finely detailed, thin castings in zinc and some magnesium alloys. • Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting The molten metal is poured into the injection cylinder and then quickly injected into the die under pressure. Used for finely detailed thin castings in aluminium, magnesium and brass.
  63. 63. Hot chamber process • Hot chamber process: The pressure chamber is connected to the die cavity and immersed permanently in the molten metal. The inlet port of the pressurizing cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurized) position. This allows a new charge of molten metal to fill the cavity and thus can fill the cavity faster than the cold chamber process. The hot chamber process is used for metals of low melting point and high fluidity such as tin, zinc, and lead.
  64. 64. • Die casting is one of the metallurgical casting methods used since a long time ago. The mold that gives the molded material shape is called a die. The metal material has to be melted, then injected into the empty space (called cavity) of the die and then pressed under high pressures over a certain processing time to allow the material to maintain its shape and to avoid flowing during freezing (solidification). • Features of the die casting operation include the plunger, chamber, and the die, which is termed as the heart of the process. • PLUNGER Most important feature of the die casting process is the plunger, which serves two purposes: 1) for injection of the casting material into the die cavity. 2) To plug the liquid material in the cavity during solidification. It should also be noted that this plunger is usually pressurized to ensure complete filling of the cavity, so that the shaped materials are formed properly.
  65. 65. • CHAMBER Contrary to the straight cylinder seen in cold chamber casting, the chamber of hot chamber casting takes the shape of a goose-neck (an equipment of the same name) which serves as a feed system for insertion of the melted metal into the die. • HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING In hot chamber die casting, there are additional components like the metal pot that hold the pool of liquid metal feed. And it is directly connected to the goose-neck so that feed can be sucked into the chamber and get injected into the die by the action of the plunger. This makes the goose-neck or chamber always heated by the liquid metal due to direct connection to the metal pot. This is how the process got its name. Due to the direct connection to a feed pool that takes the form of a metal pot, hot chamber die casting has a higher rate of production as the process is simpler. Hot chamber casting is usually used for low melting point metals and metals that do not erode the plunger and chamber parts. This because the constant heating for higher melting-point metals in an open environment can be quite energy consuming and the erosion of the equipment can take place faster at higher temperatures.
  66. 66. 1)The mould is closed and sealed. The plunger is in the upper position. 2)The plunger injects liquid metal through the gooseneck and along to the mould, whilst preserving static pressure with the movement, until the material solidifies. 3) After casting the plunger returns to it's original position, whilst the product remains in the mould. 4) The product is removed from the mould by moving side ejectors.
  67. 67. HOT CHAMBER
  68. 68. COLD CHAMBER PROCESS • The molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber for each shot. There is less time exposure of the melt to the plunger walls or the plunger. This is particularly useful for metals such as Aluminum, and Copper (and its alloys) that alloy easily react with Iron at the higher temperatures (which will wear out the plunger cylinder). The largest die-castings are about 20 kg for Magnesium (35 kg for Zinc). Large castings tend to have greater porosity problems, due to entrapped air, Vacuum die casting reduces porosity.
  69. 69. • Cold Chamber Process The difference of this process with the hot-chamber process is that the injection system is not submerged in molten metal. On the contrary, metal gets transferred by ladle, manually or automatically, to the shot sleeve. The metal is pushed into the die by a hydraulically operated plunger. This process minimises the contact time between the injector components and the molten metal. Which extends the life of the components. However the entrainment of air into the metal generally associated with high-speed injection can cause gas porosity in the castings. In the cold chamber machine, injection pressures over 10,000 psi or 70,000 KPa is obtainable. Generally steel castings along with aluminium and copper based alloys are produced by this method.
  70. 70. Products of high pressure die-casting
  71. 71. Centrifugal casting or roto-casting • Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thin- walled cylinders. It is noted for the high quality of the results attainable, particularly for precise control of their metallurgy and crystal structure.
  72. 72. • In centrifugal casting, a permanent mold is rotated continuously about its axis at high speeds (300 to 3000 rpm) as the molten metal is poured. The molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards the inside mold wall, where it solidifies after cooling. The casting is usually a fine- grained casting with a very fine-grained outer diameter, due to chilling against the mould surface. Impurities and inclusions are thrown to the surface of the inside diameter, which can be machined away. • Casting machines may be either horizontal or vertical-axis. Horizontal axis machines are preferred for long, thin cylinders, vertical machines for rings. • Most castings are solidified from the outside first. This may be used to encourage directional solidification of the casting, and thus give useful metallurgical properties to it. Often the inner and outer layers are discarded and only the intermediary columnar zone is used.
  73. 73. Centrifugal casting is carried out as follows: • The mold wall is coated by a refractory ceramic coating (applying ceramic slurry, spinning, drying and baking). • Starting rotation of the mold at a predetermined speed. • Pouring a molten metal directly into the mold (no gating system is employed). • The mold is stopped after the casting has solidified. • Extraction of the casting from the mold. • The casting solidifies from the outside fed by the inner liquid metal. • Non-metallic and slag inclusions and gas bubbles being less dense than the melt are forced to the inner surface of the casting by the centrifugal forces. This impure zone is then removed by machining. • Resulted structure of the centrifugal castings is sound. • Centrifugal casting technology is widely used for manufacturing of iron pipes, bushings, wheels, pulleys bi-metal steel-bronze bearings and other parts possessing axial symmetry.
  74. 74. • Casting machines may be either horizontal or vertical-axis. Horizontal axis machines are preferred for long, thin cylinders, vertical machines for rings.
  75. 75. Features of Centrifugal Casting • Castings can be made in almost any length, thickness and diameter. • Different wall thicknesses can be produced from the same size mold. • Eliminates the need for cores. • Resistant to atmospheric corrosion, a typical situation with pipes. • Mechanical properties of centrifugal castings are excellent. • Only cylindrical shapes can be produced with this process. • Size limits are up to 3 m (10 feet) diameter and 15 m (50 feet) length. • Wall thickness range from 2.5 mm to 125 mm (0.1 - 5.0 in). • Tolerance limit: on the OD can be 2.5 mm (0.1 in) on the ID can be 3.8 mm (0.15 in). • Surface finish ranges from 2.5 mm to 12.5 mm (0.1 - 0.5 in) rms.
  76. 76. • The casting is relatively free from defects. • Non metallic impurities which segregate toward the bore are machined off during our "proofing" process. • Less loss of metal in tundish compared to that in gating and risering in conventional sand casting. • Better mechanical properties than sand castings. • Production rate is higher than that of sand casting.

×