NADA SAL AH
N O U R H A N N A S S E R
R A N A H A Z E M
U N D E R S U P E R V I S I O N O F D R . M A G E D
G E O R G E
• Minya is located approximately 245 km (152 mi)
south of Cairo on the western bank of the Nile
River, which flows north through the city.
THE NAME OF THE CITY IS
DERIVED FROM ITS ANCIENT
EGYPTIAN NAME MEN'AT KHUFU,
MEANING THE NURSING CITY OF
KHUFU, LINKING IT TO THE
PHARAOH KHUFU OR CHEOPS,
BUILDER OF THE GREAT
PYRAMID AT GIZA.
HISTORY OF MINYA (EARLIEST HISTORY)
• During the Predynastic Period (before 3100 BC), the area
encompassing modern day Minya and its surrounding lands
formed the 16th nome (district).
• It remained an autonomous city-state until the ruler Menes
unified Egypt around 3200 BC.
• At the time of its unification, Egypt was divided into 42 nomes.
The 16th nome was also called the Oryx nome, probably due to
the prevalence of the Oryx, one of the antelope species that
inhibited the area
HISTORY OF MINYA (OLD KINGDOM)
• After the unification of Egypt, the
16th nome emerged as an important
center of trade.
It was opposite a trade route to the
Red Sea along which the Levantine
traders carrying their goods from
Sinai and Canaan travelled.
• Like Pharaohs, rulers of the Oryx nome were deeply
concerned with their lives after death. Because the
pyramid building age was over or maybe because they
could not afford to construct their own pyramids, the
rulers of Mena'at Khufu chose the limestone cliffs of
the eastern desert overlooking a gentle curve in the
Nile as an ideal spot on which to carve their tombs.
These chapel-tombs at Beni Hasan are the only remnant
of the era when Minya rulers wielded power and wealth.
Beni Hasan tombs
HISTORY OF MINYA (MIDDLE KINGDOM)
HISTORY OF MINYA (MIDDLE KINGDOM)
The Beni Hasan tombs are
extremely important as their walls
reveal more information about life
in Egypt 4,000 years ago more
than any other monument in
Egypt. In fact these tombs provide
more insight about daily life in
Egypt than about the rulers who
HISTORY OF MINYA (MIDDLE KINGDOM)
• Zawiyet el-Mayyiteen,The city of
HISTORY OF MINYA (MIDDLE KINGDOM)
• During the Second Intermediate Period,
Minya with the rest of Lower and Middle
Egypt fell under the control of the Hyksos.
It appears that Minya's rulers actually
supported the Hyksos 15th Dynasty rulers
against the native Egyptian pharaohs of
the 16th and 17th dynasties. Towards the
end of the Second Intermediate Period
when the Theban Pharaohs started their
struggle to expel the Hyksos out of
Minya was the site where the first major
battle of this conflict took place. In 1552
GRECO-ROMAN HISTORY• El Ashmunein (Hermopolis Magna) was
the capital of the region during this
period. It was the main center of worship
of the god Thoth. Today, the ruins of a
Greek temple, similar to the Parthenon,
can be still found.
• The tomb and chapel of Pet osiris and
Greece queen Izadora are found near the
modern village of Tuna el-Gebel.
• Antinopolis was built in 130 A.D. by the
Roman emperor Hadrian in memory of his
favorite cup-bearer Antinous.
• The Monastery of the Virgin Mary at
Gebel el-Teir is an important
Christian site near the city of
Samalut. Its church was built by
Empress Helena, mother of
Constantine the Great, in 328, on
one of the sites where the Holy
Family is believed to have stayed
during its Flight into Egypt.
• remains an important
archaeological source for papyri
from the Byzantine Egypt.
ARAB ISLAMIC HISTORY
• El-Amrawy Mosque, built in
the 11th Century, an
outstanding example of
Fatimid Islamic architecture of
the time, with a remarkable
structural and decorative use
• Muslim conquest has reached in time
of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab, Islam
spread rapidly became a vast majority
of people embrace Islam and built
many mosques in its parts, and this
continues to increase during the reign
of Caliph Uthman Caliph Ali ibn Abi
Talib, covenants judgment that
followed the modern era.
• During Muhammad Ali's rule, Minya gained
importance due to its fertile lands and its
large agricultural production. The importance
of the City increased during the reign of Ismail
who owned large cotton and sugar cane
plantations around Minya. Ismail constructed
a royal residence in Minya and beginning with
1870 he started modernizing the city and
constructed its first residential extensions. In
the year 1873, the Ibrahimiya Canal was built
to provide perennial irrigation to Ismail's vast
lands. The canal led to a noticeable
development in the urban growth especially
in the western areas of the city. Improvement
of the transportation network, particularly the
introduction of the building of bridges across
the Ibrahimiya, permitted developments of
housing to grow haphazardly on private
agricultural lands of the west suburban banks
of the canal.
• Around the start of the 20th Century, land
speculations and a general building boom marked
the beginning of Minya's dramatic 20th-Century
• the establishment of the railway to join Cairo began.
• the city extended east and west on the railway sides,
which penetrated the current city.
• By that time, Great Britain established a consulate in
Minya mainly to promote cotton trade. In 1907, the
Ottoman Bank opened a branch in the city in
recognition of its increasing economic importance.
Utilities, serving mainly the new developments, were
introduced under long-term franchises granted to
foreign enterprises: a courthouse in 1927, the fire
department in 1931, the city council and the
administration building in 1937. The wide paved
streets of the modern city diverted commercial
activity away from the old city.
• The public sector predominates in industry, controlling
most of the production of capital and intermediate
goods. Among the state-run industries are cement,
chemicals, mining, fertilizers and agricultural industries.
The private sector is active in manufacturing of consumer
goods, particularly in small enterprises in and around the
city. The principal private industries are food products,
furniture, and metal and woodworking. Although rich in
history, tourism plays a trivial role in the economy
TYPE OF SOIL IN OUR SITE
• Our Soil is Rocky Sandy Soil
PLANTS THAT THRIVE IN
• Sandy soil has its advantages. It drains well, is easy to dig in and
warms up faster in spring than clay soils, meaning that plants
start growing earlier - but there are fewer species adapted to it
compared to other soil types. Sandy soil is relatively uncommon
in nature and has several distinct disadvantages - it does not
hold on to either water or nutrients for long.
• Lavender is hard not to love. Originating in the dry, rocky hills of
the Mediterranean basin, it is not only tolerant of sandy soil, it
actually requires the excellent drainage provided by sandy soils.
Plant it in full sun and water it only enough to get the roots
established. Lavender is especially effective in long rows that
can be used as a low garden border.
• These low-growing perennials have the grey foliage that
characterizes many of the most drought tolerant plants. The
leaves are finely cut and incredibly soft to the touch; when you
brush up against them a delicious fragrance is released.
Artemisias are primarily a foliage plant, as the flowers of most
varieties are inconspicuous, but they add a unique texture and
color to perennial borders or can be used en masse as a
• Rosemary is another familiar herb that thrives in dry, sandy soil.
It never needs water once established and blooms in late winter
when most other plants are still waking up from dormancy. Try
one of the prostrate varieties, like Lockwood de Forest or Irene,
for use as a large scale groundcover in sandy soil.
• There are an incredible
diversity of sedums available
in nurseries these days. They
are succulents, so by nature
they are adapted to dry,
sandy soil. Most are tiny
groundcovers that make
great rock garden plants.
There is also a taller variety
called Autumn Joy that is a
good choice for its
extremely late bloom.
L I V I N G I N A S A N D Y R E G I O N D O E S N ' T
M E A N YO U H AV E TO S A C R I F I C E
C O LO R F U L P L A N T S I N YO U R YA R D.
• Annual salvias add a strong shot of color to summer flower beds -
crimson red, deep purple, and electric blue shades are all available.
They grow quickly to one or two feet in height, depending on the
variety. The blooms last for weeks, but once they fade, cut them back
and they will bloom again until the first frost of fall. They are
relatively drought tolerant for an annual bedding plant and are
adored by hummingbirds.
GIANT ALLIUM • This is an unusual specimen for
flower borders - it is closely
related to onions, but is grown
for it enormous purple pom-pom
flowers that rise on a single stalk
three to four feet above the
sparse foliage. Giant alliums will
bloom year after year in sandy
soil with little care, making them
a good choice for a semi-
naturalized meadow planting.
• This bedding plant is adored by butterflies and smells like honey.
It grows in sandy soil and is likely to seed itself in cracks in the
driveway, bringing color to the harsh, hot concrete. Sweet alyssum
forms a low mat four to six inches tall and spreads up to two feet
across. Pink, purple, and white varieties are available.
• Shrubs are excellent choices for privacy, and flowering varieties make
beautiful additions to any garden in sandy soil.
• Butterflies flock to the elongated purple flower cones of this
upright deciduous shrub. Butterfly bush adapts to most soil
types, including sandy ones. White- and pink-flowered varieties
are also available.
ROSE OF SHARON
• A trouble-free plant for tough conditions, rose of Sharon
produces two- to three-inch hibiscus-like blooms in late
summer - rose, purple, and white are the most common colors.
In sandy soil, be sure to give it plenty of water to support
luxuriant growth and stimulate profuse flowering.
T R E E S A R E A F O C A L P O I N T F O R M A N Y
H O M E O W N E R S , R E G A R D L E S S O F S O I L
T Y P E .
• Also known as mimosa, this fast-growing deciduous tree is one
of the best for sandy soils. It typically grows to about 30 feet,
not quite what is normally considered a shade tree, but it does
provide some shade and it doesn't take decades to do it - five
to seven years to maturity is typical.
• This is a tall, upright hardwood tree that also grows at an
unusually fast rate, even in sandy soil. Fragrant white flower
clusters emerge from the bare branches in early spring, followed
by finely cut foliage and then decorative seed pods in fall.
Purple Robe is a popular variety that sports magenta blossoms,
instead of the typical white.