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An application of physics:  sampling and analysing air particulate matter GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt, New Zeala...
<ul><li>New Zealand has good air quality  in general </li></ul>
Masterton Dunedin Auckland PM 10  2004-2007 at Masterton <ul><li>However, air pollution does occur in NZ </li></ul><ul><li...
Particle size comparison
Atmospheric particles: size and number distribution <ul><li>Two distinct size modes, coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) & fine (PM 2.5 ) ...
Atmospheric particles: health effects <ul><li>PM 10  in NZ caused ~900 premature deaths and cost a total of NZ$1.3 billion...
Samplers – size selective inlets  <ul><li>Size-selective inlets define the particle size fraction sampled  (Chow, 1995).  ...
GENT Sampler – stacked filter unit http://www.nilu.no/products/ Air flow  direction
GENT Sampler – APM filters Coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) polycarbonate Nucleopore filter loaded with air particulate matter from the...
Elemental analysis and source apportionment: Why? <ul><li>Gravimetric mass  ≠ source information </li></ul>Masterton Duned...
Source apportionment
Black Carbon (BC) For atmospheric particles, black carbon (soot) absorbs light very strongly (Horvath 1993, 1997). Hence, ...
Elemental relationships and source determination Plots show that elements are related to each other Seaview Baring Head
Initial source identification by principle components analysis: PM 2.5  at Masterton Element Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Fa...
Temporal variation in source contributions at Masterton
Masterton PM 10  : Average mass contribution to ambient particle concentrations by sources using positive matrix factorisa...
Source mass contributions to Masterton PM 10 Masterton 12 July 2004, high pollution day exceeded national environmental st...
Auckland (Kingsland) sulphate sources  Directional studies (CPF) and mapping (PSCF) of the source apportionment results ca...
Hauraki Gulf shipping lanes and port area Industry Directional (CPF) analysis of sulphate sources
Kingsland PM 2.5  secondary sulphate source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>secondary sulphate source areas are ocea...
Regional sulphate ‘event’ – 28 September 2006 Receptor modelling results for sulphate Air mass back-trajectory
Kingsland  PM 2.5  marine aerosol source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>PSCF analysis results indicate that the PM ...
Summary <ul><li>Pollution has  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different size distributions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mix of natur...
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13.30 o7 b trompetter

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Research 5: B Trompetter

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13.30 o7 b trompetter

  1. 1. An application of physics: sampling and analysing air particulate matter GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Bill Trompetter, Perry Davy, Bernard Barry and Andreas Markwitz
  2. 2. <ul><li>New Zealand has good air quality in general </li></ul>
  3. 3. Masterton Dunedin Auckland PM 10 2004-2007 at Masterton <ul><li>However, air pollution does occur in NZ </li></ul><ul><li>Some smaller towns have the highest levels of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>PM 10 has strong peaks in winter due to domestic biomass burning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Particle size comparison
  5. 5. Atmospheric particles: size and number distribution <ul><li>Two distinct size modes, coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) & fine (PM 2.5 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Size range depend on method of source generation </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse particles dominate mass profile </li></ul><ul><li>Fine particles dominates number profile </li></ul>
  6. 6. Atmospheric particles: health effects <ul><li>PM 10 in NZ caused ~900 premature deaths and cost a total of NZ$1.3 billion in health costs and lost productivity in 2001 [Fisher 2007] . </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms range from subtle sub-clinical effects to respiratory and cardio-pulmonary disease </li></ul><ul><li>NZ National Environment Standard was introduced in 2005 (50  g/m 3 for PM 10 ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Samplers – size selective inlets <ul><li>Size-selective inlets define the particle size fraction sampled (Chow, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Direct impaction: </li></ul><ul><li>the impactor with specific dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>small particles bend at the impaction plate </li></ul><ul><li>larger particles impact against the plate </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual impactor: </li></ul><ul><li>uses an opening </li></ul><ul><li>larger particles to one sampling substrate, </li></ul><ul><li>smaller particles follow the streamlines to another </li></ul><ul><li>~10% of the total flow, drawn through the virtual impactor are collected with the coarse particles (corrections needed). </li></ul>
  8. 8. GENT Sampler – stacked filter unit http://www.nilu.no/products/ Air flow direction
  9. 9. GENT Sampler – APM filters Coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) polycarbonate Nucleopore filter loaded with air particulate matter from the Wellington region. Fine (PM 2.5-0 ) polycarbonate Nucleopore filter loaded with air particulate matter from the Wellington region.
  10. 10. Elemental analysis and source apportionment: Why? <ul><li>Gravimetric mass ≠ source information </li></ul>Masterton Dunedin Auckland
  11. 11. Source apportionment
  12. 12. Black Carbon (BC) For atmospheric particles, black carbon (soot) absorbs light very strongly (Horvath 1993, 1997). Hence, to first order it can be assumed that all the absorption on pollution filters is due to BC.
  13. 13. Elemental relationships and source determination Plots show that elements are related to each other Seaview Baring Head
  14. 14. Initial source identification by principle components analysis: PM 2.5 at Masterton Element Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Vehicles Soil Combustion Seasalt BC 0.16 0.03 0.97 -0.08 Mg 0.02 0.97 0.09 0.03 Al 0.33 0.92 0.10 -0.05 Si 0.76 0.56 0.06 0.15 S 0.71 0.30 0.12 0.37 Cl 0.14 -0.06 -0.06 0.95 K 0.23 0.18 0.93 0.08 Ca 0.69 0.26 0.21 0.52 Fe 0.84 -0.08 0.35 -0.07
  15. 15. Temporal variation in source contributions at Masterton
  16. 16. Masterton PM 10 : Average mass contribution to ambient particle concentrations by sources using positive matrix factorisation PM 10-2.5 PM 2.5
  17. 17. Source mass contributions to Masterton PM 10 Masterton 12 July 2004, high pollution day exceeded national environmental standard (PM 10 = 51  g/m 3 24 hour average) PM 10 = 51  g/m 3
  18. 18. Auckland (Kingsland) sulphate sources Directional studies (CPF) and mapping (PSCF) of the source apportionment results can add much more value for the end users.
  19. 19. Hauraki Gulf shipping lanes and port area Industry Directional (CPF) analysis of sulphate sources
  20. 20. Kingsland PM 2.5 secondary sulphate source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>secondary sulphate source areas are oceanic due to phytoplankton. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Regional sulphate ‘event’ – 28 September 2006 Receptor modelling results for sulphate Air mass back-trajectory
  22. 22. Kingsland PM 2.5 marine aerosol source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>PSCF analysis results indicate that the PM 2.5 marine aerosol source areas are southwest of NZ – southwesterly sweep over Southern Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with CPF (inset) analysis </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Pollution has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different size distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mix of natural and anthropogenic sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collection methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elemental analysis allows identification of APM sources and their contributions determined. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual filter samples (1 day or 1 hour). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis by day, year, season, weekday, weekend … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information assists with air quality management. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directional analysis can provide addition information for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local sources (CPF). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long range sources (PSCF). </li></ul></ul>An application of physics: sampling and analysing air particulate matter

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