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11.30 k3 h campbell

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Plenary 1: H Campbell

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11.30 k3 h campbell

  1. 1. On edgeDr Hamish CampbellGNS Science
  2. 2. GNS Science
  3. 3. Seaward Kaikoura Range Hope Fault Kaikoura GNS Science
  4. 4. Banks Peninsula, looking west Christchurch GNS Science
  5. 5. Hope Fault Kaikoura ChristchurchAlpine Fault GNS Science
  6. 6. South Island GNS Science
  7. 7. Regional Context GNS Science
  8. 8. Kevin Furlong GNS Science
  9. 9. Photo: Nicola Litchfield, GNS Science GNS Science
  10. 10. Darfield Earthquake7.1Saturday 4 September4:36 am GNS Science
  11. 11. Acceleration records from Greendale 1 0 305 -1 215Acceleration (g) VERT -2 ` -3 -4 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (s) GNS Science
  12. 12. “There’s a sandhill in the middle of my house… it’s wrecked.” GNS Science
  13. 13. GNS Science
  14. 14. GNS Science
  15. 15. Fault Rupture (breakage) source: www.GeoNet.org.nz GNS Science
  16. 16. GNS Science
  17. 17. Greendale Fault Surface Rupture Displacement GNS Science
  18. 18. GNS Science
  19. 19. Faults within basement rocks of the Chatham RiseWood, Andrews & Herzer (1989): NZGS Basin Studies 3: Chatham Rise, Map 4 GNS Science
  20. 20. 90 Ma(million years ago) GNS Science
  21. 21. Bathymetric mapGNS Science GNS Science
  22. 22. GNS Science
  23. 23. Aftershocks: 4 – 21 September, 2010 GNS Science
  24. 24. February 22, 2011 Christchurch GNS Science
  25. 25. Comparison of Vertical and Horizontal Ground Shaking Vertical Horizontal 500 yr code 0.30g 2,500 year 0.54g GNS Science
  26. 26. Actual vs. Previously Mapped HazardExtent of liquefaction from 22 Feb 2011.Orange = major liquefaction. 2004 Liquefaction Hazard MapYellow = minor / trace / isolated small liquefaction areas GNS Science
  27. 27. Predicted vertical contours and fault slip model (transparent)Subsidenceup to 15 cmalong much ofthe Avon, withuplift >30 cmof river mouthand estuary GNS Science
  28. 28. New Zealand Historical Atlas 1997 p GNS Science
  29. 29. GNS Science
  30. 30. GNS Science
  31. 31. GNS Science
  32. 32. GNS Science
  33. 33. GNS Science
  34. 34. Photo: Dougal TownsendMohaka Fault looking NE to Waipawa River and Wakarara Range GNS Science
  35. 35. Mars and its faults: normal (red) and reverse (black)Lada Dimitrova (PhD, Stony Brook, USA) GNS Science
  36. 36. MARS N pole S pole GNS Science
  37. 37. Full moon GNS Science
  38. 38. Earthquakes occur on plate boundaries GNS Science
  39. 39. NEIC GNS Science
  40. 40. Globally there‟s about one/year M>8.0 Japan - 20000 x more energy 4 Sept - 30 x more energy 22 Feb IRIS GNS Science
  41. 41. Magnitude 8.9 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTCGlobally, the 5th largest earthquake since 1900. Great (M > 8) Earthquakes Since 1900 9.6 Chile 1960 9.4 Alaska 1964 9.2 Sumatra 2004 9 Magnitude Japan 2011 8.8 Chile 2010 8.6 8.4 8.2 8 7.8 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Year GNS Science
  42. 42. GNS Science
  43. 43. GNS Science
  44. 44. Wairarapa FaultFeatherston GNS Science
  45. 45. Wairarapa Faultraised beaches atCape TurakiraeCook Strait GNS Science
  46. 46. Wellington Fault GNS Science
  47. 47. Wellington Fault GNS Science
  48. 48. Pondard and Barnes, JGR, 2010 GNS Science
  49. 49. Marlborough Sounds, South Island GNS Science
  50. 50. Wanganui BasinCook StraitMarlborough Sounds„lithospheric sag‟ GNS Science
  51. 51. GNS Science
  52. 52. Understanding our subduction thrust• Geophysical – remote sensing• Drilling – IODP GNS Science
  53. 53. Seismicity in NZ for a 10 year period (1990s) GNS Science
  54. 54. GPS: Global Positioning System satellite receiver GNS Science
  55. 55. GNS Science
  56. 56. GNS Science
  57. 57. Total slip in the Kapiti 2003 and Manawatu 2004/2005SSEs was equivalent to Mw 7.26, and occurred along thedown-dip edges of inter-seismic coupling GNS Science
  58. 58. GNS Science
  59. 59. Comparison of Japan with North IslandGPS tells us where the subduction zone is “stuck” – building up stress to be relieved in a future earthquake GNS Science
  60. 60. Comparison of Japan with North Island GNS Science
  61. 61. Edgecumbe Earthquake February 1987: looking NE GNS Science
  62. 62. Taupo Volcanic Zone(TVZ)A rift with at least 8calderas orsuper-volcanoesE-W stretching of>9.0 mm per yearat Rotorua GNS Science
  63. 63. Looking NE atMt EdgecumbeoverWaimunguLake RotomahanaMt TaraweraPhoto: Lloyd Homer,GNS Science GNS Science
  64. 64. Tarawera, Ruawahia, Wahanga (domes) Photo: Lloyd Homer, GNS Science GNS Science
  65. 65. Kaharoa Eruptionof Mt Tarawera1314 AD +/- 12by David Lowe,Waikato University GNS Science
  66. 66. GNS Science
  67. 67. Acknowledgements• Helen Anderson• Phil Barnes (NIWA)• John Beavan (GNS Science)• John Begg (GNS Science)• Neil Campbell (Kiwi Rail)• Russ van Dissen (GNS Science)• Kevin Furlong (Penn. State, USA)• Ken Gledhill (GeoNet, GNS Science)• Gavin Hayes (USGS)• Stuart Henrys (GNS Science)• Lloyd Homer• James Jackson (Cambridge University)• Graeme McVerry (GNS Science)• Andy Nichol (GNS Science)• Nico Pondard (GNS Science)• Martin Reyners (GNS Science)• Warwick Smith (GeoNet, GNS Science)• Mark Stirling (GNS Science)• Dougal Townsend (GNS Science) GNS Science
  68. 68. GNS Science
  69. 69. GNS Science
  70. 70. National SeismicHazard ModelPGA = peak groundacceleration GNS Science

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