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Manipulating and observing individual atoms <ul><ul><li>The team: Alicia V. Carpentier,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tzahi ...
Outline <ul><li>Historical Background </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Apparatus </li></ul><ul>...
History of Atoms <ul><li>Introduced by early Indian and Greek philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Picked up by chemists in 17’t...
Motivation <ul><li>Direct investigations of the quantum world:  the dream of scientists for the past century </li></ul><ul...
What is the problem with neutral atoms? <ul><li>They are very small </li></ul><ul><li>They are hard to “see” </li></ul><ul...
How to stop atoms <ul><ul><li>Radiation Pressure </li></ul></ul>
LASER Cooling
Optical Tweezers <ul><ul><li>Optical Dipole Force </li></ul></ul>
Our experiments
In Reality
Problems with counting atoms using flourecense imaging <ul><li>Many photons need to be scattered </li></ul><ul><li>Radiati...
Light assisted collisions  (photo-chemistry)
Cooling with blue detuned light
Image of single atom
Counting Atoms M. McGovern, Andrew Hilliard, T. Gr ünzweig,  and M. F.  A.,  Opt. Lett., 36, 1041, 2011. None 1 Atom 2 Atoms
Preparing individual atoms At each site, atoms undergo pairwise light-assisted collisions,  which can either significantly...
Individual Collisions + + + = + + =
Efficient Preparation 83% T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, M. F. A., Nature Physics 6, 951-954, 2010.
What is missing?
Detuning
Multi-level structure Figure: Thad Walker
Conclusions <ul><li>You CAN see a single atom in a microscope.  </li></ul><ul><li>We can count several atoms in a microsco...
Acknowledgements <ul><ul><li>NZ-FRST Contract No. NERF-UOOX0703 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UORG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Power
Power and Detuning
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10.45 k2 m andersen

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Plenary 1: M Anderson

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10.45 k2 m andersen

  1. 1. Manipulating and observing individual atoms <ul><ul><li>The team: Alicia V. Carpentier, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tzahi Grünzweig, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Hilliard, Yin Fung, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and Matt McGovern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborator: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor Thad G Walker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Wisconsin </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Historical Background </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging and counting of individual atoms in a microscopic volume </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating individual atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Atoms <ul><li>Introduced by early Indian and Greek philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Picked up by chemists in 17’th and 18’th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Rutherford/Bohr : </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Ions </li></ul>“ The present state of atomic theory is characterized by the fact that we not only believe the existence of atoms to be proved beyond a doubt, but also we even believe that we have an intimate knowledge of the constituents of the individual atoms.”
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Direct investigations of the quantum world: the dream of scientists for the past century </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum information processing -> Ultra fast computers of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic scale engineering: the ultimate limit of small scale engineering </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is the problem with neutral atoms? <ul><li>They are very small </li></ul><ul><li>They are hard to “see” </li></ul><ul><li>They move around at high speeds </li></ul><ul><li>They are electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>They are hard to hold on to </li></ul><ul><li>They are difficult to separate </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to stop atoms <ul><ul><li>Radiation Pressure </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LASER Cooling
  8. 8. Optical Tweezers <ul><ul><li>Optical Dipole Force </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Our experiments
  10. 10. In Reality
  11. 11. Problems with counting atoms using flourecense imaging <ul><li>Many photons need to be scattered </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation pressure blows atoms away </li></ul><ul><li>Light assisted collisions cause rapid loss at high densities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Light assisted collisions (photo-chemistry)
  13. 13. Cooling with blue detuned light
  14. 14. Image of single atom
  15. 15. Counting Atoms M. McGovern, Andrew Hilliard, T. Gr ünzweig, and M. F. A., Opt. Lett., 36, 1041, 2011. None 1 Atom 2 Atoms
  16. 16. Preparing individual atoms At each site, atoms undergo pairwise light-assisted collisions, which can either significantly increase their kinetic energy, or cause them to form a molecule. Either way, both atoms are lost more quickly than we can observe, so that sites that are initially occupied by an even number of atoms become empty and sites that are initially odd-occupied end up with a single atom
  17. 17. Individual Collisions + + + = + + =
  18. 18. Efficient Preparation 83% T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, M. F. A., Nature Physics 6, 951-954, 2010.
  19. 19. What is missing?
  20. 20. Detuning
  21. 21. Multi-level structure Figure: Thad Walker
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>You CAN see a single atom in a microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>We can count several atoms in a microscopic volume </li></ul><ul><li>Light assisted collisions can lead to only one atom being lost </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating individual events reveal information not available from ensemble average measurements </li></ul><ul><li>We (and visitors) can (almost) deterministically prepare a single atom in an optical micro-trap </li></ul>
  23. 23. Acknowledgements <ul><ul><li>NZ-FRST Contract No. NERF-UOOX0703 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UORG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor Thad G Walker University of Wisconsin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team: Tzahi Grünzweig, Andrew Hilliard, Yin Fung, Alicia V. Carpentier, and Matt McGovern </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Power
  25. 25. Power and Detuning

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