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Sistem Reproduksi

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Sistem Reproduksi

  1. 1. REPRODUKSI
  2. 2. Organ reproduksi pria/jantanFungsi :• Penis :Urinasi dan kopulasi• Uretra :Transport urin dan semen• Skrotum : Menjaga temperatur testis kira2 30 C dibawah suhu normal tubuh• Testis :Produksi sperma dan testoteron
  3. 3. • Epididmis : Storage and maturation• Uretra: Transport sperma ke uretra• Vesikel seminalis: Produksi alkalin semen (temasuk fruktosa) utk menyediakan energi utk sperma
  4. 4. Function: Produce Sperm Seminiferous Tubules Testis
  5. 5. Testis Cross Section Interstitial Cells Produce Testosterone
  6. 6. • Prostat :Produksi 1/3 dari semen termasuk nutrien dan enzim utk mengaktifkan sperma• Cowper Gland :sekresi mukus dan bufer alkalin untuk sekresi mukus dan buffer alkalin utk menetralisir kondisi asam uretra.
  7. 7. Organ reproduksi wanita/betina• Vagina : menerima penis dan semen serta saluran kelahiran dan menstruasi• Uterus: jalur lintas sperma, menerima blastocyst, fetus dan melindungi fetus dari suhu yg tdk sesuai
  8. 8. • Servix :sekresi mukus utk blocking saluran servik yg ke uterus• Endometrium: lapisan uterus utk implantasi• Miometrium : lapisan uterus utk kontraksi uterus
  9. 9. .• Tuba fallopi: jalur lintas oocyt dan tempat fertilisasi• Ovarium :produksi oocyt, estrogen dan testoteron• Fimbriae : menangkap oocyt
  10. 10. Hormon reproduksi• Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) : – sumber: Hypothalamus – Target & Fungsi: • Females & Males - Anterior Pituitary – Stimulasi produksi Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Leutinizing Hormone (LH) – Mengatur pelepasan FSH & LH oleh anterior pituitary gland
  11. 11. Hormon reproduksi• Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH): – Source: Anterior Pituitary – Targets & Functions: • Females - Ovaries – Stimulasi perkembangan folikel – Stimulasi produksi estrogen • Males - Seminiferous Tubules – Berperanan utk spermatogenesis dgn menstabilkan reseptor testosteron pada tubulus
  12. 12. Leutenizing Hormone (LH): • Source: Anterior Pituitary – Targets & Functions: • Females - Ovaries – Stimuli oosit primer menjadi oosit sekunder – Memacu ovulasi oosit sekunder – Transform folikel jadi korpus luteum – Stimulasi produsi progesteron oleh corpus luteum • Males - Seminiferous TubulesCorpus luteum – Stimulasi produksi (Spermatogenesis) melalui rangsangan interstitial cells dalam testes utk sekresi testosteron
  13. 13. Estrogen:• Sources: Pematangan Follicles & Corpus Luteum – Targets & Functions: • Tubuh secara umum – Stimulasi perkembangan organ reproduksi sekunder • Uterus – Stimulasi fase proliferasi siklus estrus • Ovarium – oogenesis • kelenjar mammae – Stimulasi perkembangan duktus kelenjar susu
  14. 14. Progesteron: • Source: Corpus Luteum & Placenta – Targets & Functions: • Females - Uterus – Penebalan endometrium – Stimulasi pelepasan nutrient – Quiets myometrium • Females – kelenjar susuCorpus luteum – Stimulasi perkembangan alveoli utk produksiair susu • Females - Anterior Pituitary – Menghambat produksi dan pelepasan FSH & LH
  15. 15. Testosterone:• Sources: Interstitial Cells in Testes – Targets & Functions: • Tubuh secara umumBody in general – Stimulasi perkembangan organ reproduksi jantan meliputi: » development of male genitalia » male skeleton and muscle development » male patterns for hair growth » increased RBC production & higher metabolic rate • Seminiferous tubules – spermatogenesis • Anterior Pituitary – Moderate inhibition of pituitary and hypothalamus
  16. 16. Oxytocin:• Sources: diproduksi oleh hypothalamus. Disimpan & dilepaskan oleh Posterior Pituitary Positive Feedback Mechanisms: 1. Childbirth – kontraksi uterus and serviks 2. Milk letdown reflex – Targets & Functions: • Uterus – Stimulasi kontraksi miometrium • Kelenjar susu – Stimulasi kontraksi duktus kelenjar susu untuk pelepasan air susu
  17. 17. Prolactin:• Source: Anterior Pituitary – Targets & Functions: • Breasts – Stimulasi alveoli utk produksi air susu • Regulation – Release of prolactin by anterior pituitary is regulated by hypothalamus production of Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH) & Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH)
  18. 18. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG):• Source: Trophoblasts of blastocyst & Chorion – Target & Functions: • Corpus Luteum – Memelihara corpus luteum & menyebabkan produksi progesterone tetap ada pada 4 bulan pertama kehamilan sampai plasenta menghasilkan estrogen dan progesteron dalam jumlah cukup utk memelihara kehamilan.
  19. 19. Pengaturan hormon ovarium dan siklus menstruasi1. Hypothalamus melepaskanGnRH.2. GnRH stimulasi anteriorpituitary utk melepaskanFSH. Estrogen FSH3. FSH stimulasipertumbuhan folikel danestrogen.
  20. 20. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles LH4. Peningkatan kadar Estrogenestrogen menyebabkan Estrogen FSHanterior pituitary produksi LH.
  21. 21. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles5. estrogen yang tinggimenyebabkan LH dilepasuntuk ovulasi dan penebalan Estrogenendometrium (proliferative Estrogenphase). FSH6. LH stimulasi pembelahan LHmeiotik pertama oositprimer
  22. 22. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles7. LH yg tinggi memacuovulasi. Estrogen Estrogen8. LH yg tinggi FSHmenyebabkan folikel LHruptur menjadi corpusluteum.
  23. 23. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles9. Corpus luteum produksiprogesteron Estrogen10. Progesteron Estrogen Progesteronemenghambat produksi X FSHFSH& LH oleh anterior X LHpituitary & stimulasisecretory phase .
  24. 24. Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles11. Pengurangan kadar FSH& LH menyebabkan corpusluteum tdk berkembang danproduksi progesteron sedikit.12. Pengurangan kadar X Estrogenestrogen & progesteronmenyebabkan FSH X Progesteronepenghambatan FSH & LH LHdan endometrium yangmenebal akan ruptur X(menses).
  25. 25. Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles13. Peningkatan kadarFSH menyebabkan siklus FSHestrus akan dimulai lagi
  26. 26. Definitions & Functions Relative to Reproduction• Fertilization: – Proses dimana gamet jantan dan betina fusi membentuk zygote diploid.• Polar Bodies: – Sel haploid nonfungsional female yg mempunyai sedikit sitoplasma yg diproduksi pd saat meiosis.
  27. 27. Gametogenesis: Proses pembentukan gamet• Spermatogenesis: • Oogenesis: – Produksi gamet – Produksi gamet jantan betina (oocytes) – Terjadi pd tubulus – Terjadi pada ovarium seminiferus testis – Pembelahan meisosis – pembelahan meiosis – Terjadi setelah – Terjadi stlh individu pubertas sampai mengalami pubertas menopause – Produksi – Secara normal piap 400.000.000per day siklus estrus.
  28. 28. SpermatogenesisSpermatogonium (46) Daughter Cells (46) Mitosis
  29. 29. Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (46) Daughter Cells (46) Mitosis Growth Primary Spermatocyte (46) Meiosis ISecondary Spermatocytes (23)
  30. 30. Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (46) Daughter Cells (46) Mitosis Growth Primary Spermatocyte (46) Meiosis ISecondary Spermatocytes (23) Meiosis II Early Spermatids (23)
  31. 31. Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (46) Daughter Cells (46) Mitosis Growth Primary Spermatocyte (46) Meiosis ISecondary Spermatocytes (23) Meiosis II Early Spermatids (23) Spermiogenesis Late Spermatids (23)
  32. 32. Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (46) Daughter Cells (46) Mitosis Growth Primary Spermatocyte (46) Meiosis ISecondary Spermatocytes (23) Meiosis II Early Spermatids (23) Spermiogenesis Late Spermatids (23) (Lumen) Spermatozoa (23)
  33. 33. Oogenesis Oogonium (46) (Mitosis)Primary Oocyte (46)Primary Oocyte (46)
  34. 34. Oogenesis Oogonium (46) (Mitosis) Primary Oocyte (46) (Meiosis 1)Polar Body (23) Secondary Oocyte (23) Fertilization Ovulation (Meiosis 2)
  35. 35. Hormonal Regulation if Pregnancy OccursBlastocyst produksihuman ChorionicGonadotropin (hCG)hormon yg akanmemelihara corpus luteumpada trimester pertama. hCGplacenta akan memproduksiestrogen & progesteron utkkelangsungan hidup janin.
  36. 36. Definitions & Functions Relative to Reproduction• Semen: – Campuran dr semen dan cairan dr glandula reproduksi jantan utk mensupply energi, mentralkan kondisi asam pada pd alat reproduksi dan mengaktifkan sperma.• Hyaluronidase: – Enzym pd acrosome menyebabkan nukleus sperma mampu menembus gamet betina
  37. 37. Definitions & Functions• Zygote: – Hasil fertilisasi, diploid.• Cleavage Divisions: – Pembelahan mitotik dari zigot (preembrio) (2 cell, 4 cell, 8 cell, etc.)• Morula: – preembryonic cells berbentuk spt buah berry .
  38. 38. Zygote
  39. 39. Definitions & Functions• Blastocyst: – cairan yg mengisi rongga dr sel yg dibentuk pada morula yg implantasi ke endomterium• Inner Cell Mass: – Kmpulan dr sel yg berada di blastocyst.• Trophoblast: – Bagian dr dinding luar blastocyst yg akn membntuk chorion.
  40. 40. •implantas i
  41. 41. Definitions & Functions• Chorionic Villi: – Pertumbuhan sel trophoblast yg mirip spt jari ke endometrium mebntuk placenta.
  42. 42. Gastrulation• Preembryo menjadi embryo. Prembryo Embryo
  43. 43. Ectoderm Derivatives• Brain, spinal cord, nerves• Cornea & lens of eyes• Outer skin & accessory structures – hair – nails• Enamel of teeth• Linings of nasal & oral cavities & anal canal
  44. 44. Endoderm Derivatives• Epithelial lining of digestive tract• Liver and pancreas• Epithelial lining of respiratory tract & tonsils• Epithelial lining of reproductive ducts & glands• Thyroid, parathyroid & thymus glands• Epithelial lining of bladder & urethra
  45. 45. Mesoderm Derivatives• Muscle: skeletal, cardiac & smooth• Connective tissues: cartilage, bone, adipose• Bone marrow, blood & lymphatic tissues• Endothelial linings of blood & lymphatic vessels• Visceral peritoneum of organs in ventral cavity• Fibrous & vascular tunics of eyes• Organs of urogenital system: kidneys, gonads & reproductive ducts
  46. 46. Definitions & Functions• Chorion: – Membran embrionik paling luar yg akan mebntuk placenta & produksi human chorionic gonadotropin.
  47. 47. Definitions & Functions• Amnion: – Membran yg mengelilingi embryo utk membentuk cavum amniotik dan memproduksi cairan amnion.
  48. 48. Definitions & Functions• Amnionic Fluid: – Melindungi fetus dari trauma &fetus dapat bergerak bebas tanpa terjadi adesi
  49. 49. Definitions & Functions• Yolk Sack: – Menyediakan nutrisi dan supply sel darah merah.
  50. 50. Placental Function O Minerals Glucose Vitamins 2
  51. 51. Placental Function Alcohol
  52. 52. Placental Function Urea Wastes CO2
  53. 53. Preembryonic Development Bone Formation
  54. 54. Smoking During Pregnancy• Increases risk of ectopic pregnancy• Doubles risk of placenta previa & abruptio placenta• Slows fetal development• Doubles risk of low birthweight babies• Increases risk of preterm deliveries• Increases risk of cleft palate & lip• Doubles risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  55. 55. Placental Function - Smoking CO CO2 O2 Nicotine
  56. 56. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome• Gangguan pertumbuhan prenatal & postnatal (retardasi)• CNS (central nervous system) – Gangguan neurologis – Perkembangan terhambat• Alcohol berhunbungan dg cacat lahir• Mental retardation• Gangguan bicara dan mendengar• Learning, attention & memory deficits
  57. 57. Drug UseAntibiotics Nicotine Crack
  58. 58. Irradiation• High-energy – X-rays – Gamma rays dpt menyebabkan mutasi gen.
  59. 59. Placenta previa• Placental yg tumbuh sepanjang atau berdekatan dengan servix uterus.• Symptoms: – Spotting during 1st & 2nd trimesters – Sudden, painless & profuse vaginal bleeding
  60. 60. Ectopic Pregnancy• Implantasi blastocyst diluar uterus• Causes & Risk Factors: – Physical blockage of uterine tube. – Scarring of uterine tube by prior tubal infection (pelvic inflamatory disease). – Pregnancy following tubal ligation reversal or despite oral contraceptive use.• Symptoms: – Lower abdominal or pelvic pain. – Mild cramping on one side of pelvis. – Abnormal vaginal bleeding (spotting).
  61. 61. Syphilis• Bacterial Pathogen: Treponema pallidum• Transmission: Sexual & transplacental contact.
  62. 62. • Mitosis dan meiosis • Pelajari!
  63. 63. • Mitosis: – Proses dimana nucleus of body cells membelah menjadi identical daughter cells utk maintenance, healing & growth.• Meiosis: – Proses dimana gamet dibentuk dari separo jumlah normal kromosom utk reproduksi seksual.
  64. 64. MitosisInterphase Prophase Metaphase
  65. 65. Mitosis Anaphase Telophase Interphase 46 46• sel dl tubuh : tmbuh, regenerasi,•Tidak ada perubahan jumlah kromosom dalam tiap sel
  66. 66. Meiosis46 Interphase Prophase Metaphase
  67. 67. Meiosis 23 23 Reduction DivisionAnaphase Telophase Interphase
  68. 68. Meiosis 23 23 23 23 23 23•Hanya pada sel kelamin.• Synapsis & shuffling of genetic information providing variation.• Results in reduction of number of chromosomes by half (haploid).
  69. 69. Mitosis/Meiosis Comparison 46 46 23 2346 46 23 23 23 23

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