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  2. 2. LIST OF CONTENT         Introduction Importance and applications Theories of Drug Dissolution Factors affecting Drug Dissolution Various official dissolution test apparatus Dissolution of newer dosage form by unconventional method and equipment Question bank References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  DEFINATION : • Dissolution rate may be defined as amount of drug substance that goes in the solution per unit time under standard conditions of liquid/solid interface, temperature and solvent composition. It can be consider as a specific type of certain hetrogenous reaction in which mass transfer results as a net effect between escape and deposition of solute molecule at a solid surface. • 3
  4. 4. The processes involved in dissolution of solid dosage forms: 4
  5. 5. MECHAMISM OF DISSOLUTION        Initial mechanical lag Wetting of dosage form Penetration of dissolution medium Disintegration Deaggregation Dissolution Occlusion of some particles 5
  6. 6. Intrinsic dissolution 2 rate  Intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), which is the rate of mass transfer per area of dissolving surface and typically has the units of mg cm-2 min-1.  IDR should be independent of boundary layer thickness and volume of solvent. Thus IDR measures the intrinsic properties of the drug only as a function of the dissolution medium, e.g. its pH, ionic strength, counters ions etc. 6
  7. 7. Rate of dissolution Where:  m - Amount of dissolved material, kg  t - Time, seconds  A - Surface area of the interface between the dissolving substance and the solvent,m2  D - Diffusion coefficient, m2/s coefficient  d - Thickness of the boundary layer of the solvent at the surface of the dissolving substance, m  Cs - concentration of the substance on the surface, kg/m3  Cb - concentration of the substance in the bulk of the solvent, kg/m3 7
  8. 8. Importance and Application  3 Importance: 1. Results from in-vitro dissolution rate experiment can be used to explain the observed difference in invivo availability 2. Dissolution testing provides the means to evaluate critical parameters such as adequate bioavailability and provides information necessary to formulator in development of more efficacious and therapeutically optimal dosage forms. 3. Most sensitive and reliable predictors of in-vivo availability. 8
  9. 9. 4. Dissolution analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms has emerged as single most important test that will ensure quality of product. 5. It can ensure bioavailability of product between batches that meet dissolution criteria. 6. Ensure batch-to-batch quality equivalence both in-vitro and in-vivo, but also to screen formulations during product development to arrive at optimally effective products. 7. Physicochemical properties of model can be understood needed to mimic in-vivo environment. 9
  10. 10. 8. Such models can be used to screen potential drug and their associated formulations for dissolution and absorption characteristics. 9. Serve as quality control procedures, once the form of drug and its formulation have been finalized. 10
  11. 11.  Application:2 11
  12. 12.       PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Important tool during development of dosage form. Aids in guiding the selection of prototype formulations and for determining optimum levels of ingredients to achieve drug release profiles, particularly for extended release formulations. Also guides in selection of a “market-image” product to be used in pivotal in-vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. QUALITY ASSURANCE D.T. performed on future production lots and is used to assess the lot-to-lot performance characteristics of drug product and provide continued assurance of product integrity/similarity. 12
  13. 13.  PRODUCT STABILITY  In-vitro dissolution also used to assess drug product quality with respect to stability and shelflife. As product age, physicochemical changes to the dosage form may alter dissolution characteristics of drug product over time. For some products, polymorph transformations to more stable, and hence less soluble crystalline forms may result in reduced dissolution rates.  13
  14. 14.     COMPARABILITY ASSESSMENT Also useful for assessing the impact of pre- or post- approval changes to drug product such as changes to formulation or manufacturing process. Thus, in-vitro comparability assessment is critical to ensure continued performance equivalency and product similarity. WAIVERS OF IN-VIVO BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS In-vitro dissolution testing or drug release testing may be used for seeking waiver of required product to conduct in-vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. 14
  15. 15. Theories Of Dissolution 4 I. Diffusion layer model/Film Theory II. Danckwert’s model/Penetration or surface renewal Theory III. Interfacial barrier model/Double barrier or Limited solvation theory 15
  16. 16. I. Diffusion layer model/Film Theory  It is a simplest model where dissolution of crystal, immersed in liquid takes place without involving reactive or electrical forces. Consist of two consecutive steps: 1. Solution of the solid to form a thin film or layer at the solid / liquid interface called as stagnant film or diffusion layer which is saturated with the drug this step is usually rapid (instantaneous). 2. Diffusion of the soluble solute from the stagnant layer to the bulk of the solution this step is slower and is therefore the rate determining step in the drugdissolution. The model is depicted in following fig. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18.  The rate of dissolution is given by Noyes and dc Whitney: k (C - C ) dt s b Where, dc/dt= dissolution rate of the drug K= dissolution rate constant Cs= concentration of drug in stagnant layer Cb= concentration of drug in the bulk of the solution at time t 18
  19. 19.    Brunner & Tolloczko incorporated surface area „A‟ in Noyes & Whitney equation. dc/dt = k1A ( Cs – Cb ) Afterwards Brunner, incorporated Fick‟s law of diffusion & expanded his given eq to include diffusion coefficient „D‟, thickness of stagnant diffusion layer „h‟ & volume of dissolution medium „v‟. 19
  20. 20. Modified Noyes & Whitney equation dc/dt =DAKw/o (Cs- Cb) /Vh        Where, D= diffusion coefficient of drug. A= surface area of dissolving solid. Kw/o= water/oil partition coefficient of drug. V= volume of dissolution medium. h= thickness of stagnant layer. (Cs – Cb )= conc. gradient for diffusion of drug. 20
  21. 21.    This eq describes a first – order dissolution kinetics. It represents dissolution under non-sink conditions. If volume is relatively large such that Cs>>>Cb so, dc/dt =AKw/o Cs/Vh Cs & D are constant for each specific chemical substance so dc/dt =k1 A /Vh (k1= Kw/o D Cs) V & A are kept constant during dissolution so dc/dt =k 21
  22. 22. Sink condition A Sink conditions describe a dissolution system that is sufficiently dilute so that the dissolution process is not impeded by approach to saturation of the compound of interest. Sink conditions affect the production of the sample but not the condition of the solution upon sampling. In vivo condition, there is no conc. build up in the bulk of the solution and hence no retarding effect on the dissolution rate of the drug i.e. Cs>>Cb and sink condition maintain. 22
  23. 23. Dissolution rate under sink condition follow zero order dissolution rate. Zero order dissolution Under sink condition Conc of disslove drug  First order under non sink condition Time 23
  24. 24. For obtaining IVIVC sink condition can be achieved by: 1) Bathing the dissolving solid in fresh solvent from time to time. 2) Increasing the volume of dissolution fluid. 3) Removing the dissolved drug by partitioning it from the aqueous phase of dissolution fluid into the organic phase placed either above or below the dissolution fluid for e.g. hexane or chloroform. 4) Adding a water miscible solvent such as alcohol to the dissolution fluid. 5) By adding selected adsorbents to remove the dissolution drug.  In vitro sink condition is so maintain that Cb always less than 10% of Cs.  24
  25. 25.      HIXON-CROWELL CUBE ROOT RELATIONSHIP Major assumptions in Noyes-Whitney relationship is that the S.A. (A) term remains constant throughout dissolution process. This is true for some formulations, such as transdermal patches. However, size of drug particles from tablets, capsules and suspensions will decrease as drug dissolves. This decrease in size of particles changes the effective S.A. Thus, Hixon & Crowell modified the eq to represent rate of appearance of solute by weight in solution by multiplying both sides of volume term. W01/3– W1/3 = kt W0 = original mass of drug W = mass of drug remaining to dissolve at time t K = dissolution rate constant 25
  26. 26.  DANCKWERT’S MODEL (PENETRATION OR SURFACE RENEWALTHEORY)  This theory assumes that solid-soln equilibrium is achieved at interface and mass transport is slow step in dissoln process. The model could be visualized as a very thin film having a conc. Ci which is less than saturation, as it is constantly being exposed to fresh surfaces of liquid having a conc. much less than Ci. Acc. to model, the agitated fluid consist of mass of eddies or packets that are continuously being exposed to new surfaces of solid and then carried back to bulk of liquid. Diffusion occurs into each of these packets during short time in which the packet is in contact with surface of solid. Since turbulence actually extends to surface, there is no laminar boundary layer and so no stagnant film exists. Instead, surface continually being replaced with fresh liquid.    26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28.  Interfacial barrier model (double barrier or limited salvation theory) Based on salvation mechanism & solubility rather than diffusion. When considering the dissolution of the crystal will have a different interfacial barrier given by following equation, G = ki (Cs – Cb) Where G = dissolution per unit area Ki = effective interfacial transport constant In this theory, the diffusivity D may not be independent of saturation conc. Cs . The interfacial barrier model can be extended to both diffusion layer model and the Dankwert’s model. 28
  29. 29. FACTORS AFFECTING DISSOLUTION RATE 4       Factors related to Physicochemical Properties of Drug Factors related to Drug Product Formulation Processing Factor Factors Relating Dissolution Apparatus Factors Relating Dissolution Test Parameters Miscellaneous factors 29
  30. 30. FACTORS RELATED TOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUG 1) DRUG SOLUBILITY    Solubility of drug plays a prime role in controlling its dissolution from dosage form. Aqueous solubility of drug is a major factor that determines its dissolution rate. Minimum aqueous solubility of 1% is required to avoid potential solubility limited absorption problems. Studies of 45 compound of different chemical classes and a wide range of solubility revealed that initial dissolution rate of these substances is directly proportional to their respective solubility. Ex. Poorly soluble drug :griseofulvin, spironolactone hydrophilic drug :neomycin 30
  31. 31. 2 ) SALT FORMATION   It is one of the common approaches used to increase drug solubility and dissolution rate. It has always been assumed that sodium salts dissolve faster than their corresponding insoluble acids. Eg.sodium and potassium salts of Peniciilin G, sulfa drugs, phenytoin, barbiturates etc. While in case of Phenobarbital dissolution of sodium salt was slower than that of weak acid. Same is the case for weak base drug, strong acid salts, such as hydrochlorides and sulphates of weak bases such as epinephrine, tetracycline are commonly used due to high solubility. However, free bases of chlortetracycline, methacycline were more soluble than corresponding hydrochloride salt at gastric pH values, due to common ion suppression. 31
  32. 32. 3) PARTICLE SIZE  There is a direct relationship between surface area of drug and its dissolution rate. Since, surface area increases with decrease in particle size, higher dissolution rates may be achieved through reduction of particle size.  Micronization of sparingly soluble drug to reduce particle size is by no means a guarantee of better dissolution and bioavailability.  Micronization of hydrophobic powders can lead to aggregation and floatation. when powder is dispersed into dissolution medium. So, mere increase in S.A. of drug does not always guarantee an equivalent increase in dissolution rate. Rather, it is increase in the “effective” S.A., or area exposed to dissolution medium and not the absolute S.A. that is directly proportional to dissolution rate. Hydrophobic drugs like phenacetin, aspirin shows decrease in dissoln. rate as they tend to adsorb air at the surface and inhibit their wettability. Problem eliminated by evacuating surface from adsorbed air or by use of surfactants. So these drugs in-vivo exhibit excellent wetting due to presence of natural surfactants such as bile salts Eg. therapeutic conc. of griseofulvin was reduced to half by micronization   32
  33. 33.  4) SOLID STATE CHARACTERISTICS  Solid phase characteristics of drug, such as amorphicity, crystallinity, state of hydration and polymorphic structures have significant influence on dissolution rate. Anhydrous forms dissolve faster than hydrated form because they are thermodynamically more active than hydrates. Eg. Ampicillin anhydrate faster dissolution rate than trihydrate. Amorphous forms of drug tend to dissolve faster than crystalline materials. E.g.Novobiocin suspension, Griseofulvin. Where in the dissolution rate of amorphous erythromycin estolate is markedly lower than the crystalline form of erythromycin estolate. Metastable(high activation energy)polymorphic form have better dissolution than stable form     33
  34. 34. 5) Co precipitation &/or Complexation Co precipitation as well as complexation are use for enhancing the dissolution rate of drug due to, Formation energetic amorphous drug phase or Drug being molecularly dispersed or Formation of co accervates e.g.1) Hydroflumethiazide – PVP co precipitate has four times more solubility than crystalline drug. 2) Dissolution rate of sulfathiazole could be significantly increased by co precipitating the drug with povidone 34
  35. 35. Factors related to Drug Product Formulation 1)DILUENTS   Studies of starch on dissolution rate of salicylic acid tablet by dry double compression process shows three times increase in dissolution rate when the starch content increase from the 5 – 20 %. Here starch particles form a layer on the outer surface of hydrophobic drug particles resulting in imparting hydrophilic character to granules & thus increase in effective surface area & rate of dissolution 35
  36. 36. Amt of dissolved mg 100 80 60 10% starch 40 20 5% starch 10 20 30 40 50 Time in min. The dissolution rate is not only affected by nature of the diluent but also affected by excipient dilution (drug/excipient ratio). E.g. in quinazoline comp. dissolution rate increases as the excipient /drug ratio increases from 3:1 to 7:1 to 11:1. 36
  37. 37. 2)DISINTEGRANTS     Disintegrating agent added before & after the granulation affects the dissolution rate. Studies of various disintegrating agents on Phenobarbital tablet showed that when copagel (low viscosity grade of Na CMC) added before granulation decreased dissolution rate but if added after did not had any effect on dissolution rate. Microcrystalline cellulose is a very good disintegrating agent but at high compression force, it may retard drug dissolution. Starch is not only an excellent diluent but also superior disintegrant due to its hydrophilicity and swelling property. 3)BINDERS AND GRANULATING AGENTS    The hydrophilic binder increase dissolution rate of poorly wettable drug. Large amt. of binder increase hardness & decrease disintegration /dissolution rate of tablet. Non aqueous binders such as ethyl cellulose also retard the drug dissolution. 37
  38. 38.    Phenobarbital tablet granulated with gelatin solution provide a faster dissolution rate in human gastric juice than those prepared using Na –carboxymethyl cellulose or polyethylene glycol 6000 as binder. In Phenobarbital tablet, faster dissolution rate was observed with 10% gelatinwhereas decrease in dissolution rate with 20% gelatin. This was due to higherconcentration which formed a thick film around tablet. Water soluble granulating agent Plasdone gives faster dissolution rate comparedto gelatin. 38
  39. 39. 4) Lubricants   Lubricants are hydrophobic in nature (several metallic stearate & waxes) which inhibit wettability, penetration of water into tablet so decrease in disintegration and dissolution. The use of soluble lubricants like SLS and Carbowaxes which promote drug dissolution. 39
  40. 40. 5)SURFACTANTS   They enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug. This is due to lowering of interfacial tension, increasing effective surface area, which in turn results in faster dissolution rate. E.g. Non-ionic surfactant Polysorbate 80 increase dissolution rate of phenacetin granules. 6)WATER-SOLUBLE DYES    Dissolution rate of single crystal of sulphathiazole was found to decrease significantly in presence of FD&C Blue No.1. The inhibiting effect was related to preferential adsorption of dye molecules on primary dissolution sources of crystal surfaces. They inhibit the micellar solubilization effect of bile salts on drug. Riboflavin tablet decrease when used FD & C Red no.3 dye in film coat 7)Effect of coating component on tablet dissolution  Coating ingredient especially shellac & CAP etc. Also have significant effect on the dissolution rate of coated tablet. Tablets with MC coating were found to exhibit lower dissolution profiles than those coated with HPMC at 37ºC. 40
  41. 41. PROCESSING FACTORS 1) METHOD OF GRANULATION  Granulation process in general enhances dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug.  Wet granulation is traditionally considered superior. But exception is the dissolution profile of sodium salicylate tablets prepared by both wet granulation and direct compression where the dissolution was found more complete and rapid in latter case.  A newer technology called as APOC “Agglomerative Phase of Comminution” was found to produce mechanically stronger tablets with higher dissolution rates than those made by wet granulation. A possible mechanism is increased internal surface area of granules produced by APOC method. 41
  42. 42. 2)COMPRESSION FORCE  The compression process influence density, porosity, hardness, disintegration time & dissolution of tablet. 1. tighter bonding 2 . higher compression force cause deformation crushing or fracture of drug particle or convert a spherical granules into disc Shaped particle 3.& 4. both condition 42
  43. 43. 3) DRUG EXCIPIENT INTERACTION     These interactions occur during any unit operation such as mixing, milling ,blending, drying, and/or granulating result change in dissolution. The dissolution of prednisolone found to depend on the length of mixing time with Mg-stearate Similar as increase in mixing time of formulation containing 97 to 99% microcrystalline cellulose or another slightly swelling disintegrant result in enhance dissolution rate. Polysorbate-80 used as excipient in capsules causes formation of formaldehyde by autoxidation which causes film formation by denaturing the inner surface of capsule. This causes decrease in dissoln rate of capsules. 4) STORAGE CONDITIONS    Dissolution rate of hydrochlorothiazide tablets granulated with acacia exhibited decrease in dissolution rate during 1 yr of aging at R.T For tablets granulated with PVP there was no change at elevated temperature but slight decrease at R.T. Tablets with starch gave no change in dissoln. rate either at R.T. or at elevated temperature. 43
  44. 44. FACTORS RELATING DISSOLUTION APPARATUS 1 1) AGITATION  Relationship between intensity of agitation and rate of dissolution varies considerably acc. to type of agitation used, the degree of laminar and turbulent flow in system, the shape and design of stirrer and physicochemical properties of solid.  Speed of agitation generates a flow that continuously changes the liq/solid interface between solvent and drug. In order to prevent turbulence and sustain a reproducible laminar flow, which is essential for obtaining reliable results, agitation should be maintained at a relatively low rate. Thus, in general relatively low agitation should be applied.    I. BASKET METHOD- 100 rpm II. PADDLE METHOD- 50-75 rpm 44
  45. 45. 2) STIRRING ELEMENT ALIGNMENT    The USP / NF XV states that the axis of the stirring element must not deviate more than 0.2 mm from the axis of the dissolution vessel which defines centering of stirring shaft to within ±2 mm. Studies indicant that significant increase in dissolution rate up to 13% occurs if shaft is offset 2-6 mm from the center axis of the flask. Tilt in excess of 1.5 0 may increase dissolution rate from 2 to 25%. 3) SAMPLING PROBE POSITION & FILTER     Sampling probe can affect the hydrodynamic of the system & so that change in dissolution rate. For position of sampling, USP states that sample should be removed at approximately half the distance from the basket or paddle to the dissolution medium and not closer than 1 cm to the side of the flask. Filter material must be saturated with the drug by repeated passage to avoid losses that might go undetected during the test sampling. Accumulation of the particulate matter on the surface may cause significant error in the dissolution testing. 45
  46. 46. FACTORS RELATING DISSOLUTION TEST PARAMETERS 1)TEMPERATURE   Drug solubility is temperature dependent, therefore careful temperature control during dissolution process is extremely important. Generally, a temp of 37º ± 0.5 is maintained during dissolution of oral dosage forms and suppositories. However, for topical preparations temp as low as 30º and 25º have been used 2) DISSOLUTION MEDIUM        Effect of dissolution air on dissolution medium Altering PH Dissolved air tends to release slowly in form of tiny air bubble that circulate randomly and affect hydrodynamic flow pattern Specific gravity decrease thus floating of powder thus wetting and penetration problem. Dissolution media composition & PH Addition of Na – sulfate decrease the dissolution rate. Addition of urea increase dissolution rate. 46
  47. 47.            Volume of dissolution medium and sink conditions Volume generally 500, 900 or 1,000 ml. Simulated gastric fluid(SGF) - pH 1.2. Simulated intestinal fluid (SIF)- pH 6.8 (not exceed pH 8.0). The need for enzymes should be evaluated case-by-case like…. (Pepsin with SGF and pancreatin with SIF If drug is poorly soluble, a relatively large amount of fluid should be used if complete dissolution is to be expected. In order to minimize the effect of conc. gradient and maintain sink conditions, the conc. of drug should not exceed 10-15% of its max. Solubility in dissoln. medium selected. For most of the drugs about 1 L is more than sufficient to maintain sink conditions. However, some insoluble drug present a problem as to handling of huge volume of dissoln. medium that would be required to maintain the sink conditions. For these, different approaches have been tried like…. continous flow method where fresh solvent is pumped continuously into dissoln flask at a fixed flow rate while maintaining a constant volume. Use of non-ionic surfactant in conc. above CMC. Use of alcoholic solution (10-30%). 47
  48. 48.  1. Miscellaneous factor Absorption : Absorbent increase the dissolution rate under condition of a decrease concentration gradient applying Nerst– Brunner film theroy 2. Humidity : Moisture has been shown to influence the dissolution of many drug from solid dosage form. 48
  49. 49. Dissolution Test Apparatus1 I.P. USP B.P. E.P. Type 1 Paddle Basket apparatus apparatus Basket apparatus Paddle apparatus Type 2 Basket Paddle apparatus apparatus Paddle apparatus Basket apparatus Type 3 Reciprocating cylinder Type 4 Flow through cell apparatus Type 5 Type 6 Type 7 Flow through cell Flow through apparatus cell apparatus Paddle over disk cylinder Reciprocating holder 49
  50. 50. Solid dosage form (tablet & capsule) I.P. & E.P. Apparatus I – paddle apparatus  Apparatus II – basket apparatus B.P. & U.S.P.  Apparatus I – basket apparatus  Apparatus II – paddle apparatus B.P. & E.P.  Apparatus III – flow through cell apparatus Conditions ( for all)  Temp. - 37±0.50C  PH - ±0.05 unit in specified monograph  Capacity – 1000 ml  Distance between inside bottom of vessel and paddle/basket is maintained at 25±2 mm.  For enteric coated dosage form it is first dissolved in 0.1 N HCl & then in buffer of pH 6.8 to measure drug release. (Limit – NMT 10% of drug should dissolve in the acid after 2hr.and about 75% of it should dissolve in the buffer after 45 min.  50
  51. 51. USP APP. DESCRIPTOIN ROT. SPEED DOSAGE FORM Type 1 Basket apparatus 50-120rpm IR, DR, ER Type 2 Type 3 Paddle apparatus 25-50rpm IR, DR, ER Reciprocating cylinder 6-35rpm IR,ER Type 4 Flow through cell apparatus N/A ER , poorly soluble API Type 5 Paddle over disk 25-50rpm TRANSDERMAL Type 6 cylinder N/A TRANSDERMAL Type Reciprocating holder 30rpm ER 51
  52. 52. APPARATUS 1- BASKET APPARATUS         Dosage form contained within basket Dissolution should occur within Basket Useful for : Tablets Capsules –Beads –Floaters pH change by media exchange 52
  53. 53.  • Drug product – Solids (mostly floating) • Monodisperse (tablets) • Polydisperse (encapsulated beads) • Agitation – Rotating stirrer – Usual speed: 50 to 100 rpm • Disadvantage – Formulation may clog to 40 mesh screen 53
  54. 54. USP Apparatus 2 – Paddle  Dosage form should remain at the bottom centre of the vessel  Sinkers used for floaters  Useful for : – Tablets – Capsules    pH change by media addition 54
  55. 55.  • Drug product – Solids (mostly non floating) • Monodisperse (tablets) • Polydisperse (encapsulated beads)  • Agitation – Rotating stirrer – Usual speed: 25 to 75 rpm  Standard volume: 900/1000 ml  Advantages: 1. Easy to use and robust 2. Ph change possible 3. Can be easily adapted to apparatus 5  Disadvantages – Floating dosage forms require sinker – Positioning of tablet 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57.  Limitations of USP Apparatus 1and 2: 1. USP2 (and USP1) Apparatus has plenty of HYDRODYNAMICS. 2. Complicated 3-dimensional flow generated by the paddle. 3. Significant impact of convective transport – Conditions used (50 – 100 rpm) highly exaggerates flow in the GI. 4. Use of solvents and surfactants non-native to GI. 57
  58. 58. Apparatus III – Reciprocating cylinder The assembly consists of a 1)set of cylindrical, 2)flat-bottomed glass vessels; a 3)set of glass reciprocating cylinders; 4)stainless steel fittings (type 316 or equivalent) and screens that are made of suitable nonsorbing and nonreactive material(polypropelene) and that are designed to fit the tops and bottoms of the reciprocating cylinders; and a motor and drive assembly to reciprocate the cylinders vertically inside the vessels 58
  59. 59.       The vessels are partially immersed in a suitable water bath of any convenient size that permits holding the temperature at 37 ± 0.5 during the test. The dosage unit is placed in reciprocating cylinder & the cylinder is allowed to move in upward and downward direction constantly. Release of drug into solvent within the cylinder measured. Useful for: Tablets, Beads, controlled release formulations Standard volume: 200-250 ml/station Advantages: 1) Easy to change the pH-profiles 2) Hydrodynamics can be directly influenced by varying the dip rate. Disadvantages: 1) small volume (max. 250 ml) 2) Little experience 59
  60. 60. Apparatus 3 – Reciprocating cylinder 60
  61. 61. USP Apparatus 4 - Flow Through Cell 61
  62. 62.       The assembly consists of a reservoir and a pump for the Dissolution Medium; a flow-through cell; a water bath that maintains the Dissolution Medium at 37 ± 0.5 The pump forces the Dissolution Medium upwards through the flow-through cell. Assemble the filter head, and fix the parts together by means of a suitable clamping device. Introduce by the pump the Dissolution Medium warmed to 37 ± 0.5 through the bottom of the cell to obtain the flow rate specified in the individual monograph. Collect the elute by fractions at each of the times stated. Perform the analysis as directed in the individual monograph 62
  63. 63. Tablets 12 mm          Tablets 22,6 mm Powders / Granules Implants Suppositories / Soft gelatine capsules Useful for: Low solubility drugs, Micro particulates, Implants, Suppositories, Controlledrelease formulations Variations: (A) Open system & (B) Closed system Advantages: 1. Easy to change media pH2. PH-profile possible 3. Sink conditions Disadvantages: 1. Deaeration necessary 2. High volumes of media 3. Labor intensive 63
  64. 64. Apparatus 4 – Flow-Through Cell 64
  65. 65. USP Apparatus 5 - Paddle Over Disk 65
  66. 66.      Use the paddle and vessel assembly from Apparatus 2 with the addition of a stainless steel disk assembly designed for holding the transdermal system at the bottom of the vessel. The disk assembly holds the system flat and is positioned such that the release surface is parallel with the bottom of the paddle blade The vessel may be covered during the test to minimize evaporation. Useful for: Transdermal patches Standard volume: 900 ml Disadvantages: Disk assembly restricts the patch size. Borosilicate Glass 17 mesh is standard (others available) Accommodates patches of up to 90mm 66
  67. 67. USP Apparatus 6 - Cylinder 67
  68. 68. • Use the vessel assembly from Apparatus 1 except to replace the basket and shaft with a stainless steel cylinder stirring element • The temperature is maintained at 32°C ± 0.5°C • The dosage unit is placed on the cylinder with release side out  The dosage unit is placed on the cylinder at the beginning of each test, to the exterior of the cylinder such that the long axis of the system fits around the circumference of the cylinder & removes trapped air bubbles.  Place the cylinder in the apparatus, and immediately rotate at the rate specified in the individual monograph. 68
  69. 69. USP Apparatus 7 – Reciprocating Holder 69
  70. 70. The assembly consists of a set of volumetrically calibrated solution containers made of glas or other suitable inert material, a motor and drive assembly to reciprocate the system vertically • The temperature is maintained at 32°C ± 0.5°C •  • The dosage unit is placed on the cylinder with release side out The solution containers are partially immersed in a suitable water bath of any convenient size that permits maintaining the temperature, inside the containers at 32 ± 0.5 For Coated tablet drug delivery system attach each system to be tested to a suitable 70
  71. 71. •For Transdermal drug delivery system attach the system to a suitable sized sample holder with a suitable O-ring such that the back of the system is adjacent to and centered on the bottom of the disk-shaped sample holder or centered around the circumference of the cylindrical-shaped sample holder. Trim the excess substrate with a sharp blade. 71
  72. 72. Novel Dissolution test Apparatus for buccal and sublingual tablets. 13  Buccal and sublingual dissolution differs from g.i.dissolution in following ways… smaller volume ( of saliva) short residence time ( in mouth) solids transfer composition of fluid ( saliva composition) Incomplete dissolution  So, our dissolution apparatus must provide above conditions for performing dissolution test of buccal and sublingual tablets. 73
  73. 73. MODEL:-I It provides all the characteristics described above. It is given by HUGHES 6ml/min 74
  74. 74.  This novel system comprises a single stirred continuous flow-through cell that includes … a dip tube a central shaft with propeller & a filter along with one inlet for saliva & one outlet for sample.  A pump is available which pushes the fluid at the rate 6 ml/min. and this will give a residence time in the cell of approximately 100 secs for 63% of the dosage form & gives complete removal in about 8 mins. 75
  75. 75. Composition of saliva:- Composition of stimulated saliva KH2PO4 12mM NaCl CaCl2 40mM 1.5mM NaOH To pH 6.2 76
  76. 76. Composition of sublingual saliva COMPOUND CaCl2. 2H2O mM 0.2 MgCl2 . 6H2O 0.061 NaCl K2CO3 . 5H2O 1.017 0.603 Na2HPO4 .7H2O 0.20 Na2HPO4.H2O 0.273 Submaxillary fluid 1.0 2.0 α amylase 77
  77. 77.  Advantage  It is a rapid, taking only about 20 minutes per test & repeatable. This method could be used as a QC test to ensure dosage uniformity. This method is particularly suited for evaluating taste masking.    Application This dissolution apparatus is used for -Claritin -Reditabs -Zydis system 78
  78. 78. MODEL:-II International Journal of Pharmaceutics ,October 2006 The device introduced by them is based on the circulation of pre-warmed dissolution medium through a cell. Buccal tablet was attached on chicken pouches. They stated “ the results obtained by this using this apparatus for the release of drug from bio adhesive tablets concurred with the predicted patterns.” 79
  79. 79. Method for dissolution testing In vitro target site – animal buccal tissues or buccal cell cultures Animal sacrificed just before in vitro testing Buccal mucosa removed surgically cold Krebs buffer Isolated buccal mucosa stored in ice Mounted between side by side diffusion cells 80
  80. 80. Novel Dissolution test Apparatus for Floating tablets 8 Ideal qualities for dissolution apparatus for Floating tablets. I. II. iii) iv) Dosage form should not stick on the agitating device. Therefore, under driven arrangement is more suitable. The test must try to mimic the gastric juice release rate (2-4ml/min). The sample collection must be easy. The volume of cell having dosage form in it must have nearly same volume as compared to in-vivo gastric volume. (70 ml). 81
  82. 82. Better in-vivo-in-vitro correlation shown by this method.  It mimics three points. i) gastric volume ii) gastric acid secretion iii) gastric emptying. which USP-II apparatus fails to mimic. & Here, tablet does not stick to agitating device because it is under-driven.  83
  83. 83. Dissolution study of Lipid –filled soft gelatin capsules. 15 (International Journal of Pharmaceutics ,October 2006.) 84
  84. 84.   MECHANISM It is one type of flow through cell.  Lipid content due to its lower density rises up in the cell after rupturing of the capsule.  When lipid phase reaches the triangular area top of the left side cell, it stays there. thus ,dissolution medium continuously extracts the drug from the lipid layer as it flows through the cell. The dissolved drug can now be determined using a fractional collector and be analyzed in the medium.  85
  85. 85. Pillay & Fassihi model for Lipid –filled soft gelatin capsules. I = organic phase, i.e., 100 ml II = aqueous phase III = ring/mesh assembly IV = position of capsule 86
  86. 86. Dissolution study of chewing gum as a dosage form. 11 87
  87. 87.  European Pharmacopoeia published a monograph describing a suitable apparatus for studying the in vitro release of drug substances from chewing gums.  A study was carried out to explore differences in the release of nicotine from the directly compressible gum base compared with a conventional nicotine gum using the European Pharmacopoeia chewing apparatus described in the European Pharmacopoeia. 88
  88. 88.  The gums were placed in the chewing chamber with 40 ml of artificial saliva.  The temperature of the chewing chamber :37±1°C chew rate : 60 chews/minute unspecified buffer (with a pH close to 6) : 20 ml  The machine was run without chewing gum for the first two minutes and then the buffer removed to ensure that i) any residues from the extensive washing and cleaning procedure were removed & ii) to allow equilibration of chew rate and temperature. 89
  89. 89. Artificial Saliva Formulation Components:- 90
  90. 90. Dissolution study of the bio-degradable microspheres. 91
  91. 91. Mini Paddle Apparatus- for dissolution study of Immediate-Release Dosage Forms10 92
  92. 92.  The mini paddle is based on the USP paddle setup but scaled down exactly 1/3 with respect to the dimensions.  250 ml volume used in the mini paddle apparatus.  A stirring rate of 100 rpm in the mini paddle apparatus appears to be the most favorable. 93
  93. 93.  Mini paddle apparatus might be a useful tool in characterizing drug release profiles under “standard test conditions.”  Due to the possibility of using smaller sample sizes and smaller volumes of media , it offers various advantages in terms of substance, analytical, and material cost savings.  The mini paddle set-up is also a promising alternative in the case of highly potent drugs. The mini paddle should preferably be used for… powders, multiparticulate dosage forms, small tablets or capsules (i.e., where the paddle apparatus would be the usual method  94
  94. 94. TDDS Dissolution Test12  Apparatus used:  Franz diffusion apparatus Paddle over disk Cylinder method Flow through diffusion cell    95
  95. 95. Animal skin – hairless mouse , guinea pig , rabbit But no animal skin mimic human skin so human skin is preferred & use is based on availability.  Temp 32c +/- 1c pH 5-6 Stirring rate – 100 rpm.  Enzymes for oxidatn, reductn, hydrolys,conjgtn Skin lipids Microbial flora ( difficult to reproduce 96
  96. 96. Semisolid dissolution test 12  Apparatus used  USP paddle over disk Franz diffusion apparatus Flow through apparatus Unconventional apparatus a) designed by chouhan12 Commonly used membranes Polysulphone (Tuffryn, 0.45 μm size): Most suitable syn. membrane for ointments. Cellulosic acetate plus. Nylon Teflon and polycorbonate          97
  97. 97. A = Constant temp. water bath B = 250 ml beaker C = Teflon disk D = Layer of ointment E = sink F = Magnetic stirring bar G = Motor 98
  98. 98. 99
  99. 99. Parentral Depot dissolution 14 test IN VITRO DISSOLUTION TESTING FOR DEPOTS  DEPOT Dissolution DRUG IN SOLUTION Partition DRUG IN TISSUE FLUID Factors need to be controlled. 1) nature & site of absorption of drug 2) physiological pH of tissue fluid  100
  100. 100. DIAGRAM OF ROTATING DIALYSIS CELL IT USED FOR PARENTERAL DEPOTS Dialysis membrane provides well defined surface area. Dissolution medium pH = pH of site of absorption. E.g NAPROXEN – IN COCONUT OIL VOLUME – 1000ML , 37C+/_ 0.5C Stirring rate 50rpm Dissolution media pH 3 ± 0.01 (0.05 M phosphate buffer) pH 5 ± 0.01 (0.05 M Acetate buffer) pH 7 ± 0.01 (0.05 M phosphate buffer) 101
  101. 101. Dissolution Test of 15 Suspension APPARATUS Rotating Paddle  MEDIA Aqueous medium Rotationg speed 50rpm Temperature 37oc +/- 5  102
  102. 102.      Method parameters such as sample introduction and agitation rate should be established on the basis of the viscosity and composition of the suspension matrix. . For low-viscosity suspensions, an accurate dose can be delivered to the bottom of the dissolution vessel using a volumetric pipette. A slow agitation rate of 25 rpm is generally recommended for less viscous sus-pensions. For high-viscosity samples, the dose may need to be determined by weight with a quantitative sample transfer to the dissolution vessel to ensure ac-curacy of the sample size introduced. High-viscosity suspensions may also require a faster agitation rate such as 50 or 75 rpm to prevent sample mounding at the bottom of the 103
  103. 103. Dissolution Test of Inhaler16 A USP Apparatus 2, Hanson SR8-Plus dissolution test station was employed to conduct the dissolution study.  A schematic diagram of modifications to the dissolution apparatus is shown in Figure 1. The two main components of the dissolution setup include 1) dissolution test station (FigureA) 2) a newly designed membrane holder (Figure B).  104
  104. 104.       The membrane holder assembly was customized, it consists of NGI dissolution cup (a), removable impaction inset (b), a securing ring (c), two sealing o-rings, a PC membrane to function as a highly porous diffusional powder retaining layer. 105
  105. 105.    To select suitable particle size cutoff ranges for the subsequent dissolution study, aerodynamic particle separation was achieved using the NGI. Either the Ventolin HFA device or the Pulmicort Flexhaler device was actuated five times to obtain a quantifiable amount of drug. The NGI was operated at a flow rate of 30 L/min for the Ventolin HFA and 60 L/min for the Pulmicort Flexhaler. For the dissolution studies, the dissolution cup assembled with the impaction insert was placed in the NGI, as shown in Figure 2. Following actuation, the impaction insert was removed from the NGI dissolution cup for the 106
  106. 106.      Dissolution Media Simulated lung fluid (SLF), 0.2 M phosphate buffer(pH 7.4), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), modified PBS(mPBS) containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine(DPPC), and PBS containing polysorbate 80 (tPBS) were used in the dissolution studies. 107
  107. 107. 108
  108. 108.  Dissolution Apparatus  The membrane holder was placed at the bottom of each vessel, release-surface side up, with the distance between the bottom edge of the paddle and the surface of the membrane holder maintained at 20 ± 2 mm( Figure 2)  The distance between the paddle and the surface of the membrane holder can be adjusted within a range that allows the paddle to effectively remove released drug from the exposed membrane surface and provides continuous circulation to the media in the vessel. 109
  109. 109.     MECHANISM The mechanism of this dissolution method can be explained by a dissolution–diffusion-controlled drug release from the membrane holder. During the dissolution process, the dispersed drug within the membrane holder undergoes dissolution as dissolution medium migrates through the pores on the membrane surface, and the dissolved drug then releases out to the reservoir by diffusion DIFFUSION MEMBRANE A PC membrane was selected as the diffusion barrier . The PC membrane surface constitutes a perfect sink for the released drug when used in this manner. A PC membrane do not swell, do not create air bubbles, have a well-defined uniform pore size (17, 18), and consist of homogeneous 0.05-μm non-tortuous cylindrical pores on the surface that allow free diffusion of dissolved drug and dissolution medium 110
  110. 110. List Of Reference 1. Pharmaceutical dissolution testing by Umesh V. Banakar. 2. Remington 20th edition, 654. 3. Dissolution, Bioavailability & Bioequivalence by M. Abdou. 4. Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics by D.M.Bramankar, 20-29. 5. Generic Drug Product Development, vol-143 by Shargel. 6. Current concepts in pharmaceutical sciences & biopharmaceutics by James Swarbrick. 7. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews,(46), 75-87, 2001. 8.A Novel Multi compartment Dissolution Apparatus for Evaluation of Floating Dosage Form Containing Poorly Soluble Weakly Basic Drug Dr. Rajesh K. Parikh1,2,Dhaivat C. Parikh1,Renish R. Delvadia1, and Sanjay M. Patel Dissolution Technologies ,FEBRUARY 2006. 9.A More Relevant Dissolution Method for Evaluation of Floating Drug Delivery System Mukesh C.Gohel, Pavak R.Mehta, Rikita K. Dave2 and Nehal H. Bariya. Dissolution Technologies | NOVEMBER 2004. 111
  111. 111. 10.The Mini Paddle Apparatus–a Useful Tool in the Early Developmental Stage? Experiences with Immediate-Release Dosage Forms. Dissolution Technologies | NOVEMBER 2006. 11.in Vitro Release of Nicotine From Chewing Gum Formulations. Dissolution Technologies | MAY 2004. 12.Current perspectives in dissolution testing of unconventional and novel dosage forms semisolid Shirzad Azarmi, Wilson Roac, Raimar L¨obenberg , International Journal of Pharmaceutics ,October 2006 13.A new method of characterising buccal dissolution of drugs. Dr.L.Hughes.Rohm & Haas research laboratories.feb.2004. 14.FIP/AAPS Guidelines for Dissolution/In Vitro Release Testing of Novel/Special Dosage Forms . Dissolution Technologies | FEBRUARY 2005 15. 14.FIP/AAPS Guidelines for Dissolution/In Vitro Release Testing of Novel/Special Dosage Forms (suspension) march 2010 16.Invitro dissolution testing for inhaler ,dissolution technology ,november 2010 112
  112. 112. 113