General Vulnerability Found in Car
Hard Coded or Non-existence of Bluetooth Pin.
Can Packet Injection.
Weak Wpa2 Passwords.
Admin Consoles Open For Internet.
Insecure Firmware Updates And Downloads.
CAN (Controlled Area Network)
CAN is the central nervous system that enables communication
between all/some parts of the car.
CAN was originally developed by BOSCH in 1985 as an intra-vehicular
The main motive of proposing CAN was that it allowed multiple ECU to
be communicated with only a single wire. A modern car can have as
much as 70 ECUs
Working Of CAN Frame
A CAN frame has 3 major parts
● Arbitration Identiﬁer
● Data Length Code
● Data ﬁeld
CAN runs on two wires: CAN high (CANH) and CAN low (CANL).
The CANopen Protocol.
The GMLAN Bus.
The ISO-TP Protocol.
The SAE J1850 Protocol.
The PWM Protocol.
The VPW Protocol.
ECU (Electronic Control Unit)
IC Embedded Circuits
Reads Data From Sensors
❖ Tyre Pressure
❖ Engine Fluids
❖ Many more
Types Of ECU
❖ ECM -> Engine Control Module.
❖ EBCM -> Electronic Brake Control Module.
❖ PCM -> Power Control Module.
32- Bit 40 Mhz Processor With Code Size of 1 mb Max .
From Where You Can Start