Poultry insights november-2013


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Poultry insights november-2013

  1. 1. A newsletter from the house of Volume 01 INSIGHTS Issue 05 November - January 2013-14 Phytochemicals: The future stands here In these modern years, plant derived products are increasingly being sought out as medicinal products & nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines widely used in health-care and animal feed additives. Herbal formulations have reached widespread acceptability as therapeutic agents for diabetics, arthritics, liver diseases, immune stimulants, cough remedies, memory enhancers and adoptogens. As per WHO definition, there are three kinds of herbal medicines: raw plant material, processed plant material and medicinal herbal products. According to an estimate of the World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the world population still uses herbs and other traditional medicines for their primary health care needs. The use of herbal formulations has increased remarkably in line with the global trend of people returning to natural therapies. Supplementation of antibiotic in farm animal diets to improve animal growth performance and efficiency of feed conversion, historically, has been theorized as a means of establishing food animals as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant pathogens isolated from humans. Given the rising concerns associated with increased antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens making treatment of clinical diseases more difficult, antibiotic use in animal management in the U.S. and Europe has become more of a controversial issue. In this context, we would like to deal about the role of phytochemicals, it's limitation and the way to overcome those limitations. Specifications of phytochemicals Phytochemicals are described by primary and secondary plant compounds. Primary compounds are main nutrients (e.g., content of protein, fat, etc.), whereas, secondary compounds comprise alkaloids, glycoloids, essential (ethereal) and/or volatile oils, bitterns, hot stuffs, colorants and phenolic compounds (Wald, 2003). In general, phytochemicals do not add significantly to the intake of main nutrients in poultry. Therefore, secondary plant compounds are the main ingredients of interest. Herbs and Spices Primary ingredients 1. Increased feed intake: The stimulatory effect of phytochemicals on feed intake is due to the claimed improvement in palatability of the diet resulting from the enhanced flavor and odor, especially with the use of essential oils and may be due to their anti-oxidative effects, which might contribute to preserving the desired organoleptic qualities of the diet. This effect could be of relevance to feed rich in fat. 2. Stimulation of digestive secretions: Stimulation of digestive secretions, such as saliva, digestive enzymes, bile and mucus is often considered to be one of the important actions of phytochemicals. 3. Antimicrobial and coccidiostatic activity: Phytochemicals can selectively influence microorganisms through antimicrobial activity, or by a favorable stimulation of the eubiosis of the micro flora. This leads to better utilization and absorption of nutrients resulting in higher performance. 4. Antioxidant activity: Plant oils containing natural antioxidants contribute to the improved oxidative stability of meat and meat products containing higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid. 5. Stimulation of the immune system: Polysaccharides derived from many plants play an important role in stimulating the growth of immune organs, increasing the number and activities of many interdependent cell types such as T, B lymphocytes, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells, and enhancing cellular and humoral immune response. 6. Pharmacological actions: A wide range of phytochemicals are known from folk medicine to exert pharmacological actions within the digestive tract, such as laxative and spasmolytic effects as well as prevention from flatulence & pronounce precaecal absorption of glucose via direct stimulation of Na/KATPase. Another field of phytochemical actions comprises astringent and denaturizing properties. Secondary ingredients E.g., - Protein - Carbohydrates - Fat Beneficial effects of Phytochemicals as Animal Feed Supplement Essential oils E.g., Terpenes, Carvacrol Bitterns Hot stuffs E.g., Capsaicin, Peperin Colorants E.g., Xanthophylls Phenolic compounds E.g., Chicoric acid, Flavonoids Composition and main ingredients of phytobiotics (Wald, 2003) Extraction of Phytochemicals Contd. on page 2
  2. 2. EDITORIAL Indian Poultry Farmers Advised to Prepare for Winter All that glitters is not gold All that glitters are not gold is a well-known saying; meaning that not everything that looks true turns out to be so. This can apply to some of the unauthentic herbal feed supplement for poultry as well, those that promise to be more than they really are. Herbal drugs have been used since the inception of human beings on this planet and as a result are almost as old as life itself. Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle, lack of defined regulations, and non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). Herbal medicines, containing active ingredients in complex chemical mixtures developed as crude fractions, extracted from plant thereof, are widely used in health-care or as dietary supplements. One of the major drawbacks of these medicines is limited bioavailability. Standardization requires a natural plant product to be authenticated at origin itself by adoption of good agricultural practices, collection strategies from wild and good manufacturing practices for extraction modes and related parameters. The present review focuses on the herbal constituents, its role in the biological system & herbal standardization guidelines that can be useful for development of evidence based holistic natural plant products. Dr. Gobinath gobinath@naturalremedy.com PUNJAB: Temperature management in the poultry house is an important pre-condition for better production and health of the birds, according to a leading academic. With drop in mercury level and change in weather, poultry farmers may have to face some challenges of low environmental temperature, poor ventilation and decreased photoperiod. Times of India reports that this information was shared by A.L. Saini, head of the department, livestock production and management at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU) in Ludhiana. He said that these seasonal fluctuations may directly or indirectly influence the egg and meat production. Therefore, farmer must be ready to take on these challenges by adopting some winter stress alleviating practices to overcome economic losses, he added. "Egg production has a tendency to slump down in winter because of reduced hours of natural light. Since hens need 16 or more hours of day light to lay well to their potential, therefore provision of consider switch on light bulbs in the laying hen sheds is must. This will encourage hen to lay more number of eggs. "To protect the birds from cold, gunny bags or plastic sheet curtains can be installed on the side walls of shed. However, don't restrict ventilation in an attempt to conserve warmth. Good ventilation in the chicken shed is must, because chickens naturally produce a lot of moisture in their breath and droppings," he said. Dr Saini explained that poor ventilation inside their house may create an ammonia build-up, which will affect the poultry's eyes and respiratory system and makes them sick. "Poultry need plenty of fresh air circulating in and around the poultry shed. So care should be taken not to cover entire side wall but ensure sufficient open area towards the ceiling of shed to facilitate escape of foul air. To provide warm and cozy environment, increase in the depth of litter material (bedding) by six inch. Free access to balanced diet and fresh water must be available to chickens of all age", A.L. Saini told the newspaper. "Different age groups of poultry birds have unique requirements and abilities to bear cold stress. However, day-old chicks are the most vulnerable and a temperature of 95°F during the first week is must. Chicks chirping loudly, or huddling in groups, are most likely feel too cold and need immediate attention and remedial measure. Try to feed them warm water and place them under the brooders (heating device)," he advised. Giving tips on winter stress alleviating management, Times of India reports A.L. Saini advising that, before the arrival of chicks, the brooder room should be pre-heated for a day to 95°F, curtains should be installed on the side wall of chicken houses without restricting ventilation, the depth of litter material (bedding) should be increased and finally, a minimum 'daylight' period of 16 hours should be provided for laying hens, using artificial light, if necessary. Contd from page 1 Condiment Active principle Functional Properties Limitations of Phytochemical Feed supplements Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) Curcumin Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant Garlic (Allium sativum) Allicin,Allin Lower serum triglyceroids & LDL-cholestrol, fibrinolytic, antibacterial & antiviral Like any other branch of science and technology, present scenario of herbal feed supplements has its own limitations arising out of its own technical constituents. The prominent limitations of herbal medicines can be summarized as follow Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Flavonoids Antiasthamatic, immunomodulator Black pepper (Piper nigrum) Piperine Carminative, Antioxidant, antibacterial Cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) Cinnamaldehyde Antioxidant Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) Eugenol, kaempferol Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Ginger (Zingeiber officinale) Gingerols Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) Lycopene Antioxidant, Hypocholesterolemic Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum) Essential oil Digestive stimulant Coriander seeds (Coriander sativum) Flavonoids Antidiabetic, antimicrobial * Inadequate standardization and lack of quality specifications This is the most often criticized aspect of herbal feed supplements. One important fact is that a herbal preparation is administered for its holistic value. Each herbal ingredient in the herbal preparation has an array of chemical constituents with complex molecular formulae. This each herbal preparation is a source of polypharmacy within itself. * Lack of scientific data Lack of literature on herbal medicines & feed supplements & scientific data in support of the medicinal activity claimed and their safety and efficacy assumed. Hence there is a need to incorporate certain parameters of the pharmacological evaluation of moderns on modern lines. WHO guidelines clearly direct that it is not necessary to carry out detailed toxicological evaluation of herbs and herbal preparation originating from traditional system medicine.
  3. 3. 7. Moisture content determination 8 . C h ro m ato g ra p h i c a n d s p e c t ro s co p i c evaluation: TLC, HPTLC, HPLC methods will provide qualitative and semi quantitative information about the main active constituents present in the crude drug as chemical markers in Macroscopic Microscopic the TLC fingerprint evaluation of herbals (FEH). Moisture Content The quality of the drug can also be assessed on the Extractive value Physical Botanical basis of the chromatographic fingerprint. Ash value 9. Determination of heavy metals: e.g. cadmium, Standarization of herbal drugs Biological lead, arsenic, etc. 10. Pesticide residue: WHO and FAO (Food and Biological Chemical Agricultural Organization) set limits of pesticides, which are usually present in the herbs. These Microbial Contamination Chromatographic techniques pesticides are mixed with the herbs during the Pharmacological Evaluation Heavy metal time of cultivation. Mainly pesticides like DDT, Toxicological Studies Pesticidal residue BHC, toxaphene, aldrin cause serious side-effects Mycotoxin in human beings if the crude drugs are mixed with these agents. Fig. A schematic representation of herbal drug standardization 11.Microbial contamination: Usually medicinal plants containing bacteria and molds are coming Remedies to overcome the limitation of Phytochemical feed from soil and atmosphere. Analysis of the limits of E. coli and molds clearly supplements throws light towards the harvesting and production practices. The substance known as aflatoxins will produce serious side-effects if consumed along with Standardization of phytochemical formulations is essential in order to access the crude drugs. the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. Quality evaluation of phytochemical preparation is a fundamental Limits for Microbial Contamination requirement of industry & other organizations dealing with herbal products. It Microorganism Finished product Raw materials is evident that the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines & such E. coli and Salmonella 10¹ 10⁴ regulations are necessary. According to WHO guidelines, an phytochemical Total aerobic bacteria 10⁵ product needs to be standardized with respect to safety before releasing it Enterobacteria 10³ into the market. Aflatoxins should be completely removed/adsorbed or should not be present. WHO Guidelines for Quality Standardized Herbal Formulations 12. Radioactive contamination: Microbial growth in herbals is usually * Quality control of crude drugs material, plant preparations and finished avoided by irradiation. This process may sterilize the plant material but the products. radioactivity hazard should be taken into account. The radioactivity of the * Stability assessment and shelf life. plant samples should be checked accordingly to the guidelines of * Safety assessment; documentation of safety based on experience or International Atomic Energy (IAE) in Vienna and that of WHO. toxicological studies. Standardization from raw material to crude drug preparation * Assessment of efficacy by ethno medical information and biological activity (CDP) evaluations. Standardization of herbal drugs comprises total information and controls to The standardization of crude drug materials include the essentially guarantee consistent composition of all herbals including following steps: analytical operations for identification, markers and assay of active principles. There is no legal control model over medicinal plants. The herbal 1. Authentication: Stage of collection, parts of the plant collected, regional formulations in general can be standardized schematically as to formulate status, botanical identity like phytomorphology, microscopical and the medicament using raw materials collected from different localities and histological analysis, taxonomical identity, etc. a comparative chemical efficacy of different batches of formulation are to 2. Foreign matter: Herbs collected should be free from soil, insect parts or be observed. animal excreta, etc. Colour Odour Taste Texture & Fracture 3. Organoleptic evaluation: Sensory characters – taste, appearance, odor, feel of the drug, etc. 4. Active Principle identification: Specific phytoconstituent present in the drug powder. 5. Ash values and extractive values 6. Volatile matter Qualitative Quantitative SEM Studies Powder studies Standardization from CDP to finished goods The preparations with better clinical efficacy are to be selected. After all the routine physical, chemical and pharmacological parameters are to be checked for all the batches to select the final finished product and to validate the whole manufacturing process. Fingerprinting of herbal medicines is utilized for the authenticity and quality control of herbal medicinesand herbal preparations. Chemical fingerprints of finished goods (QC) Chemical fingerprints obtained by chromato-graphic, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis, capillary electrophoresis and polarography techniques have become the most potent tools for quality control of traditional herbal medicines. Moreover, all herbal products manufacturers must follow WHO guidelines for quality control. Further, the combination of qualitative fingerprinting and quantitive multicomponent analysis is a novel and rational method to address the key issues of quality control of herbal medicines. Conclusion HPTLC The advancement of analytical techniques will serve as a rapid and specific tool in the herbal research, thereby, allowing the manufacturers to set quality standards and specifications so as to seek marketing approval from regulatory authorities for therapeutic efficacy, safety and shelf life of herbal drugs. The applications of high-technology oriented advanced hyphenated techniques will serve as a rapid and unambiguous tool in the herbal research, thereby, benefiting the entire pharmaceutical industry.
  4. 4. Leading the PHYTOCHEMICAL ERA... www.naturalremedy.com Editor: Dr. Gobinath Sub-Editor: Ms. Madhura Bhattacharyya Editorial Board: Dr. Ruturaj B. Patil, Dr. Divya Divakaran, Ms. Shradha Gupta Design & Layout: Mr. Sanjeev Rao J. Bengley Editorial Office: M/s. Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., # 5 B, Veerasandra Indl. Area, Electronic City Post, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 100.