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Amstel III the Reuse City- Dominik Lukkes

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Gegeven dat de bouw verantwoordelijk is voor ongeveer 50% van het materiaalgebruik, 40% van al het energieverbruik en 30% van het waterverbruik, is het de vraag wat we moeten doen als cement en staal niet meer voor handen zijn. De oplossing ligt bij de circulaire economie. De these gaat in op de potentie van urban mining en het gebruik van gebouwen en hun onderdelen. Hiervoor is een leegstaand kantoorgebouw in Amstel III in Amsterdam getransformeerd naar wonen. Er zijn wel additionele materialen nodig omdat het gebouw wordt uitgebreid. Voor dit ontwerp is gezocht naar de mogelijkheid om hiervoor gebruik te maken van potentiële ‘material mines’. Hiervoor is een oogstkaart gemaakt van gebouwen in de omgeving waarvan het bekend is dat ze gesloopt gaan worden, zogenaamde donorgebouwen. Hierbij is rekening gehouden met de benodigde energie om het materiaal te oogsten. Het resultaat is een hybride architectuur, met behoud van structurele elementen, hergebruikte glazen panelen van donorgebouwen en nieuwe elementen. Kern van het betoog is om vraag en aanbod bij elkaar te brengen en te werken aan hybride architectuur met een positieve invloed op onze omgeving en die de taal van imperfectie spreekt.

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Amstel III the Reuse City- Dominik Lukkes

  1. 1. AMSTEL III THE RE USE CITY by Dominik Lukkes
  2. 2. “Implementing urban mining as a tool to transform vacant office buildings, reusing 100% of the existing building components.”
  3. 3. 1) Research 2) Analysis 3) Design Table of contents Upcycle Amstel Urban mining Component reuse Context Site Inventory Goals & principles Proposal Future scenario
  4. 4. RESEARCH
  5. 5. 1) Research Upcycle Amstel Urban mining Component reuse
  6. 6. UPCYCLE AMSTEL
  7. 7. “We will explore the urban mining of construction waste streams by mapping and analysing these waste streams in the Amstel III area. This will provide a palette of resources from which to synthesize new architecture.” Studio brief
  8. 8. 50% 40% 30% Raw Materials Energy Water Consumption by the construction sector The construction sector is responsible for the consumption of 50% of all raw materials, 40% of all energy and 30% of all water.
  9. 9. Antimony Indium Silver Copper Titanium Tantalum Phosphorus Aluminium Gas Oil Coal Agricultural land Coral reefs Rainforests 2012 2062 2037 Today Ecosystems Fossil fuels Minerals 2087 8 12 17 32 35 37 42 44 46 76 80 69 88 196 Material depletion
  10. 10. Construction waste 40% 10% 90% Plastic, wood and metal Concrete, asphalt and brick Raw materials Division 90% of all construction waste consists of concrete, asphalt and brick. The remaining 10% is plastics, wood and metals.
  11. 11. Current (linear) building chain Initiative Finance Design Distribution Construction Operation Vacancy Demolition
  12. 12. Urban mining Initiative Inventory Finance Design Operation Harvest Construction Distribution We must turn our linear construction process into a circular one, where the phase of demolition is removed from the process. Instead, the phases of urban mining are introduced: inventory, harvest and distribution.
  13. 13. BAN MINING UR
  14. 14. “To see urban areas, such as cities and buildings, as potential material mines, focussing on the recovery of these materials from the urban catabolism”
  15. 15. Phases of urban mining The determination of the availability and reusability of components in buildings. The recovering of building components from buildings. The distribution of the harvested building components to their destination. 1. Inventory 2. Harvest 3. Distribution
  16. 16. Amstel III harvestmap 2020 Demolition year 2019 2018 2021 What can be harvested from these buildings that are about to be demolished? Can we apply the concept of urban mining and implement it in this area? A harvest map allows for an overview to be created of potential material sources.
  17. 17. PONENT REUSE COM
  18. 18. Prolong or reuse 1:1 Component reuse Refurbish or recondition Recycle or downcycle “The reuse of a whole building or some of its parts in its same location.” “The reuse of components that have been removed and are refurbished or reconditioned for reuse.” “The reuse of recycled materials in new components.”
  19. 19. ‘Good’ vs ‘less bad’ 1. Prolong 2. Reuse 1:1 3. Refurbish/remanufacture 4. Recycle 5. Downcycle There are many ways to engage in reusing, but what is the best option? Or are all options just a little less bad? Determining the best option is difficult and usually depends on the achievements that are to be made: should it help reduce the cost of a project or should it reduce the amount of CO2 produced and energy needed? Both are not always possible...
  20. 20. Frequently reused components Floors + roofs Walls Beams Columns Windows Doors Insulation + wires, pipes and ducts
  21. 21. Influences Extensive analysis of the building, its structure and its facade is required to determine the reusability of the components. Reusability Availability and demand Benefits Knowledge on where components can be harvested, and how many are needed, is vital to create a healthy balance. The financial and environmental benefits need to be assessed, when deciding what method of reusing is to be engaged in. The reusing of building components is influenced by many factors. The most important three are:
  22. 22. Conclusions 1:1 1:1 reuse is most preferred Information is vital for urban mining Buildings today are not meant for reuse One on one reuse is usually most preferrable in terms of environmental gains, but not always in terms of financial gains or applicability. The phases of inventory, harvest and distribution require a lot of attention, where acquiring the necessary information on the building components is key. All buildings that are to be built from now on should be designed and built for future reuse, meaning the principle of design for disassembly is important.
  23. 23. LYSIS ANA
  24. 24. 2) Analysis Context Site Inventory
  25. 25. TEXT CON
  26. 26. Amstelstad
  27. 27. Gaasperdam Bijlmer-Oost Bijlmer-Centrum Ouderkerk aan de Amstel Amstelveen Amsterdam-Zuid Duivendrecht Diemen-Zuid Diemen
  28. 28. Bijlmer-Centrum Holendrecht en Reigersbos ArenaPoort Ouderkerk aan de Amstel
  29. 29. Almere (20 min) A2 A9 Bijlmer Arena Bullewijk Strandvliet Amsterdam Central Station (10 min) Schiphol Airport (15 min) Holendrecht
  30. 30. 1995 Vacant In use 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Total stock Percentage vacant %milion m2 Office vacancy Sources: PBL (30-11-2017), Cushman & Wakefield (21-12-2017) The graphs show the amount of vacant offices in the Netherlands in 2017. Although we see a decrease in vacancy, the total amount remains astonishingly high. In comparison: we are talking about more than 35 empty De Rotterdam’s.
  31. 31. Municipal goal “The goal is to make the area known as an attractive and versatile area of Amsterdam, where people live and work.”
  32. 32. Facts and figures There is currently: The municipalty wants to build more: The municipality wants: The municipality wants: They municipality wants a: The municipality wants to add: 40% + m² 720.000 m² office space High and dense +15.000 dwellings 40% social housing Circular transformation Larger dwellings +
  33. 33. Page Title TE SI
  34. 34. Spot-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Arena IKEA AMC
  35. 35. Harvest Locations Based on the knowledge gained through doing research, the area allows us to set potential harvest locations: buildings and structures that are to be demolished.
  36. 36. The chosen project site is located in the middle of planned developments. The reason behind this choice is based on the idea that the project should set an example for the redevelopment of the area. Project-site
  37. 37. Hessenbergweg 109-119The project consists of an office building, built in the 80’s, that is now partly vacant.
  38. 38. FSI = 2.7 (Zuid-As = 4.0) Developments
  39. 39. Park
  40. 40. Routing
  41. 41. VEN TORY IN
  42. 42. Facade Brick facade Glasswool insulation Bitumen roofing PIR insulation Wood panel siding Aluminum windowframes Double pane glass
  43. 43. Structure Prefab concrete walls Prefab concrete floor slabs Prefab concrete beams Prefab concrete columns
  44. 44. 4,4% Stone & ceramics 1,8% Gypsum 0,9% Wood 0,7% Steel 0,4% Bitumen 0,3% Glass 0,05% Plastics 0,01% Copper 71% Concrete C 21% Sand & ground 1% Sand & ground 7% Stone & ceramics 6% Wood 15% Steel 10% Bitumen 3% Glass 2% Gypsum 2% Plastics Material inventory Source: Metabolic (2018) It is necessary to make an inventory of the amount of materials inside the building. We see that most of the building’s mass is concrete. However, if we want to say something about the environmental impact of these materials, we need to look at the embodied energ as well.
  45. 45. Embodied Energy “Embodied energy is the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of building.”
  46. 46. Embodied energy and carbon Brick facade EPS insulation Bitumen roofing Wood panel siding Aluminum windowframes Double pane glass Glasswool insulation 3147 4.311.390 557.019 100+ 195 585.000 42.900 100+ 0,5 77.500 4.120 20-50 2 19.000 1.020 20-50 16 752.000 7.680 30 14 210.000 11.900 20-50 1,4 124.040 3.500 100+ 2 56.000 2.700 100+ Component Amount (tons) Embodied energy (MJ) Embodied carbon (kgCO2 ) Life expectancy (years) Sources: Metabolic (2018), Hammond, G,P. and Jones, C.I. (ICE) (2008), own calculations Concrete walls Concrete floors Concrete beams Concrete columns
  47. 47. Brick facade EPS insulation Bitumen roofing Wood panel siding Aluminum windowframes Double pane glass Glasswool insulation 3147 4.311.390 557.019 100+ 195 585.000 42.900 100+ 0,5 77.500 4.120 20-50 2 19.000 1.020 20-50 16 752.000 7.680 30 14 210.000 11.900 20-50 1,4 124.040 3.500 100+ 2 56.000 2.700 100+ Component Amount (tons) Embodied energy (MJ) Embodied carbon (kgCO2 ) Life expectancy (years) Concrete walls Concrete floors Concrete beams Concrete columns Embodied energy and carbon Sources: Metabolic (2018), Hammond, G,P. and Jones, C.I. (ICE) (2008), own calculations
  48. 48. 4,4% Stone & ceramics 1,8% Gypsum 0,9% Wood 0,7% Steel 0,4% Bitumen 0,3% Glass 0,05% Plastics 0,01% Copper 71% Concrete 54% Concrete 21% Sand & ground 1% Sand & ground 7% Stone & ceramics 6% Wood 15% Steel 10% Bitumen 3% Glass 2% Gypsum 2% Plastics Material amounts vs embodied energy Sources: Metabolic (2018), Hammond, G,P. and Jones, C.I. (ICE) (2008) Material amounts Embodied energy
  49. 49. Conclusions 1) Concrete, brick - high quantity, high impact These materials account for most of the embodied energy and carbon inside the building and should be reused 1:1 as much as possible to lower the need for new concrete. 2) Aluminum and insulation - low quantity, high impact Although in low quantity, the aluminum window frames and insulation have a very high embodied energy. If possible, these materials should be reused 1:1 (insulation) or recycled (aluminum window frames). 3) Glass and bitumen - medium quantity, high impact The glass and bitumen in the building also account for a large part of the embodied energy. Again, if possible, these materials should be reused 1:1 (glass) or recycled (bitumen). 4) Wood - no significant impact The timber materials relatively speaking, have little significant impact on the embodied energy of the building.
  50. 50. Conclusions prolong or reuse 1:1 prolong refurbish and recycle recycle and reuse 1:1 Brick facade Glasswool insulation Bitumen roofing PIR insulation Wood panel siding Aluminum windowframes Double pane glass
  51. 51. Conclusions prolong prolong prolong prolong Prefab concrete walls Prefab concrete floor slabs Prefab concrete beams Prefab concrete columns
  52. 52. Additional harvest locations Hoogoorddreef 60 + 62 1988 12.600 m² Hogehilweg 5 + 7 1984 5.400 m² Hettenheuvelweg 8 1987 2.400 m² Demo year: 2019-2020 Additionally needed materials for the transformation of the project are to be harvested from the area. Therefore, additional harvest locations have been selected to collect materials and building components from.
  53. 53. Hoogoorddreef 60 + 62
  54. 54. Hogehilweg 5 + 7
  55. 55. Hettenheuvelweg 8
  56. 56. Component reuse Concrete columns Concrete beams Concrete walls Concrete floors Gypsum wall board Wires, pipes and ducts Insulation Interior doors Bitumen roofing Aluminum window frames Reflective glass recycle and reuse 1:1 reuse 1:1 refurbish and reuse 1:1 recycle and reuse 1:1recycle refurbish
  57. 57. SIGN DE
  58. 58. 3) Design Goals & principles Proposal Scenario
  59. 59. CIPLES GOALS & PRIN
  60. 60. Goals The building will be transformed where the office spaces make place for dwellings and public functions.1. All existing building components shall be reused. 2. The process of urban mining shall be used as a tool to make the reuse of components possible.3.
  61. 61. Design Principles Reuse existing building components for 100% Additional materials are to be harvested locally Design for disassembly
  62. 62. PRO POSAL
  63. 63. Urban fabric hessenbergweg 109-119
  64. 64. Urban fabric 1. The plinth should engage with the park.
  65. 65. Urban fabric 2. The building should respond to the surrounding high-rise developments.
  66. 66. Urban fabric 3. The building should be oriented logically towards the sun.
  67. 67. Proposal
  68. 68. Existing and proposed
  69. 69. Existing and proposed Existing Existing The proposal is a structure that embraces the existing building and extends it in width and height.
  70. 70. Existing and proposed Addition Extract Extract Extensions The existing building is extended on both the north- east and south-west facade. Two additional floors are built on top. To allow for enough daylight entering the building, 4 extractions are made creating 4 courtyards.
  71. 71. 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 54005000 64000 5000 1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ground Floor - Existing Situation 1:200 Existing situation Ground Floor
  72. 72. 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 54005000 64000 5000 1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ground Floor - Proposed Situation 1:200 Extensions Ground Floor Shops + Bars Dwellings
  73. 73. Public side The north-east facade is oriented towards the public park. The plinth is intended for shops, bars and retail.
  74. 74. Private side The south-west facade is the more private side, intended for the residents of the building. Balconies and terraces allow for residents to enjoy the sun and the outdoor in a private setting.
  75. 75. Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567 Cross Section ParkPlot Oriëntation
  76. 76. Interventions Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567 Cross Section Existing
  77. 77. Interventions Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567 Cross Section Extension Extension
  78. 78. Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm CLT element 180 mm Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm Concrete floor (existing) 200 mm Insulation (existing) 100 mm Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm Concrete floor (recycled) 200 mm Insulation (isovlas) 100 mm Existing brick facadeNew glass facade Extension Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567
  79. 79. Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm CLT element 180 mm Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm Concrete floor (existing) 200 mm Insulation (existing) 100 mm Floor structure: Finish floor Floor heating 50 mm Insulation (isovlas) 90 mm Concrete floor (recycled) 200 mm Insulation (isovlas) 100 mm Recycled concrete floor New CLT floor Extension Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567
  80. 80. Section model
  81. 81. Interior
  82. 82. Interior Existing brick wall Reused timber New CLT timber
  83. 83. Exterior
  84. 84. Exterior Reused concrete structure Reused timber
  85. 85. 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 5400 54005000 64000 5000 1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ground Floor - Proposed Situation 1:200 Extraction Ground Floor
  86. 86. Courtyard The courtyards allow for day-light to enter the dwellings. The dwellins are also accesses through these courtyards.
  87. 87. Courtyard Reusing the harvested mirror glas panels from surrounding buildings allows for a bit more light to enter the courtyard. To guarantee visual and acoustic privacy a living green wall is introduced. The visibility of the original concrete structure reminds residents and visitors of the value of existing buildings.
  88. 88. Courtyard
  89. 89. Existing concrete structure Green facade Courtyard
  90. 90. Page TitleCourtyard
  91. 91. Reused mirror glass CourtyardCourtyard
  92. 92. Mirror glass
  93. 93. Privacy
  94. 94. Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567 Overview CLT framing designed for disassembly recycled bitumen + insulation reused glass reused concrete structure
  95. 95. Overview Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 P = + 18200 P = + 17500 P = + 14000 P = + 10500 P = + 7000 P = + 3500 P = + 0 1234567refurbished gypsum wallboard reused glass in reclaimed timber frames recycled conrete and brick terrazzo floor tiles recycled conrete floor refurbished wood recycled conrete floor
  96. 96. SCE NARIO
  97. 97. Hessenbergweg 109-119 Material storage Temporary factory Harvest location Harvest location Harvest location Redevelopment component recycling Reuse Direct reuse Store recycled materials until needed Store harvested materials until needed New materials To facilitate this type of redevelopment, it’s necessary to ‘connect the dots.’ This requires the analysis of current and future developments, as well as the inventory of the buildings and structures that comprise these developments. In some scenario, it might even be interesting to create temporary factories and material storages to allow for local reuse and recycling of materials and components. Phase 1
  98. 98. Hessenbergweg 109-119 Material storage Temporary factory Temporary factory Harvest location Harvest location Harvest location Redevelopment Development component recycling component refurbishment Reuse Direct reuse Recycled material storage until needed Temporary storage If more developments get involved and project timelines are aligned where possible, the potential of reusing buildings and materials locally will enhance... Phase 2
  99. 99. Hessenbergweg 109-119 Material storage Temporary factory Temporary factory Harvest location Harvest location Harvest location Redevelopment Development Development component recycling component refurbishment Reuse Direct reuse Direct reuse Recycled material storage until needed Temporary storage Refurbish components Development New materials ... and a circular transformation of Amstel III might not be such an utopian idea. Phase ...?
  100. 100. AMSTEL III THE RE USE CITY by Dominik Lukkes
  101. 101. “Introducing the architectural language of imperfection.” by Dominik Lukkes

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