Work with Purpose: Exploring Successful Youth Employability Programming for High School and College Students
Exploring Successful Youth Employability Programming for High School and College Students Zeva R. Levine Coordinator of Academic Services Philadelphia Futures
Background – Defining the Need Youth Employability Programs - Goals Ideas for Incorporation/Replication Demonstration of Interactive Activity Assessment & Evaluation Q&A
What percentage of the population in the U.S. suffers from competitive selection interview anxiety (CSIA)? BONUS: What is the mostwidely used and heavyrelied upon tool in selectionprocesses?
Competitive selection interview anxiety (CSIA) is a biological, normal fear response in all humans caused by the uniquely unpredictable situation that competitive interviews present.
Unpredictable Elements CSIA as Amalgamation of ◦ Physical Space 5 types of Performance Anxiety ◦ People Present ◦ Performance Anxiety ◦ Content ◦ Behavioral Anxiety ◦ Expectations ◦ Communication Anxiety ◦ Evaluation ◦ Appearance Anxiety ◦ Social Anxiety Employer Implicit Biases
Concept: Applicants present their best selves and learn more about the institution, while employers observe to have more informed discussions in decision-making. Reality: “Little correlation between interviewer ratings of job applicants and measured skills or job performance.” Additional Factors: Job Search, Resume, Cover Letter, Common Interview Questions*, Public Speaking*, Etiquette - Attire & Conduct*, Follow-up Post-Interview, Understanding Evaluation
Goals: ◦ Manage CSIA Define, Accept, Self-Guide, Set Goals ◦ Rehearse Best and Worst of Mock Interviews ◦ Write Provide Models and Develop Student Voice ◦ Empower Discuss Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Implicit Biases
Timing ◦ High School – focus on education & exposure ◦ College – focus on internship experience Funding & Execution ◦ Fold into existing program as college admissions prep. ◦ Federal, state and local funds (e.g., WorkReady) ◦ Develop new or leverage existing relationships with volunteers, community partners, Board, and colleges ◦ Afterschool and/or Summer Programming ◦ Replicate and/or partner with existing programs*
MASI – Measure of Anxiety in Selection Interviews Formative assessment ◦ SurveyMonkey ◦ Collect Feedback ◦ Debrief and Reflect Cumulative Evaluation ◦ “Final Project” ◦ Interviews – Rating System, # of Offers ◦ Quality of Written Work ◦ Self-Reported Successes/Challenges
Brown, T., Hillier, T., & Warren, A. M. (2010). Youth employability training: Two experiments. Career Development International, 15, 166-187. Macan, Therese (2009). The employment interview: A review of current studies and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 19, 203-218. McCarthy, J., & Goffin, R. (2004). Measuring job interview anxiety: Beyond weak knees and sweaty palms. Personnel Psychology, 57, 607-637. Neckerman, K. M. & Kirschenman, J. (1991). Hiring strategies, racial bias, and inner-city workers. Social Problems, 38, 433-447. Rosen, J., & Schulkin, J. (1998). From normal fear to pathological anxiety. Psychological Review, 105, 325-350
Blum, L. (2002). “I’m Not a Racist, But…”: A Moral Quandary of Race. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, July 2, 1964). Cox, R. H., Martens, M. P., & Russell, W. D. (2003). Measuring anxiety in athletics: The revised competitive state anxiety inventory-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25, 519-533. Hardy, L., & Parfitt, G. (1991). A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 163-178. Heimberg, R. G., Keller, K. E., & Peca-Baker, T. (1986). Cognitive assessment of social evaluative anxiety in the job interview: Job Interview Self-Statement Schedule. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 190-195. Gutmann, A. & Appiah, K.A. (1996). Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Jussim, L., Coleman, L. M., & Learch, L. (1987). The nature of stereotypes: A comparison and integration of three theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 536-545.
Following slides include: ◦ Managing CSIA ◦ Common Interview Questions ◦ Public Speaking ◦ Etiquette - Attire & Conduct ◦ Existing Programs
Understanding Interview Anxiety: Biological brain response for ALL applicants Verbal Self-Guidance: Converting negative self-talk into productive guidance Accepting Bodily Response: Understanding, anticipating and accepting bodily response Goal Setting: Creating 3-5 goals for desired outcomes of the interview; helps focus
To do: ◦ Equally balanced weight (on feet, in way one sits, etc) ◦ Eye contact ◦ Face forward ◦ Crisp voice, even if it is soft ◦ Speak on your voice ◦ Confidence, even if manufactured! To avoid: ◦ Mumbling ◦ Breathiness ◦ Side comments to yourself – side commentary ◦ Too many apologies ◦ Digressions that sidetrack overly much ◦ Having the voice go up at the end of each sentence ◦ Unavoidable mannerisms
Strike balance among “formal, comfortable, and confident” in attire ◦ Goal: appropriate and non-distracting Eat and hydrate ahead of time ◦ Avoid bringing coffee, water, food, gum, etc. Arrive early - time to rehearse or just breathe ◦ If you’re going to be late, call. Smile, and a firm handshake Cell phone on silent & out of sight (use watch) Bring: 2 copies of resume, paper and pen, questions for employer, and “portfolio” of relevant materials (only if needed/helpful)
Best strategy: listening, thinking, speaking ◦ Listen carefully & respond to what you can of the question asked ◦ Don’t be afraid of 30 seconds of silence ◦ It’s appropriate to ask interviewer to repeat Q Thematic Areas of Common Questions ◦ Your background and/or why you applied ◦ Significant ways you’ll contribute to the work ◦ Proudest achievement ◦ Struggle you have overcome/weakness you’re working on ◦ Time you had to think creatively/out of the box ◦ How you work independently and/or as part of team ◦ What motivates you and/or how you manage stress ◦ Future goals (where does this fit in, ‘see yourself in 5 yrs’) ◦ “Any questions for us?” (see next slide)
In general, helpful to research employer ahead of time (question might arise) You can always be prepared to ask about the hiring process going forward ◦ Note: They may tell you this in the interview, so have other questions prepared. Sometimes you may want to ask what qualities or strategies of past or other employees have contributed to whether or not they were successful at the company You can ask about their vision for the company going forward (the position, the industry, etc.) Most importantly: don’t say “no.” If you all have run out of time, just offer to email Qs to them.
Department of Labor http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/ http://www.dol.gov/odep/categories/youth/career.htm Job Corps http://www.jobcorps.gov/youth.aspx Jobs for the Future http://www.jff.org/ Philadelphia Youth Network http://www.pyninc.org/ Posse http://www.possefoundation.org/our-career-program YES Program http://yesprogram.info/yesprogram.html