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GRADE 10LESSON: 1BIODIVERSITY OF ANIMALS( UNDERSTANDING LIFE SCIENCES, CHAPTER 12, P342)
 The animal kingdom extends far beyondhumans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals ha...
 Most animals reproduce sexually, with thediploid stage usually dominating the life cycle After a sperm fertilizes an eg...
ZygoteEight-cell stage
ZygoteEight-cell stageCross sectionof blastulaBlastocoelCleavageBlastula
 Many animals have at least one larval stage. A larva is sexually immature andmorphologically distinct from the adult; i...
 Zoologists sometimes categorize animalsaccording to a body plan. A body plan is a set of morphological anddevelopmental...
 Symmetry Cephalization Tissues) Body cavities Protostome and Deuterostome development
 Animals can be categorized according to thesymmetry of their bodies, or lack of it Some animals have radial symmetry T...
 A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
 Cephalization, the development of a head
 Animal body plans also vary according to theorganization of the animal’s tissues Tissues are collections of specialized...
 Ectoderm is the germ layer covering theembryo’s surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer andlines the developing di...
 Diploblastic animals have ectoderm andendoderm Triploblastic animals have an ectoderm,endoderm and intervening mesoderm...
 Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity A true body cavity is called a coelom and isderived from mesoderm Coe...
 Based on early development, many animals canbe categorized as having protostomedevelopment or deuterostome development
 These two types of developments differ inregard to: Different cleavage Different coelom formation Fate of the blastop
 In protostome development, cleavage is spiraland determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage isradial and indeter...
 In protostome development, the splitting ofsolid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom. In deuterostome development, the ...
 The blastopore forms during gastrulation andconnects the archenteron to the exterior of thegastrula In protostome devel...
 Kingdom: Animalia Branch 1: Mesozoa (fish parasites) Branch 2: Parazoa (cellular)Phylum: Porifera (sponges) Branch 3:...
 Grade 1: Radiata (Radial symmetry, tissuelevel)Phylum: Cnidariahydras corals sea-anemones Grade 2: Bilateria (Bilateral...
 Division 1: Protostomia Division 2: Deuterostomia
 Group 1: Acoelomata (no body cavity) Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Group 2: Pseudocoelomata (pseudo bodycavity)...
 Phylum: Echinodermata sea stars seaurchins Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)
 Sedentary animals (fixed in one position) They live in both fresh and marine waters Cellular level of development Lac...
 True tissue – Eumetazoa Both sessile and motile forms including jellies,corals, and hydras Diploblastic body plan Rad...
 Carnivores that use tentacles to capture prey The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes,unique cells that function in def...
 Live in marine, freshwater, and dampterrestrial habitats. Triploblastic development Acoelomates Flattened dorsoventra...
 Found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, inmoist tissues of plants, and in body fluids andtissues of animals They h...
 Bodies composed of a series of fused rings orcompartments - Metamerism
 Found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere The arthropod body plan consists of a segmented body, hard exoskeleton ...
 Phylum Chordata consists of two subphyla ofinvertebrates as well as hagfishes andvertebrates Vertebrates are a subphylu...
 Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits or clefts Muscular, post-anal tail
 The online test that you have to do is found on:http://goo.gl/YFJXB Good lucky
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
Life sciences lesson 1
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Life sciences lesson 1

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Life sciences lesson 1

  1. 1. GRADE 10LESSON: 1BIODIVERSITY OF ANIMALS( UNDERSTANDING LIFE SCIENCES, CHAPTER 12, P342)
  2. 2.  The animal kingdom extends far beyondhumans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals have beenidentified Invertebrates (animals that lack a backbone)account for 95% of known animal species.
  3. 3.  Most animals reproduce sexually, with thediploid stage usually dominating the life cycle After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygoteundergoes rapid cell division called cleavage Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming agastrula with different layers of embryonictissues.
  4. 4. ZygoteEight-cell stage
  5. 5. ZygoteEight-cell stageCross sectionof blastulaBlastocoelCleavageBlastula
  6. 6.  Many animals have at least one larval stage. A larva is sexually immature andmorphologically distinct from the adult; iteventually undergoes metamorphosis.
  7. 7.  Zoologists sometimes categorize animalsaccording to a body plan. A body plan is a set of morphological anddevelopmental traits, integrated into afunctional whole living animal.
  8. 8.  Symmetry Cephalization Tissues) Body cavities Protostome and Deuterostome development
  9. 9.  Animals can be categorized according to thesymmetry of their bodies, or lack of it Some animals have radial symmetry Two-sided symmetry is called bilateralsymmetry
  10. 10.  A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
  11. 11.  Cephalization, the development of a head
  12. 12.  Animal body plans also vary according to theorganization of the animal’s tissues Tissues are collections of specialized cells During development, three germ layers giverise to the tissues and organs of the animalembryo
  13. 13.  Ectoderm is the germ layer covering theembryo’s surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer andlines the developing digestive tube, called thearchenteron Mesoderm: middle layer of some body plans
  14. 14.  Diploblastic animals have ectoderm andendoderm Triploblastic animals have an ectoderm,endoderm and intervening mesoderm layer.
  15. 15.  Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity A true body cavity is called a coelom and isderived from mesoderm Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from themesoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelomare called pseudocoelomates Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity arecalled acoelomates
  16. 16.  Based on early development, many animals canbe categorized as having protostomedevelopment or deuterostome development
  17. 17.  These two types of developments differ inregard to: Different cleavage Different coelom formation Fate of the blastop
  18. 18.  In protostome development, cleavage is spiraland determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage isradial and indeterminate With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in theearly stages of cleavage retains the capacity todevelop into a complete embryo
  19. 19.  In protostome development, the splitting ofsolid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom. In deuterostome development, the mesodermbuds from the wall of the archenteron to formthe coelom.
  20. 20.  The blastopore forms during gastrulation andconnects the archenteron to the exterior of thegastrula In protostome development, the blastoporebecomes the mouth In deuterostome development, the blastoporebecomes the anus
  21. 21.  Kingdom: Animalia Branch 1: Mesozoa (fish parasites) Branch 2: Parazoa (cellular)Phylum: Porifera (sponges) Branch 3: Eumetazoa (multicellular)
  22. 22.  Grade 1: Radiata (Radial symmetry, tissuelevel)Phylum: Cnidariahydras corals sea-anemones Grade 2: Bilateria (Bilateral symmetry,organ level, cephalisation)
  23. 23.  Division 1: Protostomia Division 2: Deuterostomia
  24. 24.  Group 1: Acoelomata (no body cavity) Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Group 2: Pseudocoelomata (pseudo bodycavity) Phylum: Nematoda (round worms) Group 3: Eucoelomata Phylum: Annelida (earthworms, leeches:Metamerism) Phylum: Arthropoda (crabs, insects:Tagmatisation) Phylum: Mollusca (slugs, snails)
  25. 25.  Phylum: Echinodermata sea stars seaurchins Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)
  26. 26.  Sedentary animals (fixed in one position) They live in both fresh and marine waters Cellular level of development Lack true tissues and organs Asymmetrical
  27. 27.  True tissue – Eumetazoa Both sessile and motile forms including jellies,corals, and hydras Diploblastic body plan Radial symmetry The basic body plan of a cnidarian is a sac witha central digestive compartment, thegastrovascular cavity A single opening functions as mouth and anus
  28. 28.  Carnivores that use tentacles to capture prey The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes,unique cells that function in defense andcapture of prey Nematocysts are specialized organelles withincnidocytes that eject a stinging thread.
  29. 29.  Live in marine, freshwater, and dampterrestrial habitats. Triploblastic development Acoelomates Flattened dorsoventrally and have agastrovascular cavity Gas exchange takes place across the surface Protonephridia regulate the osmotic balance
  30. 30.  Found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, inmoist tissues of plants, and in body fluids andtissues of animals They have an alimentary canal, but lack acirculatory system Sexual Reproduction Internal fertilization Some species are parasites of plants andanimals.
  31. 31.  Bodies composed of a series of fused rings orcompartments - Metamerism
  32. 32.  Found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere The arthropod body plan consists of a segmented body, hard exoskeleton (made of layers of proteinand the polysaccharide chitin jointed appendages The body is completely covered by the cuticle When it grows, it molts its exoskeleton. Includes: insects, crabs, spiders, millipedes,centipedes, mites
  33. 33.  Phylum Chordata consists of two subphyla ofinvertebrates as well as hagfishes andvertebrates Vertebrates are a subphylum within thephylum Chordata Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong tothe Deuterostomia. All chordates share a set of derived characters Some species have some of these traits onlyduring embryonic development
  34. 34.  Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits or clefts Muscular, post-anal tail
  35. 35.  The online test that you have to do is found on:http://goo.gl/YFJXB Good lucky

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