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Executive Functioning: for teachers


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This presentation was created as a teaching tool for grade school teachers to better understand the function on EF in school.

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Executive Functioning: for teachers

  1. 1. Please do us a favor… link us to a keyword. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  2. 2. Join us! e-mail list Sign up at New Leaves Notices of ASD professional & teen meetings Facebook pages New Leaves Clinic (LD, ADHD & ASD) Karla’s ASD Page (ASD) Copies of slides This set will be posted on Educational Materials / Password: neurodiversity (c) New Leaves Clinic
  3. 3. Neurology (c) New Leaves Clinic
  4. 4. Learning: 2 brain areas Cognitive CapacityExecutive Functions (c) New Leaves Clinic
  5. 5. Why do we care about EF? We care because EF challenges reduce what gets in… …and what gets out! 60% -20 80% 100% -20 (c) New Leaves Clinic
  6. 6. © New Leaves ClinicPre-Frontal CortexThe prefrontal cortex guides behaviors,thoughts, and feelings using representationalknowledge, i.e., working memory.These fundamental cognitive abilities subservethe so-called executive functions:• the ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors and thoughts,• regulate our attention,• monitor our actions,• and plan and organize for the future.Neuropsychological and imaging studiesindicate that these prefrontal cortex functionsare weaker in patients with attention- Watch thisdeficit/hyperactivity disorder and contributesubstantially to attention-deficit/hyperactivity video: Teendisorder symptomology. (c) New Leaves Clinic brains! Excerpted from Arnsten & Li
  7. 7. © New Leaves ClinicNeurological subtypes ADHD Hyper Impulsive Inattentive Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
  8. 8. © New Leaves ClinicPrimary vs Secondary ADHD Primary Secondary Hyper Anxiety Dyslexia Impulsive Inattentive Sad
  9. 9. The EFs (c) New Leaves Clinic
  10. 10. © New Leaves Clinic• Working Memory Functions• Goal Setting Past (Present) Future• Start (Initiate)• Stop (Inhibit) Attention / Distraction• Shift Hyperfocus / Flexibility• Pace Processing Speed• Time• Monitor• Plan• Organize• Prioritize• Emotional Control (c) New Leaves Clinic
  11. 11. © New Leaves ClinicWatch this video: Dr. Barkley (c) New Leaves Clinic
  12. 12. © New Leaves Clinic(c) New Leaves Clinic Brown, 2001
  13. 13. © New Leaves Clinic Based on SPECT scans:Types of ADHD: Dr. AmenType 1 – Classic ADHD: hyperactivity and impulsivity  stimulant medsType 2 – Inattentive ADHD, but instead of hyperactivity, there is low energy stimulant medsType 3 -- Overfocused ADHD + negative thoughts, behaviors (opposition/arguing) antidepressant + stimulant medsType 4 -- Temporal Lobe ADHD + irritability, aggressiveness, and memory/learningproblems  antiseizure meds better than stimulant medsType 5 -- Limbic ADHD + depression, low energy, decreased motivation  stimulatingantidepressants better than stimulant medsType 6 -- The Ring of Fire Cross between ADHD and bipolar disorder; moodiness,aggressiveness, and anger  anticonvulsants/antipsychotic meds better than stimulants Adapted from: book: Healing ADD – The 6 types of ADD Please do not use this handout to make medical decisions.
  14. 14. dysRegulation
  15. 15. © New Leaves Clinic• Finite amount of space • 4 specific jobs
  16. 16. © New Leaves Clinic4 jobs Info In Emo Smarts EF (c) New Leaves Clinic
  17. 17. © New Leaves Clinic PFC: System Balance• Frustration Info • Listening Tolerance In • Sensory Input• Modulating Emotions Emo Smarts• Executive • Intellect Functions EF • Coping Skills • Speaking (c) New Leaves Clinic
  18. 18. © New Leaves Clinic PFC: System im Balance Info • Can’t listen• Meltdown In • Can’t learn• Shutdown Emo Smarts• Can’t inhibit • Can’t find• Can’t plan• Can’t shift EF words • Can’t find (c) New Leaves Clinic coping skills
  19. 19. © New Leaves ClinicMeltdown vs Shutdown MELTDOWN SHUTDOWN Meltdown: Meltdown occurs when the person has reached the top... and can no longer control their brain. Shutdown: A person can learn to shutdown (shut out) all stimuli. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  20. 20. © New Leaves ClinicConsequences of Shutdown/Meltdown• Cortisol • Scared to try• Triggers • ‘Loser’• Create Anxiety • Learned System Helplessness Physical Emotional Social Educational• Sibling Problems • Spotty learning• Friend Problems • 3 years behind • Don’t reach potential (c) New Leaves Clinic
  21. 21. (c) New Leaves ClinicdysThe amount of room you have to process data is equal to 1 measuring cup. Thebrain has a natural feedback loop that monitors data level. Your brain’s job is toreduce data if it is getting ‘too high’. Reducing data is done through blocking info,taking a break, relaxing, and engaging in personal interests.NT: Feedback loop works at all levels. This resultsin excellent ‘regulation’.ASD: ‘Numb’ until 500ml. This results in ‘immediateand unexpected’ agitation, shutdown & meltdown.ADHD: Sporadic feedback loop. This results in arange of regulation from excellent to meltdown,different from minute to minute.Anxiety/Depression: The emotion takes up 300mlat all times. This results in very little room for otherdata and results in agitation, meltdown & shutdown.
  22. 22. Fun Stuff (c) New Leaves Clinic
  23. 23. Treatment
  24. 24. © New Leaves ClinicTreatment PlanThis is an outline ofgoals for intervention.We will teach youhow to take each step.There are sub-goals ineach area.We will begin withhealth and moveupward on thepyramid. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  25. 25. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  26. 26. (c) New Leaves Clinic I’m stupid. Smarts It’s - hopeless. Attention Problems No one understands. Grades / Self Esteem I give I’m up. bad.When someone isn’t able to show their smarts, they feel frustrated, anxious andangry. When this happens over and over, the person learns to quit trying becausetrying doesn’t work!
  27. 27. (c) New Leaves ClinicProcessing speed is how fast your brain can take in new data, process it, and store it. PROBLEM: A narrowing in how fast Incoming data can be processed and moved into long term storage.
  28. 28. (c) New Leaves Clinic Processing Speed is how fast a brain can take in information. Speeding causes the brain to fill up and overflow. All the data that overflows falls out of my brain. It’s gone! When I only get part of the info (because the rest overflowed) my brain throws it away….because it doesn’t make sense. The moral of the story is I’m not filling up my intelligence!
  29. 29. © New Leaves ClinicHow do you get ‘high’?People with ADHD have challenges with specific neurotransmitters.(i.e. Dopamine, Glutamate, Norepinephrine). They seek them out, one way or another!
  30. 30. (c) New Leaves ClinicHow to use PomodoroShort term Goal: Daily Schedule Includes:• Learn the rules of Pomodoro • Work Time: Start &• Measure how many time periods each job needs. Finish • Break Time: Start & Sto • FollowMedium Goal:• Given List for the day  Daily Schedule using PomodoroLong Term Goal:• Given List for the week  Week schedule using Pomodoro• No reminders from parents Video:PomodoroThere are five basic steps to Pomodoro:• decide on the task to be done during the time period• set the timer to 25 minutes• work on the task until the timer rings; record with an x• take a short break (3-5 minutes)• every four time periods take a longer break (15–30 minutes)
  31. 31. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  32. 32. (c) New Leaves Clinic
  33. 33. © New Leaves Clinic • Executive Functions EF Game  Working Memory Get a pack of multi-color note cards.  Goal Past (Present) Future Make each of the following on a separate color card.  Start 1. Smarts  Stop 2. Executive Functions  Shift 3. Learning EFs:  Speed 4. Problem Solving  Time   Check-In Plan Make it FUN!  Organize • Problem Solving  Prioritize • Get ready for school  Emotional Control • Backpack • Learning EFs • Turn in your homework • Which is your best? • Stopping MineCraft • What is your worst? • Taking notes while teacher is talking • Which is happening now? • Science Project • What is it? (Define) • Chatting with friend • What is a trick? • Book report (c) New Leaves Clinic
  34. 34. © New Leaves Clinic• Working Memory Functions• Goal Setting Past (Present) Future•• Start (Initiate) Stop (Inhibit) Attention / Distraction Q• Shift Hyperfocus / Flexibility•• Pace Processing Speed Time U• Monitor•• Plan Organize I•• Prioritize Emotional Control Z
  35. 35. © New Leaves ClinicResources Where can you learn more about my trustedFunctions? Here are Executive resources.Russell Barkley, PhD• Books: digital, paper, audio Dawson & Guare, PhD• Videos on YouTube • Books: digital, paper, audio• • Videos on YouTube • Subscribe to magazine • Print online handouts• Daniel Amen, MDNed Hallowell, MD • Books: digital, paper, audio• Books: digital, paper, audio • Videos on YouTube• Videos on YouTube •• (c) New Leaves Clinic