Water Resources in JordanChallenges for the Future January 9th 2012
Basic Information About JordanArea: 92,300 km2 (35,637 mi2)Population: 6.4 million (2010)Growth Rate: 3.6%Percent of Youth: 70% (less than 30 yr)Climate: Mediterranean to AridRainfall:- 80% of the country receiving less than 100 mm of rain annually - 4% of the country receiving more than 300 mm of rain annually - Wet Year= 11,000 MCM, Dry Year = 5,800 MCM Avg. annual = 8,500 MCMEvaporation: 92.5% of water is lost to evaporation
Water and its Multiple uses• Water Scarcity: Jordan is a “Water Scarce” country. • Water Scarce Country is one with less than 1000 cubic meters of fresh water per person per year (FAO,1997) • < 1,700 m3/c/year “existing stress” • < 1,000 m3/c/year “scarcity “ • < 500 m3/c/year “absolute scarcity” • Jordan is recognized as one of the ten most water deprived countries in the world. • Total water withdrawal per capita: Water withdrawal is the quantity of water removed from available sources for use in any purpose • Comparison: (Per Capita Water Use) • Jordan : 140 m3 /c/year • USA : 1,550 m3/c/year • Water Supply: 90 l/c/day < 120 l/c/day (standard) • W.H.O. Standard for Hygiene: 50 l/c/day
Water and its Multiple uses Impacts of Water Scarcity:Countries with less than 500 cubic meters per capita per year suffer from absolutescarcity• Economical• Environmental impacts• Social Impacts• Constraints to industrial development
Water and its Multiple Uses• Competition between water sectors: Municipal, Agriculture, Industrial and tourism.• In Jordan, There is an apparent bias in the allocation of water towards agriculture.• Water Use (Agriculture: 70%, Municipal 24%, Industrial 5%, Tourism 1%)• Municipal : 290 MCM, Industrial: 39 MCM, Irrigation: 588 MCM (2006)
Water Resources• Surface water: Jordan River, Yarmouk River and Zarqa River• Ground Water: Renewable: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Dead Sea Basins Non-renewable: DISI AQUIFER• Unconventional Water :Treated Wastewater, Brackish Groundwater, Desalination
Surface Water Jordan River • Catchment Area: 18,194 km2 • Flows through Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Palestine and Jordan • Originates from springs: Hasbani (Lebanon), Dan (Israel) and Banias (Golan)
Surface Water Yarmouk River • Catchment Area: 6,780 km2 • Major tributary of Jordan River • The northern portion of the river is between Jordan and Syria, and southern portion is between Jordan and Israel • Flow decreased from 400 MCM (1970) to 150 MCM due to developments in the upstream Syrian part of the catchment
Surface Water Zarqa River • Catchment Area: 4,025 km2 • The catchment area for the Zarqa River is the most densely populated area in Jordan • Polluted by industrial activities and wastewater treatment plants
Ground Water Resources• Groundwater resources are over exploited.• Above safe yield (275 MCM)• Significant decline in water quality• Over application of fertilizers and pesticides• Illegal Wells. – More than one 1,000 unlicensed wells in use compared to 2,779 licensed wells
Safe Yield Ground Water Safe Yield Total water Balance % Abstracted from Basin (M.C.M) abstracted SafeYield (M.C.M) "Safe yield" means theYarmouk 40.0 43.3 -3.3 108.0 amount of groundwater that can be withdrawn from a groundwater basin over aSide Valleys 15.0 25.9 -10.9 172.0 period of time without exceeding the long-termJordan Valley 21.0 27.9 -6.9 133.0 recharge of the basin or unreasonably affecting the basins physical andAzraq 24.0 59.3 -35.3 247.0 chemical integrity.Amman-Zarqa 87.5 138.7 -51.2 158.0Serhan 5.0 3.8 1.2 76.0Hammad 8.0 0.9 7.1 11.0Dead Sea 57.0 89.3 -32.3 157.0Desi and 125 82.1 42.9 66.0MudawrahNorth Araba 3.5 6.7 -3.2 193.0ValleyRed Sea 5.5 17.4 -11.9 316.0South ArabaValleyJafer 9.0 24.8 -15.8 276.0Total 275.5 520.1 -170.805
Disi Aquifer• Shared Aquifer between Jordan and Saudi Arabia• Currently Jordan pumps 77MCM, Saudi Arabia 600-700 MCM• Aqaba pumps 17 MCM projected to go up 35 MCM Will connect aquifer to Amman with a 325 Km pipeline.• Aquifer will provide 100 MCM/year over 100 years.• Price of water = JD 0.820 (Expensive water!)• “Gap Stopping” Measure!
Brackish Groundwater and Desalination• Jordan has a number of brackish water springs with limited use.• Salinity places restrictions on crop selection• Plans for more desalination plants
Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (Conveyor) “The Red-Dead”Dead Sea• Uniqueness comes from : – Location, Climate and Properties – Cultural and religious treasure – Unique environment – Economic AttractionWhat is the Problem? – Average annual inflow to DS has decreased 1,200 MCM/yr to 250 MCM/yr leading to a water level decline of about 1 m/yr – Water level drop of more than 24 meters – No action will cause loss of historic site, loss of valuable GW resources and ecological imbalance
“The Red-Dead”Water Allocation: Jordan 570 MCM, Palestine 220 MCM, Israel 50 MCM
“The Red-Dead”Shared Envision of Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Transfer• Save The Dead sea from further environmental degradation• Desalination water/generate energy for Jordan, Israel and Palestine• Build a symbol of peace and cooperation in The Middle East
“The Red-Dead”Technical Challenges• Pipeline Alignment• Blending of Brine water with Dead Sea Water• Seismic Activity• Environmental impacts• Never been tried before !
Household Water Supply• Water is supplied by water companies – Miyahuna • Zay Water Treatment Plant (Provides about 50% of Water to City of Amman) – Alyarmouk – Aqaba Water Company• Governmental institutions – Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MOWI) – Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ) – Jordan Valley Authority (JVA)
Household Water Supply How is Water Supplied?• Most areas get water once a week – Schedule is online – Interruptions – Water tanks from private wells• Water is stored in tanks located on roofs – Maintenance issues – Major issue in schools• Common operational problems – Leaky pipes (NRW) – Air – Inaccurate water readings – Weak pressure tall buildings
Household Water Supply• Meters Meters – Major source of complaint in Amman – Analog residential meters – Electromagnetic for large consumers – Reading is done monthly or quarterly
Household Water Supply Billing• Household Bill Water is subsidized
Household Water Supply Jordan Statistics (Sample Size 1,000)• 84% of respondents recognize water shortage in Jordan.• 90% of respondents agree government should enforce penalties on people who misuse water.• 71% of respondents disagree the government should raise water tariffs.• 75% of respondents had no garden.• 49% of respondents had no car to wash.• 42% of respondents had flush toilets.• 73% of respondents had no automatic washing machine.• Source: KAP Household-Baseline Survey (2010) USAID-PAP
Household Water Supply Challenges• Water is transported in highland areas – Electricity cost – Pumping cost• Water supply challenges – Population increase – Resource limitation – Transporting water from source to where it is needed – Water Quality issues • Customers in Amman do not trust tap water due to negative experiences in the past!
Household Demand Management Why?• Jordanian efforts towards water resources have been “Supply Driven”. – Capital investment of new water supply projects• By 2020, total demand for water 1,685 MCM while available water resources are 850 MCM. Shortfall of 396 MCM.• Shift to Water Demand Management and conservation is essential to Jordan. – More emphasis on behaviors and economic uses (efficiency and conservation)
Household Demand Management National Water Strategy (1997)• Strategy states that “resource management shall continually aim at achieving the highest possible efficiency in the conveyance, distribution, application and use” – Promotion of water saving systems and devices• WDM Programs in Jordan – USAID-WEPIA (Water Efficiency and Public Information for Action Program). – USAID-IDARA (Instituting Water Demand Management in Jordan)- (On-going) – USAID-PAP (Public Action Project for Water, Energy and Environment)- (On-going)
Household Demand Management• USAID-IDARA – Increasing water awareness through media – Introduce WDM concepts in school curriculums – Plumbing Code (retrofitting) – Solar Energy Code – Water Efficiency Guides for variety of water consumers• USAID-PAP – Efficiency (Technology) • Aerators: 33% penetration in Jordan • Showerheads: Difficult to promote-Plumbing issues • Dual-flush toilets: House renovations • Labeling : Energy Star, Water Sense
Household Demand Management• Plumbing Code – Rain Water Harvesting • Mandatory in all New Houses – Greywater Reuse • water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machines
Household Demand Management – Conservation (Behaviors) Themes Appliances Indoor Maintenance OutdoorRun your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You Designate one glass for your drinking water each day or refill a water Monitor your water bill for unusually high use. Your bill and Water your lawn and garden in the morning orcan save up to 3,785 liters a month. A half empty load is wasted water. bottle. This will cut down on the number of glasses to wash. water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks. evening when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation.When buying new appliances, consider those that offer cycle and load Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet Use a broom instead of a hose to clean yoursize adjustments. Theyre more water and energy efficient. them clean. bowl without flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it can save up to driveway and sidewalk and save water every time. 3,785 liters a month.When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load. Turn off the water while you wash your hair to save up to 568 liters a Listen for dripping faucets and running toilets. Fixing a leak can Group plants with the same watering needs month. save 1,136 liters a month or more. together to avoid overwatering some while underwatering others.When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load. Turn off the water while you shave and save up to 1,136 liters a month. Do plumbing maintenance once a year. Dont wait till you have Insulate hot water pipes for more immediate hot a visible leak. It may have been going on unnoticed for a long water at the faucet and for energy savings. time.Washing dark clothes in cold water saves both on water and energy To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your Check your water bill. If the volume of water you are usingwhile it helps your clothes to keep their colors. teeth while in the shower. suddenly spikes, you may have a leak.When shopping for a new clothes washer, compare resource savings Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use At work, alert the building maintenance men if the toilet oramong Energy Star models. Some of these can save up to 76 liters per this water to clean vegetables and fruits; flush toilets; water plants; faucets leak.load, and energy too. wash dishes--its treated water and clean.Use cold water even for white washes. All detergents are now When you are washing your hands, dont let the water run while youformulated for cold water. Re-set your washing machine for cold or lather.tepid water If your shower fills a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, replace the showerhead with a water-efficient model. Shorten your shower by a minute or two and youll save up to 568 liters gallons per month. Use a water-efficient showerhead. Theyre inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 2,839 liters a month. Turn off the water while brushing your teeth and save 95 liters a month. If your toilet flapper doesnt close after flushing, replace it. Make sure there are water-saving aerators on all of your faucets. Use a hose nozzle or turn off the water while you wash your car. Youll save up to 379 liters every time. If your toilet was installed before 1992, reduce the amount of water used for each flush by inserting a displacement device in the tank; replacing the toilet; or replacing the flush mechanism. Ask your plumber. Teach your children to turn off faucets tightly after each use.