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Gestalt Laws

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Gestalt Laws

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Gestalt Laws

  1. 1. Gestalt Principles (Gestalt Laws) Visual Perception
  2. 2. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception  Gestalt – Movement in experimental psychology which began prior to WWI.  We perceive objects as well-organized patterns rather than separate components.  “The whole is greater than the sum of it’s parts.”  Based on the concept of “grouping”.
  3. 3. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception We impose visual organization on stimuli W.E. Hill, 1915 German postcard, 1880
  4. 4. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Illusory Contours The Kanisza triangle as figure-ground illusory contours
  5. 5. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Three Main Principles: Grouping (proximity, similarity, continuity, closure) Goodness of figures Figure/ground relationships
  6. 6. Law of Equilibrium  Items in a visual field strive for balance with other items in the field Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception
  7. 7. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Grouping: Law of Proximity
  8. 8. Law of Similarity  Suggests that units which resemble each other in shape, size, color, or direction will be seen together as a homogenous grouping (of the same kind) Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception
  9. 9. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Grouping: Law of Similarity
  10. 10. Gestalt/Visual Perception  A look closer at Gestalt Laws
  11. 11. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Grouping: Law of Similarity: Shape, Scale, Color
  12. 12. Law of Continuation  (or good figure) visual perception works to pull figures out of the background to give them definition against the undistinguished field in which they are located. . . Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception
  13. 13. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Law of Good Continuation, or Continuity Objects arranged in either a straight line or a smooth curve tend to be seen as a unit.
  14. 14. Law of Closure  Each chunk should be self-contained (provide closure)—without good continuation a reader will fill in the gaps Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception
  15. 15. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Law of Closure
  16. 16. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Law of Common Fate
  17. 17. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Goodness of Figure, or the Law of Pragnanz (Pragnanz is German for Pregnant, but in the sense of pregnant with meaning, not with child!)
  18. 18. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Figure/Ground relationships Figure – seen as the foreground Ground – seen as the background Contours – “belong” to the figure
  19. 19. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground relationship
  20. 20. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground relationship Can be affected by the principle of smallness: Smaller areas tend to be seen as figures against a larger background.
  21. 21. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground Relationship: Tessellation – interlocking figure/ground M.C. Escher
  22. 22. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception  Gestalt laws of Grouping organize the visual scene into units  The Law of Pragnanz, or Goodness of Figure creates the simplest most meaningful pattern  Figure/Ground relationships define important parts of the scene
  23. 23. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Problems with Gestalt theory: It is a phenomenological approach Some of the terms are vague (e.g. what is the “simplest” organization?)

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