How the Dutch Keep Their Feet
Dry (and not move to Germany)
Adaptation, Risk Mitigation &
National Will
Arjan Braamskamp
S...
2
The Netherlands: a delta landscape, penetrated by
rivers, subject to sea and river flooding
Deltacommissaris
3
The Netherlands, at risk
• 400 miles of rivers (Rhine, Meuse)
draining NW Europe
• 60% of land at/below...
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 6.0 m below MSL
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 4.0 m below MSL
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 2.0 m below MSL
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 0.0 m below MSL
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 0.5 m above MSL
Deltacommissaris
Area potentially flooded at water level 1.0 m above MSL
3-7-2014
10
Deltacommissaris
Focus of past mitigation: shorten the coastline
11
300  45 km
750  50 km
12
1958 flood risk/safety standards established
“Never Again” mentality
Risk = Consequences x Probability = areas
with mos...
Deltacommissaris
There…all done…….
Now we’re safe!
133-7-2014
Subsidence
Mining Gas +
salt
Geological
Peat
oxidation
The Delta Under Pressure: future challenges, measured
15
Sealevel rise
(20 cm-->
60-85 cm/100y)
More /extreme
storms?
More...
Deltacommissaris
Present Flood Risk Management policy (2009)
(flood resistance to flood accomodation)
Multi-layered approa...
Room for the River
Depoldering, the plan
3
river MeuseTo the sea
river Merwede
Bottleneck Gorinchem
3-7-2014
20
waterdynamic
3
3waterdynamic
3waterdynamic
3waterdynamic
3waterdynamic
3waterdynamic
Waal River / Nijmegen Project
• River bottleneck, channel restriction from 1500m width to
450 m width
Options:
• Ag / unde...
Bottleneck
2
1
Dike set-back strategy: safety, increased storage /
flow capacity, and new land opportunities
3-7-2014
30
Before / After (impression)
3-7-2014
32
the bad news
public involvement
salomons judgement
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
first scenario’s
fright fight a...
Rotterdam: 4 threats (or an opportunity?)
3-7-2014
34
URBAN FLOODPLAIN
Deltacommissaris
Water Storage Capacity “Rotterdam”
UNDERGROUND WATER STORAGE
Source: The Urbanists
Source: The Urbanists
Deltacommissaris
Scheveningen Blvd: improve mandated protection
and urban amenity (2006 safety assessment)
40
Bouldevard Scheveningen De Solà - Morales
Deltacommissaris
Deltacommissaris
Rising seas
• Increasing sea level
• Increasing population and economic value in coastal zones
world wide...
Deltacommissaris
Building with Nature?
young dune formationyoung dune formation
let nature do part
of the work ...
while c...
Deltacommissaris
Dutch Context, coastal erosion
Shortage of natural sediment
Consequence: Structural erosion, 1996 coastli...
Deltacommissaris
Development of nourishment strategy
Increase in volume
Annual added sand volumes:
• Since 1990: 6 mln m3/...
Deltacommissaris
Objectives:
1. Extra Safety
2. Nature area / ‘Quality of living’
3. Innovation
‘Hook’ alternative
70 M Eu...
Deltacommissaris
Predictions morphological behavior
Deltares (Delft3D) numerical model forecast
Initial design
Deltacommissaris
Initial
After 3 year
After 5 years
After 10 years
After 20 years
Source: Rijkswaterstaat / Shore Monitori...
Deltacommissaris
Constructed peninsula
Deltacommissaris
Aerial photo Oct. 2011, after 3 mnths
Deltacommissaris
Aerial photo Jan. 2012, after 6 mnths
Deltacommissaris
Aerial photo July. 2012, after 1 yr
Deltacommissaris
Aerial photo July. 2013, after 2 yrs
Sand Motor: Pros & Cons
Pros:
1. Reduced costs in nourishment & maintenance
2. Reduced environmental Impact (use natural p...
2nd Delta Commission: 2007/08 (Katrina inspired)
Working together with water: a living land
builds for its future
3-7-2014...
The Delta Program: safe and productive over 100
years (how to not move to Germany)
Independent Delta Commissioner (and sma...
Dutch – American Collaborations
• Post-Katrina Louisiana
• Mississippi River Floods (St Louis)
• Los Angeles River
• SLR i...
Deltacommissaris
New Orleans: Urban Water Plan for a Living Water
System
3-7-2014
PILOT PROJECT: Mirabeau
Greater New Orleans Water Management
FILMORE DRAINAGE IMPACT
Greater New Orleans Water Management
Super-Storm Sandy
They said: “We need Dutch barriers!”
We said: “Wait a minute…”
Rebuild by Design
7/3/2014
63
Rebuild by Design
• Innovating together to create a resilient region
• Initiative by Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force...
Design as tool towards resiliency
• BIG – The Big U around Manhattan
“Cross-breeding public infrastructure with social pro...
Picking sides…..
3-7-2014
66
For more info about:
• The Art of Flood Fighting
• Multiple Layers of Defense
• Regional Approach
• Dutch soccer
• Wooden ...
13ArjanBraamskamp_NICHI_BusinessSummit
13ArjanBraamskamp_NICHI_BusinessSummit
13ArjanBraamskamp_NICHI_BusinessSummit
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Presentation at the National Institute for Coastal and Harbor Infrastructure, Business Summit, May 7, 2014; New York Academy of Sciences.

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13ArjanBraamskamp_NICHI_BusinessSummit

  1. 1. How the Dutch Keep Their Feet Dry (and not move to Germany) Adaptation, Risk Mitigation & National Will Arjan Braamskamp Senior Economic Officer Netherlands Consulate General in NY 3-7-2014
  2. 2. 2 The Netherlands: a delta landscape, penetrated by rivers, subject to sea and river flooding
  3. 3. Deltacommissaris 3 The Netherlands, at risk • 400 miles of rivers (Rhine, Meuse) draining NW Europe • 60% of land at/below sea level • 17 million people, 9 million of which live below flood level • GDP 600 bln euro (70% of which produced at/below sea-level) • 2100 miles of flood defences, hundreds of locks, sluices, pumping stations • storm surge, wet weather, heavy river discharge, subsiding, drought • changing climate. SLR: 1 – 2.5 ft ~2100 • water mgmt is a matter of national survival and an opportunity 100 km AH R
  4. 4. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 6.0 m below MSL
  5. 5. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 4.0 m below MSL
  6. 6. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 2.0 m below MSL
  7. 7. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 0.0 m below MSL
  8. 8. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 0.5 m above MSL
  9. 9. Deltacommissaris Area potentially flooded at water level 1.0 m above MSL
  10. 10. 3-7-2014 10
  11. 11. Deltacommissaris Focus of past mitigation: shorten the coastline 11 300  45 km 750  50 km
  12. 12. 12 1958 flood risk/safety standards established “Never Again” mentality Risk = Consequences x Probability = areas with most risk have highest levels of protection Cost-Benefit Analysis for all major infra projects (models recently updated given 40 rys of demographic and econ changes) Caveat for US: Weather and landscape differences • Slow-moving winter storms vs fast- moving tropical storms (wetter) • Max storm wind speeds different • Rainfall manageable • Small- to- mid-sized rivers 1/10,000 = 1/500?
  13. 13. Deltacommissaris There…all done……. Now we’re safe! 133-7-2014
  14. 14. Subsidence Mining Gas + salt Geological Peat oxidation
  15. 15. The Delta Under Pressure: future challenges, measured 15 Sealevel rise (20 cm--> 60-85 cm/100y) More /extreme storms? More/intense rainfall Spatial developments Increased erosion Subsidence 10 cm/100yr Salt intrusion Decreased river discharge - 60% Increased river discharge + 10%
  16. 16. Deltacommissaris Present Flood Risk Management policy (2009) (flood resistance to flood accomodation) Multi-layered approach: 1. Robust Protection 2. Smart land-use planning Room for the River Living with Water: spatial planning, urban design, multiple layers of defense and green infra 3. Disaster management (Katrina effect)
  17. 17. Room for the River
  18. 18. Depoldering, the plan 3 river MeuseTo the sea river Merwede Bottleneck Gorinchem
  19. 19. 3-7-2014 20
  20. 20. waterdynamic 3
  21. 21. 3waterdynamic
  22. 22. 3waterdynamic
  23. 23. 3waterdynamic
  24. 24. 3waterdynamic
  25. 25. 3waterdynamic
  26. 26. Waal River / Nijmegen Project • River bottleneck, channel restriction from 1500m width to 450 m width Options: • Ag / undeveloped land available to north • Northern river bank land targeted for development • Key road / rail / harbor infrastructure 3-7-2014 27
  27. 27. Bottleneck
  28. 28. 2 1
  29. 29. Dike set-back strategy: safety, increased storage / flow capacity, and new land opportunities 3-7-2014 30
  30. 30. Before / After (impression) 3-7-2014 32
  31. 31. the bad news public involvement salomons judgement 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 first scenario’s fright fight acquiescence building trust pride Nijmegen takes lead definite plan start realization Stages
  32. 32. Rotterdam: 4 threats (or an opportunity?) 3-7-2014 34
  33. 33. URBAN FLOODPLAIN
  34. 34. Deltacommissaris Water Storage Capacity “Rotterdam”
  35. 35. UNDERGROUND WATER STORAGE
  36. 36. Source: The Urbanists
  37. 37. Source: The Urbanists
  38. 38. Deltacommissaris Scheveningen Blvd: improve mandated protection and urban amenity (2006 safety assessment) 40
  39. 39. Bouldevard Scheveningen De Solà - Morales
  40. 40. Deltacommissaris
  41. 41. Deltacommissaris Rising seas • Increasing sea level • Increasing population and economic value in coastal zones world wide IPCC, 2007 National Geographic , Sept 2013 Photo: Stephen Wilkes
  42. 42. Deltacommissaris Building with Nature? young dune formationyoung dune formation let nature do part of the work ... while creating new new eco-opportunities
  43. 43. Deltacommissaris Dutch Context, coastal erosion Shortage of natural sediment Consequence: Structural erosion, 1996 coastline fixed Solution: Nourishments City of Egmond
  44. 44. Deltacommissaris Development of nourishment strategy Increase in volume Annual added sand volumes: • Since 1990: 6 mln m3/yr • Since 2001: 12 mln m3/yr Prospect future : 40-85 mln m3/yr !! Change in design
  45. 45. Deltacommissaris Objectives: 1. Extra Safety 2. Nature area / ‘Quality of living’ 3. Innovation ‘Hook’ alternative 70 M Euro. 21 M m3 of sand The Sand Engine!
  46. 46. Deltacommissaris Predictions morphological behavior Deltares (Delft3D) numerical model forecast Initial design
  47. 47. Deltacommissaris Initial After 3 year After 5 years After 10 years After 20 years Source: Rijkswaterstaat / Shore Monitoring & Research MEASURED / PREDICTED EVOLUTION (DELFT3D)
  48. 48. Deltacommissaris Constructed peninsula
  49. 49. Deltacommissaris Aerial photo Oct. 2011, after 3 mnths
  50. 50. Deltacommissaris Aerial photo Jan. 2012, after 6 mnths
  51. 51. Deltacommissaris Aerial photo July. 2012, after 1 yr
  52. 52. Deltacommissaris Aerial photo July. 2013, after 2 yrs
  53. 53. Sand Motor: Pros & Cons Pros: 1. Reduced costs in nourishment & maintenance 2. Reduced environmental Impact (use natural processes) 3. One-time pricetag @ $ 90 mln 4. Offers recreational and R&D opportunities Cons: 1. Pilot process – Unproven Technology long-term – Difficult to replicate 2. Reduced impact on environment and ecology may be overstated Stakeholders: Waterboard Delfland Rijkswaterstaat Province South Holland Van Oord Dredging Deltares
  54. 54. 2nd Delta Commission: 2007/08 (Katrina inspired) Working together with water: a living land builds for its future 3-7-2014 57
  55. 55. The Delta Program: safe and productive over 100 years (how to not move to Germany) Independent Delta Commissioner (and small staff) 2011 – 2014: Research program to identify and quantify challenges 2014: Delta Decisions 2015 – 2020: Develop projects 2020 -2050: 1 billion euro/yr for project implementation 7/3/2014 Delta Programme Commissioner58 Cost-benefit analysis for every project Tipping points approach No-regret measures Adaptive management
  56. 56. Dutch – American Collaborations • Post-Katrina Louisiana • Mississippi River Floods (St Louis) • Los Angeles River • SLR in San Francisco Bay (early-stage) • Integrated Delta Management (CA Bay Delta) • Galveston (Ike Dike) • SLR Norfolk • SLR Miami • Post-Sandy Region (NY-NJ-CT) 3-7-2014 59
  57. 57. Deltacommissaris New Orleans: Urban Water Plan for a Living Water System 3-7-2014
  58. 58. PILOT PROJECT: Mirabeau Greater New Orleans Water Management
  59. 59. FILMORE DRAINAGE IMPACT Greater New Orleans Water Management
  60. 60. Super-Storm Sandy They said: “We need Dutch barriers!” We said: “Wait a minute…” Rebuild by Design 7/3/2014 63
  61. 61. Rebuild by Design • Innovating together to create a resilient region • Initiative by Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force and HUD • Address regional vulnerabilities and develop fundable solutions • Promote resilience through innovative planning and design “Don’t ask for answers to pre-defined challenges – allow for creative process and for industry expertise to develop and design multiple solutions that will maximize resilience in the region and reduce climate-change related risks.” 3-7-2014 64 Source: RebuildbyDesign.org
  62. 62. Design as tool towards resiliency • BIG – The Big U around Manhattan “Cross-breeding public infrastructure with social programs” • Interboro Team – Regional protection on community level L.I. “Building with nature: Living with the Bay” • OMA / HaskoningDHV – Hoboken resilient waterfront “Resist – delay – Store - Discharge” • MIT / ZUS & Urbanisten – New Meadowlands “Combine functions of Economy – Ecology – Transport – Energy” • Unabridged – A new future of Bridgeport, CT “Blueprint for coastal community development” • West 8 / WXY / Arcadis – Blue Dunes “Restoration of coastal barrier functions” 3-7-2014 65
  63. 63. Picking sides….. 3-7-2014 66
  64. 64. For more info about: • The Art of Flood Fighting • Multiple Layers of Defense • Regional Approach • Dutch soccer • Wooden Shoes, Bikes, Windmills etc etc Arjan Braamskamp Arjan.braamskamp@minbuza.nl 3-7-2014 67 Thank You

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