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Workshop K3 - The End Of Tourism

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By Onno Reichwein

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Workshop K3 - The End Of Tourism

  1. 1. Future of Tourism Onno Reichwein Cohen, Contemporary tourism. Diversity and change (june 2004) Ning Wang, Tourism and modernity: sociological analysis , (2000)
  2. 2. Ambivalence of Modernity <ul><li>Logos - Modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Daily world </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Present-ness </li></ul><ul><li>Apollonian (order) </li></ul><ul><li>Centre-in-here </li></ul><ul><li>Active life </li></ul><ul><li>Gesellschaft (manmade) </li></ul><ul><li>Eros- Modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure and Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Other world </li></ul><ul><li>Contra structure </li></ul><ul><li>Escape in past, future </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysian </li></ul><ul><li>Centre-out-there </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplative life </li></ul><ul><li>Gemeinschaft (nature) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bright & Dark side of Logos-modernity <ul><li>Logos – Modernity evokes 1. need for & 2. possibility of Tourism (as form of Eros Modernity): </li></ul><ul><li>Technical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Causes alienation and need for Nature tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Enables tourism by transport & communication </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Causes inauthenticity and need for authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Enables tourism by tourist-industry </li></ul>
  4. 4. The End of Tourism ? <ul><li>Paradox: ‘The more people travel, the less incentive there is to travel’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. The End of Tourism ? <ul><li>MacCannell: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tourism = quest for authenticity ’ </li></ul><ul><li> Tourists try to experience in another world what they’ve lost at home </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Why leave home, if the other side of the world increasingly looks like home’? </li></ul>
  6. 6. The End of Tourism ? <ul><li>Ning Wang: </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is also Existential authenticity . S elf-referential, so not connected to place </li></ul><ul><li>So, why travel if you can reach existential authenticity at home? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cohen: Tourism is not ending, it’s just beginning <ul><li>3 post-modern trends: </li></ul><ul><li>pm1. Subtle differences </li></ul><ul><li>pm2. G-local-isation </li></ul><ul><li>pm3. Tourism-Leisure-shop mix </li></ul><ul><li>3 modern trends: </li></ul><ul><li>m1. Conservationists </li></ul><ul><li>m2. Tourist / explorer mix </li></ul><ul><li>m3. Space tourism </li></ul>
  8. 8. pm1. Subtleties make a difference <ul><li>Post tourists search familiarity (Lisker) </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen ‘not to be confused with sameness’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tourists look for distinction (status & identity) by small differences within the familiar. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ‘Guggenheim’ Barcelona </li></ul>
  9. 9. pm2. Not Globalisation: G-local-isation <ul><li>Paradox : Different parts of the world look increasingly the same , but there is an increasing differentiation on local level. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist attraction: Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>New form of otherness of the unexpected new (instead of the otherness of disappearing traces from the past) </li></ul>
  10. 10. pm3. Theme parks on consumerism & fantasy <ul><li>Traditional boundary between tourism, leisure & consumerism is disappearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Las Vegas, Disneylands, Edmonton Mall, serving continents </li></ul>
  11. 11. m1. Conservation movement <ul><li>Still believes in natural / cultural authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>(in contrast to post-modern resignation in the disappearance of the original) </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox: ecotourism consumes nature </li></ul>
  12. 12. m2. Tourism / exploration mix. <ul><li>Increasing sameness of the world incites desire to explore the last not yet explored. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Impenetrable areas like north pole, deserts and high mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen: Existential authenticity is here enforced by objective authenticity </li></ul>
  13. 13. m3. Space travel = promising <ul><li>1. All elite tourism becomes mass tourism </li></ul><ul><li>2. endless opportunities after planet earth is ‘consumed’ through exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Space tourist is ensconced & condemned to passivity! ‘Environmental bubble’ suitable for mass-, not for adventure tourism. </li></ul>

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