22 January 2008 Sjef van Hoof [email_address] About space, place and environment: The geography of sport and leisure
Outline of this presentation: <ul><li>What is geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Why geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Space, place a...
About (human) geography… Geography is about: * Spaces  * Places * Environments (and Movements between spaces and places) (...
About sport/leisure/tourism research: <ul><li>1). Sport and tourism research tends to produce pieces of research with poor...
Need for sport policy research: <ul><li>NOC/NSF: Space for Sport (2006): about access and availability of sport accommodat...
Applicability of sport/leisure marketing: <ul><li>Determination of spatial client base/ promotion strategies </li></ul><ul...
Geographies of spaces: <ul><li>Exploring how sport, leisure and tourism influence spatial travel patterns and itineraries ...
Sport and space <ul><li>Manchester (1999): 4,000 – 6,000 foreign tourists visiting home matches of FC Manchester United </...
Sport and space   Source: Augustin, 1996
Geography of places.. <ul><li>A place is a space infused with meaning (Lew, 2001). Sport and leisure may influence the mea...
Source: VVV Eindhoven
Sport and places.. <ul><li>Public and private stakeholders are interested in adding brand elements of sport to their desti...
Diffusion of sport in the Netherlands Source: RIVM, 2003 A B C
The geography of environment <ul><li>Natural and built environment that are used for sport and leisure activities </li></u...
Refurbishing the environment
Sport and environment (1)   Source: Alterra/ NOC NSF 2005 Need for indoor sportaccomodations in  the Netherlands in 2005 e...
Sport and environment (2) Outdoor areas needed for sport in the Netherlands 2005 en 2020 Source: Alterra/ NOC NSF 2005
Sport and environment (example) Relocation/refurbishment sportaccomodations
Examples of research <ul><li>Conceptual model central place theory </li></ul><ul><li>Practical applications </li></ul>
Central Place theory
Concepts central place theory: <ul><li>Threshold = the minimum number of consumers needed to be able to offer a service. <...
Examples?
Empiric example: <ul><li>Mercedes Benz dealers </li></ul>
Research Professional Football in the Netherlands: * What are the geographical marketarea’s of professional football clubs...
Empirical research: Visitor numbers matched with population figures Per municipality: who is going where? Per club: who tr...
Total visits in NL: 214,74 per 10.000   Source: Dejonghe & van Hoof, 2004 0,00 Vlieland 516,80 Tilburg 4,25 Urk 524,43 Goi...
Primary data sample Table based on 39 * 492 cells 82% 270 220 590 26747 Drimmelen 32% 226 72 182 25148 Dongen 0% 280 1 4 3...
The geography of NAC 10,12 Waalwijk 45584 862,96 46,14 12,75 Alphen-Chaam 9413 229,56 12,00 13,60 Werkendam 26384 106,71 3...
Marketareas in the Netherlands Copyright: Wolters Noordhof 2006 Areas with  R i  >=71,91/10.000  Relative marketshare >= 50%
An indicator of Place Identification? Average visits per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004 Source: van Hoof en Dejonghe, 2004
Space (absolute) versus place (cultural)
Example of research by students 1:
 
Application in student thesis research: Source: Lodder, 2006
Example of research by students 2:
Friction of distance for Sport Participation in  different neighbourhoods in Utrecht Source: Hakfoort, van Leeuwen and Tig...
Emerging alliances in the leisure industries, the commodification of culture (© Mommaas, 2003) sport nature & recreation t...
Application geographical research in Sport/Leisure/Tourism?
Auteurs:  Trudo Dejonghe, Sjef van Hoof en Thijs Kemmeren Prijs:  euro 21,65 (exclusief btw en verzendkosten) ISBN-10:  90...
 
Sjef van Hoof NHTV Internationale Hogeschool Breda Tel: 076 530 1241 [email_address]
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Workshop K10: The geography of sport and leisure

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The geography of sport and leisure: the spatial environment as a component for student fieldwork and research. By Sjef van Hoof

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Workshop K10: The geography of sport and leisure

  1. 1. 22 January 2008 Sjef van Hoof [email_address] About space, place and environment: The geography of sport and leisure
  2. 2. Outline of this presentation: <ul><li>What is geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Why geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Space, place and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of empirical research </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion.. </li></ul>
  3. 3. About (human) geography… Geography is about: * Spaces * Places * Environments (and Movements between spaces and places) (Edgington and Hyman, 2005)
  4. 4. About sport/leisure/tourism research: <ul><li>1). Sport and tourism research tends to produce pieces of research with poor linkages to bodies of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>2). Lack of any explicit consideration of epistemology: simple questionnaire based individual descriptive research </li></ul><ul><li>3). Sport and leisure travel flows are influenced by a range of factors that are not well understood </li></ul><ul><li>Source: James Higham and Tom Hinch (2006, p32) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Need for sport policy research: <ul><li>NOC/NSF: Space for Sport (2006): about access and availability of sport accommodations.. </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization of stadiums </li></ul><ul><li>Sport and Leisure for re-imaging and branding: how to determine impacts? </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic management (NL 2002: 25% work -38% leisure) </li></ul><ul><li>Place attachment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applicability of sport/leisure marketing: <ul><li>Determination of spatial client base/ promotion strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge to involve stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation of Brand Value (NAC or NAC Breda?) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geographies of spaces: <ul><li>Exploring how sport, leisure and tourism influence spatial travel patterns and itineraries of consumers </li></ul><ul><li>At different levels (local, regional, national or supranational) </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-classical economic assumptions: Distance decay influences attractivity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sport and space <ul><li>Manchester (1999): 4,000 – 6,000 foreign tourists visiting home matches of FC Manchester United </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore (1999): 11,000 supporters of Baltimore Orioles remain at least 1 night in Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Stevens, 2001 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sport and space Source: Augustin, 1996
  10. 10. Geography of places.. <ul><li>A place is a space infused with meaning (Lew, 2001). Sport and leisure may influence the meanings that are associated with those area’s: struggle for the most authentic attractions.. </li></ul><ul><li>Place is a rather subjective concept, constantly constructed and reconstructed.. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang (1999) Leisure and travel are used to establish identity and meaning to lives </li></ul>
  11. 11. Source: VVV Eindhoven
  12. 12. Sport and places.. <ul><li>Public and private stakeholders are interested in adding brand elements of sport to their destination marketing profile </li></ul><ul><li>Tophophilia effect: people develop a sense of attachment to an area: </li></ul><ul><li>We live here with more than 7,000 families and over 25,000 people. Our neighbourhood can not be find on any map of Rio de Janeiro. Even on the most recent maps the area we live in is still coloured green as in 1930. We do not exist. But if a person like Adriano Leite becomes successfull, we become noticed.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Jönsson, 2006, p52. Translation by the author ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Diffusion of sport in the Netherlands Source: RIVM, 2003 A B C
  14. 14. The geography of environment <ul><li>Natural and built environment that are used for sport and leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sportscapes” (Bale, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of sport and leisure accomodations and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Re-imaging of physical places </li></ul><ul><li>Sport may be an incubator for new forms of leisure and tourism </li></ul>
  15. 15. Refurbishing the environment
  16. 16. Sport and environment (1) Source: Alterra/ NOC NSF 2005 Need for indoor sportaccomodations in the Netherlands in 2005 en 2020
  17. 17. Sport and environment (2) Outdoor areas needed for sport in the Netherlands 2005 en 2020 Source: Alterra/ NOC NSF 2005
  18. 18. Sport and environment (example) Relocation/refurbishment sportaccomodations
  19. 19. Examples of research <ul><li>Conceptual model central place theory </li></ul><ul><li>Practical applications </li></ul>
  20. 20. Central Place theory
  21. 21. Concepts central place theory: <ul><li>Threshold = the minimum number of consumers needed to be able to offer a service. </li></ul><ul><li>Range = The maximum distance a consumer wants to travel to obtain a good or service </li></ul>
  22. 22. Examples?
  23. 23. Empiric example: <ul><li>Mercedes Benz dealers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Research Professional Football in the Netherlands: * What are the geographical marketarea’s of professional football clubs? (extension, population) * Where are the marketareas of professional football clubs interfering? * Which areas do offer prospects for growth?
  25. 25. Empirical research: Visitor numbers matched with population figures Per municipality: who is going where? Per club: who travels from where? Possible analisys: relative visitor frequency, where are gaps that may be filled?
  26. 26. Total visits in NL: 214,74 per 10.000 Source: Dejonghe & van Hoof, 2004 0,00 Vlieland 516,80 Tilburg 4,25 Urk 524,43 Goirle 11,59 Terschelling 534,69 Duiven 15,68 Terneuzen 542,33 Helmond 20,06 Sluis 570,06 Almelo 24,31 Hulst 584,74 Arnhem 24,91 Schiermonnikoog 594,46 Skarsterlân 26,58 Haelen 599,69 Roosendaal 28,87 Middelburg 709,94 Westervoort 29,12 Ameland 736,24 Veendam 30,06 Texel 807,12 Doetinchem 31,75 Vlissingen 862,96 Waalwijk 32,58 Hunsel 929,81 Kerkrade 32,80 Borsele 958,17 Heerenveen 33,23 De Wolden 1381,43 Edam-Volendam
  27. 27. Primary data sample Table based on 39 * 492 cells 82% 270 220 590 26747 Drimmelen 32% 226 72 182 25148 Dongen 0% 280 1 4 32130 Deurne 0% 126 0 0 24325 Cuijk 0% 216 0 0 20336 Cranendonck 92% 437 403 6619 164397 Breda 0% 207 0 1 29513 Boxtel 0% 120 0 0 29352 Boxmeer 0% 303 0 0 9372 Boekel 0% 255 1 1 19092 Bladel 0% 384 2 5 28244 Best % NAC Per 10000 Total Per 10000 NAC NAC Inhab
  28. 28. The geography of NAC 10,12 Waalwijk 45584 862,96 46,14 12,75 Alphen-Chaam 9413 229,56 12,00 13,60 Werkendam 26384 106,71 35,88 15,46 Woensdrecht 21557 97,00 33,32 21,92 Steenbergen 23386 168,51 51,26 22,13 Bergen op Zoom 66024 87,37 146,10 25,92 Roosendaal 78110 599,69 202,49 72,37 Dongen 25148 226,15 181,99 77,12 Halderberge 29746 181,00 229,41 78,78 Baarle-Nassau 6507 152,78 51,26 96,37 Rucphen 22607 234,63 217,87 111,50 Moerdijk 36553 192,73 407,55 120,58 Geertruidenberg 20939 210,16 252,48 159,91 Oosterhout 53136 273,87 849,70 160,11 Gilze en Rijen 24894 278,36 398,58 220,41 Drimmelen 26747 269,95 589,54 239,37 Etten-Leur 39352 296,29 941,98 240,78 Zundert 20386 268,15 490,85 402,65 Breda 164397 437,04 6619,47 Freq/10,000 Municip inhab per 10,000 abs
  29. 29. Marketareas in the Netherlands Copyright: Wolters Noordhof 2006 Areas with R i >=71,91/10.000 Relative marketshare >= 50%
  30. 30. An indicator of Place Identification? Average visits per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004 Source: van Hoof en Dejonghe, 2004
  31. 31. Space (absolute) versus place (cultural)
  32. 32. Example of research by students 1:
  33. 34. Application in student thesis research: Source: Lodder, 2006
  34. 35. Example of research by students 2:
  35. 36. Friction of distance for Sport Participation in different neighbourhoods in Utrecht Source: Hakfoort, van Leeuwen and Tiggelhoven (2007)
  36. 37. Emerging alliances in the leisure industries, the commodification of culture (© Mommaas, 2003) sport nature & recreation tourism hotel & catering retail media art & culture entertainment (traffic & transport) (food & stimulants) (cons. electronics) wellness games resorts events
  37. 38. Application geographical research in Sport/Leisure/Tourism?
  38. 39. Auteurs: Trudo Dejonghe, Sjef van Hoof en Thijs Kemmeren Prijs:  euro 21,65 (exclusief btw en verzendkosten) ISBN-10: 90-5472-011-5 ISBN-13: 978-90-5472-011-9 Omvang: 176 pagina's Voetballen in de kleine ruimte
  39. 41. Sjef van Hoof NHTV Internationale Hogeschool Breda Tel: 076 530 1241 [email_address]

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