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State of the Philippine EducationThe latest report by the National Statistical Coordination Board, recognizing that one in...
Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System       Education in the Philippines has undergone several stage...
1944      Public Welfare                       Commission, June                                               11, 1942    ...
Basic Education Act)       The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, s...
The Field Offices are responsible for the regional and local coordination and administration of the Department’smandate. R...
To provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for life-long learningand se...
developmental process, others create new laws that bring out the best legislative demands for education, develop effective...
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  1. 1. State of the Philippine EducationThe latest report by the National Statistical Coordination Board, recognizing that one in six school-age-children isdeprived of education, tells us of what is in store in our country’s future.The enrollment rate in our primary school five years ago, was 90 percent. Last year, it dropped to 83 percent, and thenumber is rising. The situation is worse for secondary education, where enrollment rate has been steady at only 59 percentover the same period.Unfortunately, this has been going on in decades. Past government administrations are equally guilty of negligence tocheck the increasing numbers of illiterate Filipinos. Illiteracy to me, means the difficulty of a person to read and write, andeven if he or she can read or write, the comprehension is low and have difficulty following simple written instructions.Education has been in the backburner and no serious effort was made to make it a major strategy for our progress.Education has a dramatic effect on economic development and growth. In fact, other countries are starting to realize howdrop-out rates affect to their economies. In the Philippines, nobody knows the extent of its effect.It appears that we lost sight of the implications of this issue, because there is no statistical data to show how much waslost in terms of peso value due to school drop-outs and illiteracy. What I am saying is that, it is not only lost opportunityto get better income, but the government also lost tax revenues from a productive and competitive population.School non-completion affects so many things. It increases criminal activity, and adds to cost of prison and welfareservices. By simply following a simple linear cause and effect analysis, they have lower lifetime earnings, which reducesbuying power, lowers tax revenues for governments and reduces economic growth. When you extend your analysis, itresults to decreased health status, more criminal activity, higher rates of teen pregnancy and single motherhood. Whereveryou look at it, just higher costs all around.Aside from those stated, the education system has direct effect on future economic growth. A major consideration of abusiness to invest in a country or in a community, is the economic impact data. Part of this data is the educationachievement of the community, along with items such as transportation and workforce development. With the presentcondition, we can’t hardly make the first cut because companies will see they don’t have a pipeline to supply them withthe workforce they need.We can no longer deny that the manufacturing sector cannot sustain the rising need for employment, and high-tech jobsare coming on. It is expected that majority of the jobs created over the next 10 years will be high-tech. How can thiscountry compete if many of our population didn’t even finish elementary school?We are already seeing economic development pass us. The issue at hand should not only be viewed from the perspectiveof children dropping-out of school and the inability of their parents to find better jobs. It is about lost opportunities - lostlifetime earnings of those who were deprived of education, lost revenues for the government, and lost opportunity for thiscountry to catch-up with our already developed neighbors.We need not fight over it now. The government should take the lead, to bring all the players to the table and define astrategic education plan. Other sectors are waiting. I am sure the business leaders are hungry to know what they canspecifically do to help.
  2. 2. Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish timesto the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of theleadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race. As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods.Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the housesof tribal tutors. The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization. Thetribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite,especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalizedthrough the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least oneprimary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and theestablishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instructionwas free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. Education during that period was inadequate,suppressed, and controlled. The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldos Republic under a RevolutionaryGovernment. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time beingbut were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the MilitaryAcademy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free andcompulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule wasestablished upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained thepeople for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions ofPresident McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as themedium of instruction. A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue ofAct No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commissionauthorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. Theywere the Thomasites. OFFICIAL OFFICIAL NAME OFYEAR TITULAR LEGAL BASES THE DEPARTMENT HEAD Superior Commission of Educational Decree1863 Chairman Primary Instruction of 1863 Act. No. 74 of the1901- Department of Public General Philippine1916 Instruction Superintendent Commission, Jan. 21, 19011916- Department of Public Organic Act Law of Secretary1942 Instruction 1916 (Jones Law) Department of Commissioner Renamed by the1942- Education, Health and Japanese Executive
  3. 3. 1944 Public Welfare Commission, June 11, 1942 Renamed by Department of Japanese1944 Education, Health and Minister Sponsored Public Welfare Philippine Republic Renamed by Department of Public Japanese1944 Secretary Instruction Sponsored Philippine Republic Department of Public Renamed by the1945- Instruction and Secretary Commonwealth1946 Information Government Renamed by the1946- Department of Secretary Commonwealth1947 Instruction Government E.O. No. 94 October1947- 1947 Department of Education Secretary1975 (Reorganization Act of 1947)1975- Department of Education Proc. No. 1081, Secretary1978 and Culture September 24, 19721978- Ministry of Education P.D. No. 1397, June Minister1984 and Culture 2, 19781984- Ministry of Education, Education Act of Minister1986 Culture and Sports 1982 Department of1987- E.O. No. 117. Education, Culture and Secretary1994 January 30, 1987 Sports RA 7722 and RA Department of 7796, 19941994- Education, Culture and Secretary Trifocalization of2001 Sports Education Management2001 - RA 9155, August Department of Education Secretarypresent 2001 (Governance of
  4. 4. Basic Education Act) The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school ofarts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by thePhilippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the Universityof the Philippines. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except theSecretary of Public Instruction. Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. 2 in 1942. The Philippine ExecutiveCommission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopenedin June 1942. On October 14, 1943, the Japanese - sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education.Under the Japanese regime, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education wasreserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized. On February 27, 1945, theDepartment of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Departmentof Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to theBureau of Public and Private Schools. In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 and theMinistry of Education and Culture in 1978 y virtue of P.D. No. 1397. Thirteen regional offices were created andmajor organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports which later became theDepartment of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117. The structure ofDECS as embodied in EO No. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994 when the Commission onHigher Education (CHED), and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs,respectively. The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress topass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the TechnicalEducation and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively. The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary,secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports. TESDA now administers the post-secondary,middle-level manpower training and development while CHED is responsible for higher education. In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, waspassed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Departmentof Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district officesand schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening theirleadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability.The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge,and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.DepEd MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE To carry out its mandates and objectives, the Department is organized into two major structuralcomponents. The Central Office maintains the overall administration of basic education at the national level.
  5. 5. The Field Offices are responsible for the regional and local coordination and administration of the Department’smandate. RA 9155 provides that the Department should have no more than four Undersecretaries and fourAssistant Secretaries with at least one Undersecretary and one Assistant Secretary who are career serviceofficers chosen among the staff of the Department. (See DepEd Organizational Chart.) At present, the Department operates with four Undersecretaries in the areas of: (1) Programs andProjects; (2) Regional Operations; (3) Finance and Administration; and (4) Legal Affairs; four AssistantSecretaries in the areas of: (1) Programs and Projects; (2) Planning and Development; (3) Budget andFinancial Affairs; and (4) Legal Affairs. Backstopping the Office of the Secretary at the Central Office are the different services, bureaus andcenters. The five services are the Administrative Service, Financial and Management Service, HumanResource Development Service, Planning Service, and Technical Service. Three staff bureaus provideassistance in formulating policies, standards, and programs related to curriculum and staff development. Theseare the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE), Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE), and the Bureau ofNonformal Education (BNFE). By virtue of Executive Order No. 81 series of 1999, the functions of a fourthbureau, the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS), were absorbed by the Philippine SportsCommission (PSC) last August 25, 1999. Six centers or units attached to the Department similarly provide technical and administrative supporttowards the realization of the Department’s vision. These are the National Education Testing and ResearchCenter (NETRC), Health and Nutrition Center (HNC), National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP),Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force (EDPITAF), National Science TeachingInstrumentation Center (NSTIC), and Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (IMCS). There are four specialoffices under OSEC: the Adopt-a-School Program Secretariat, Center for Students and Co-curricular Affairs,Educational Technology Unit, and the Task Force Engineering Assessment and Monitoring. Other attached and support agencies to the Department are the Teacher Education Council (TEC),Philippine High School for the Arts, Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC), and the Instructional MaterialsCouncil (IMC). At the sub-national level, the Field Offices consist of the following: 1. Sixteen (16) Regional Offices, including the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM*), each headed by a Regional Director (a Regional Secretary in the case of ARMM); 2. One hundred fifty-seven (157) Provincial and City Schools Divisions, each headed by a Schools Division Superintendent. Assisting the Schools Division Offices are 2,227 School Districts, each headed by a District Supervisor; 3. Under the supervision of the Schools Division Offices are forty-eight thousand, four hundred forty-six (48, 446) schools, broken down as follows: o 40,763 elementary schools (36,234 public and 4,529 private) o 7,683 secondary schools (4,422 public and 3,261 private)The DepEd VisionBy 2030, DepEd is globally recognized for good governance and for developing functionally-literate and God-loving Filipinos.The DepEd Mission
  6. 6. To provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for life-long learningand service for the common good.MandatePhilippine Constitution Basic Education Act of 1982 Governance Act of Basic Education (RA9155)Core ValuesCulture of Excellence, Integrity and AccountabilityMaka-DiyosMakataoMakabayanMakalikasan---The Current state of Philippine education in the concept of globalizationAds by GoogleDavao Hotel Discounts & Compare Rates, Reviews. Up to 75% off. Book today!Ads by GoogleTeachers needed in Canadawww.EducationCanada.comApply to schools who accept Foreign teachers. Apply Today! help in school? Talk to us and share your stories.School Education Showwww.cieet.com660 Exhibitors from 30+ Countries Why not Check Now & Meet Yours?The term globalization is referred to a lot of different contexts like economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and so and soforth.Throwing a leading question for this matter, what is the stand of education anyway? Since education is the sole building block of anindividual in order to rise from the crucial stages of human development up to the different contexts mentioned earlier, it supplies notonly the knowledge but as well as the in-service trainings needed to be exposed to those different fields. A person cannot just masteror be an expert of his craft without passing through the stages of education. Ergo, connecting education to the present globalizationcondition, education is now pressured with a lot of expectations in bringing up an individual who will not only be suitable but as wellas flexible in the different functions of different orientations.So how is this development process being applied and measured in education since the present globalization condition is erratic and itchanges by just a spur of the moment? Seeing though different cultures, different countries of the world have their own way ofaddressing this concern, Most invest their biggest share of the budget on education, some on technology that will aid education in its
  7. 7. developmental process, others create new laws that bring out the best legislative demands for education, develop effective methodsand strategies on how to expand proficiency and efficiency through researches, and maintain social welfare at least to its average.Using these addresses as reference, it seems that education plays a major role on all orientations and even serves as a intersection of allareas of influence. Though, these mostly happens to first world countries. So, how about the third world countries like the Philippinesfor example.We can still enumerate the same as what I have mentioned, however, due to culture indifferences, different types of child-rearing,diverse manners of inculcating discipline, and sometimes individualism, Philippine education lies distant from the expectations ofgenerally aiding an individual to feel competent or even feel confident in entering the globalization era at present. Just to itemize afew.The Filipinos view education with utmost importance and the completion of reaching the tertiary level is a must and for them is one oftheir greatest achievements in life, plus they do not only display this character at school but as well as in the training grounds andwork areas they are at, and that includes other countries.The Filipino teaching strategies, I must say, is very promising. You can visibly see the resourcefulness and dedication of the mentorsin their profession and sees through achievements not in their selves but on their products, their students. They feel the biggest deals oftheir lives seeing their learners walk their way through their own podiums. The richness of the Filipino literature, arts, originality , andperseverance exhibit that Filipinos are fast learners inside and outside the school premises.The literacy level of the Filipinos, compared to a lot of countries is way too high, as well as the talents, making the Filipino one of themost demanded skilled workers in the world and stand out when it comes to love of work.On the contrary, the present condition of the Philippine education is full of challenges and struggles. Based on the 2008 achievements,the percentages of the figures presented as achieved were mostly positive although it is said to be minimal, leaving the target date ofthe unachieved percentage unknown. Sad to say that all unachieved percentage was due to unavailability of funds provided by thegovernment. With poverty and corruption of the government, the Phillippine education would lie as is or improvement may just be assteady as it is today for the two major challenges hamper the other factors that help out education status to progress.