Very often we focus on the financial returns related to the energy efficiency of green building – and that’s no small potatoes, but today I’m going to focus on another key aspect: health. But before I do, let me tell you about USGBC and its Affordable Housing Initiative.
Mission:To transform the way buildings and communities are designed, built and operated, enabling an environmentally and socially responsible, healthy, and prosperous environment that improves the quality of life. LEED: Developed by USGBC in March 2000. LEED provides the framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions.LEED promotes sustainable building and development practices through a suite of rating systems – Developed through open, consensus-based process led by LEED committees and diverse groups of volunteers that represent a cross-section of building professionals.Affordable Housing Initiative: One of USGBCs key efforts to ensure that sustainable building is aligned with the theories and practices of social and economic justice. We actively promote affordable housing advocacy and policy at the federal and local level – working on legislation and regulations, including building codes. Public is demanding government do more with less: Low-income households constantly face having to do more with less – Healthy, green building provides well-targeted investments that can actually inspire innovation, increase energy efficiency and promote public health AND expand affordability of housing for low-incomeFounding member and steering committee of the Green Affordable Housing Coalition Steering Committee member of the National Safe and Healthy Housing CoalitionFounding member of PHA Sustainability Network – working with CLPHA and EnterpriseSeventh yr of Affordable Housing Summit done in conjunction with GREENBUILDNext Generation: The meaning of green is evolving to more fully include human and social relationships to the built environment. USGBC just release new version of LEED, continually looking for innovations and ways to push the envelope.
Developed by USGBC in March 2000. LEED provides the framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions.LEED promotes sustainable building and development practices through a suite of rating systems – recognize projects that implement strategies for better environment and health performance.Developed through open, consensus-based process led by LEED committees and diverse groups of volunteers that represent a cross-section of building professionals.USGBC created in 1993. Worked with members – architects, builders, engineers, etc and started pilot of first LEED program in 1998; after 2 yrs of feedback from folks working with the pilot program, input from peers and public comment, officially launched LEED V1 which was intended for new construction – more focused on commercial – in 2000. Every iteration of LEED goes through the same intense peer review, public comment period and is examined thoroughly to make sure it reflects innovative workable ideas. LEED and green building make business sense by providing a triple bottom line approach to development.Presently USGBC has LEED certification programs for: Homes, Neighborhood Development (ND); Commercial Interiors (CI), Core and Shell (CS), New Construction (NC), Schools (Sch), Healthcare(HC), Retail, Existing Buildings Operations and Maintenance (EB:O&M)..Proud of our partnership with Enterprise Community Development, which launched Green Communities in 2004 to directly address some of the special needs of affordable housing developers – including helping finance some of the green features and helping organize integrated design charrettes to bring the whole development team together to make informed decisions prior to launching development.
As of August 2011, more than 50% of the buildings certified under the LEED for Homes program are affordable housing units. Nearly 70% of the LEED for Home certified so far in 2011 are affordable units. And these are just LEED certified – doesn’t count homes that are perhaps Green Communities certified or a local certification program. Tells me affordable housing developers get it and building green directly aligns with their mission to build high quality, sustainable housing for their residents. These homes are across the country – from rural MS to SF to upstate NY and everywhere in between. Proud of our partnership with Enterprise Community Development, which launched Green Communities in 2004 to directly address some of the special needs of affordable housing developers – including helping finance some of the green features and helping organize integrated design charrettes to bring the whole development team together to make informed decisions prior to launching development.
Familiar with the devastating impact tenements had on low-income, poor .. mostly immigrant - households. Tenement housing started as a well-intentioned design/plan to just make sure there was enough affordable housing to help those who needed it. Tenement architecture, which favored narrow design, inexpensive (i.e., cheap) building materials, led to overcrowded and unsanitary conditions . Crammed in like sardines. Little to no ventilation or natural light. In fact, prior to 1901 – only required to have one window per apt.The first housing laws in this country were set up to deal with public health problems– The First building codes changed the design and ventilation/ window requirements and most importantly – started calling for indoor plumbing – The introduction of this now household standard is credited with dissipating, and in some cases, eradicating the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever.
In recent years, materials used in construction have taken center stage. Lead-based paint hazards cause severe developmental issues - Created a generation of children who suffer from damage to the brain and nervous system; Behavior and learning problems, such as hyperactivity; and slowed growth.Also harmful to adults: causing reproductive problems in both men and women; high blood pressure and hypertension; nerve disorders; memory and concentration problems, and muscle and joint pain (EPA)Asbestos, the heat-resistant fiber used in housing construction materials ranging from flooring to roofing, is highly carcinogenic. Indoor pollution levels range from 2 to 5 X higher (and in some instances 100X higher) than outdoor pollutant levels - may pose greater health risks to individuals. People spend approximately 90% of their time indoors. Poor air quality increases the incidences of asthma and other respiratory diseases, making individuals that spend the greatest amount of time indoors, such as children, seniors and the chronically ill, the most susceptible to indoor pollutants and these ailments.1984 report by the World Health Organization (WHO) found that up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings had excessive indoor air quality problems due to:•Inadequate ventilation: Conservation measures sparked by the 1970s energy crisis called for a reduction in ventilation from outdoor air sources. Although ventilation standards were later revised, inadequate ventilation remains an issue in many buildings as existing standards were largely designed to address comfort, not indoor contaminants.•Indoor chemical contaminants: Indoor air pollution is caused by sources within the building itself, as well as by the occupants. VOCs such as formaldehyde may be released from building materials and cleaning products. Tobacco smoke creates high VOC levels, as well as other toxic compounds, such as particulate matter. Unvented or poorly vented appliances, can create combustion by-products such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. •Outdoor chemical contaminants: Sometimes, even outdoor air that enters a building contributes to indoor air pollution. Poorly located intake vents, windows and doors may allow pollutants such as motor vehicle exhaust to enter buildings; improperly placed plumbing vents and building exhausts (e.g., bathroom and kitchens) can create a “short circuit,” permitting pollutants that were intended to vent outside the building to re-enter. Cancer-causing radon gas can seep into homes through cracks or holes in the foundation. Pesticides and other outdoor contaminants can be tracked into the house on clothing and shoes.•Biological contaminants: Biological contaminants include bacteria, mold (fungi), pollen and viruses. Excess moisture may increase the level of these contaminants. Stagnant or accumulated water can be found in ducts, humidifiers and drain pans, or leak into ceiling tiles, carpeting, insulation or even drywall. Insect droppings are additional sources of biological contaminants. These contaminants are often mixed, creating a toxic soup of indoor exposures that add to other issues creating occupant discomfort such as inadequate temperature control, humidity, or lighting.
As attention has shifted from communicable disease to chronic afflictions, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression, the link between housing and health has received new appreciation and investigation. Several reviews of the linkages between housing conditions and health in the modern era have been completed in the past decade.A 2007 survey by Robert Charles Lesser & Co. asked buyers about their attitudes toward green building and their motivations and willingness to pay for green homes (RCLC, 2007). Forty-one percent of respondents reported that they cared about and were willing to pay for the health and wellness components of a green building, even if the costs were not recoverable. This is compared with 18% for energy savings and 24% for the environment. Some of the most prevalent residential green building programs are USGBC’s LEED Rating system just discussed, EarthCraft – which is more of a regional certification program by Southface Energy, ICC-700 National Green Building Standard (NGBS) created by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) and the International Code Council (ICC), and the Green Communities Criteria designed specifically for affordable housing by Enterprise Community Partners.Low-income people tend to be disproportionately impacted by asthma, other respiratory illnesses, and a variety of other health problems related to poor housing conditions. Green building requirements are especially important when building and rehabilitating affordable housing because they not only extend the affordability of the home by using durable materials and lowering utility bills, but can also help improve residents’ health, effectively lowering healthcare costs.Green building programs include many measures specifically aimed at reducing indoor air pollutants to improve indoor air quality. Almost all green building programs – regardless of whether they are the ones I just mentioned or local programs have criteria related to improving indoor air quality through better ventilation and air filtering mechanisms. Other common health criteria identified in green building programs include specifying non-toxic building construction materials, testing for and mitigation of hazardous chemical (such as radon, carbon monoxide); integrated pest management; moisture management measures to reduce mold; and smoking restrictions .
Other green building measures also have an impact on resident health:Tightening building envelopes through improved construction techniques, vapor barriers, increased insulation, and installation of high performing windows and doors that reduce airborne irritants, allergens and dust – which are significant triggers for asthma and respiratory illnesses. These features, along with programmable thermostats, ceiling fans, more efficient and properly sized heating and cooling systems not only save families precious dollars in energy costs, but they also improve the thermal comfort of homesImproved Light – most reports related to occupational benefits such as improved productivity, they’ve been shown to have a beneficial impact on mental health. Efficient exterior lighting using daylight sensors or timers helps ensure that external paths are well lit in the evening, which can help reduce injuries caused by dark paths and stairwells, as well as reduce the stress associated with living in unsafe neighborhoods.Green building standards have most recently evolved to incorporate other additional elements that may be beneficial to occupant health: siting and landscaping techniques which include non-pollen producing plants; walkways, play areas and communal spaces that promote community and a sense of well-being through connectivity with your neighbors.Community linkages, such as walkable streets; connections to public amenities and open space; access to recreational facilities; and alternatives to driving, such as bicycling and public transport, all of which encourage physical activity and social interaction. LEED-ND now awards points for visitability and universal housing design, which can help reduce injuries related to housing access. Maturing green building standards also feature criteria supporting local food production, which could lead to more community gardens and better nutritional health for residents.There are some critics that say that green building measures don’t go far enough on the health side, don’t limit enough of the toxic chemicals found in homes through construction materials … even furniture. Lack of testing/regulations by federal govt . Risks from chemicals such as bisphenal-A; phthalates and PVC LEEDIndoor Environmental Quality – enhanced air ventilation and filtering, moisture and mold reduction, radon and other contaminant controls (21 points)Environmentally Preferable Products – use of materials with low toxic chemicals (8 points)LEED-ND -- 17 Points: Sustainable sites section: support low-emitting, alternative transportation, walkable neighborhoods and related issues.35 pts in LEED-NC support energy efficiency, issue linked with global public health impacts of climate change and emissions from coal-burning power plants.
Green building programs offer substantial health benefits for residents along with the potential to move the housing market toward healthier building practices. Among the hundreds of ideas initiated by state legislatures and regulatory authorities this year, 25 states have taken another step forward in their green transformation. Newly adopted policies are wide ranging, covering energy efficiency finance, investments in high-performance schools and incentives for green homes and manufacturing facilities, in addition to new minimum codes.Green Building initiatives including legislation, executive orders, resolutions, ordinances, policies, and incentives can be found in 45 states, including 442 localities (384 cities/towns and 58 counties), 35 state governments (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico), 14 federal agencies or departments, and numerous public school jurisdictions and institutions of higher education across the United States442 local jurisdictions; 35 state govts and 14 federal agencies or dept have adopted LEED and/or some other green building standardas a tool for benchmarking higher performance green building practices. In many jurisdictions Green Communities is becoming the standard for affordable housing, esp built with public monies. Enacted at Federal Level:Jan 2013 – Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act Restrict cancer-causing formaldehyde in Building Materials – est limits on content of formaldehyde in non-structural composite wood products… Phase out toxic and Inefficient Light fixture Components: DOE’s ban on production of magnetic ballasts went into effect 2011EPA’s Renovation, Repair and Painting: Orgs such as National Center for Healthy Housing believe this could be the most important federal regulation since the HUD Lead-Safe Housing Rule ten years ago.Pending LegislationHealthy Housing Council – Introduced by Sen Jack Reed of RI in 2009 to create a Healthy Housing Council that would encourage healthy housing through capacity building TA, public policy and education, and facilitate coordination and collaboration between federal agencies. Referred to Sen Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs last week (9/22/2011)Safe and Healthy Housing Act of 2011: Introduced by Cong Robert Brady (PA): Provide funding to existing fed housing programs such as CDBG, HOME and LIHEAP to add a healthy homes component to the programs; Create a Healthy Homes Seal of Approval modeled after the successful Energy Star program; Authorize funding for the next 5 yrs for the Nat’l Institutes of Environmental Health Science and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (i.e., the other CDC) to evaluate the health risks and human health effects of indoor exposure to chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide, chemical asthma triggers, and common household and garden pesticides; Authorize funding for HUD to study methods to assess and control housing-related health hazards Provide funding to HUD and CDC jointly to study indoor environmental quality of existing housing and to create a system to monitor housing-related hazards
Governments around the world rely on building codes to protect their citizens from harm due to fire, structural collapse and other building related risks. Codes establish minimum requirements for construction materials and practices. Rely on licensed professionals to design building according code and on code officials to ensure minimum standards are met.Code history: earliest civilization understood predictable, consistent min standards were need for construction materials and practices to ensure adequate protection of human life and the welfare of community. Building codes go back 3000 yrs. Code of Hammurabi – founder of the Babylonian Empire.64 AD – purview widened to include fire safety after in the burning of Rome.Codes didn’t survive Dark Ages.1660s – Great Fire of London.. brought back realization that fire safety measure needed to protect communityEarly 1840s: Report on Sanitary condition of the Labouring Population of Gt Britain. 1st time environmental conditions recognized as cause of disease. 1905 – first National Building Code in the U.S.– industrialization impacts… fire and disease. 1906 – San Francisco earthquake – highlight need for minimum safety standards to protect bld occupants and community from structural hazards1970s: Energy crisis – Energy Policy and Conservation Act 1978 – required states receiving fed funs initiate energy conservation standards for new buildings. … interest wained with lifting of oil embargo1992: Hurricane Andrew – lead to FL instituting new min requirements in code 1994: three regional code orgs came together to form ICC - International Code Council – ICC charged with developing single set of comp and coordinated codes focused on building and fire safety that reflect engineering, material science and human safety.Surgeon General Call to Action to Promote Healthier Homes (2009):When enforced, housing and building codes have resulted in better constructed and maintained buildings and in improved health. For example, strict housing code enforcement has been demonstrated to reduce the likelihood of death in residential fires (Cummins and Jackson 2001) and lead poisoning in homes where lead-poisoned children live (Brown et al. 2001). A large number of programs, codes, and regulations exist that have the potential to influence changes in theenvironmental conditions in homes."Building CodesFederal Response: Initiate /implement through regulations such as Lead and asbestos hazards (EPA); Incentives/funding to support a specific action (HUD); set a roducts standards (CPSC)• No federal housing or building code• No federal health codeState Response: Housing and building codes• State enforced (Police Powers)• Privately enforced (insurance, mortgage, bond)– Some states (NJ, CA) have statewide building code; others following home rule – each jurisdiction responsible for setting their own (if any).Early signs of market transformation –seen in demand for GB over the last decade.GB also recognized as key element to address cumulative, long-term hazards to human and environmental health and human.Increasingly visible impact of LEED building system – highlighted need and potential for codes to address broader/expanded view of building-related risks. Not all hazards related to the built environment are tied to building failure or catastrophic event. Localities have adopted green building rules for public construction and 12 cities, including Boston, Washington, and San Francisco, have extended the rules to the private sector. ICC: Model codes updated every 3 yrs to reflect latest evolutions in building science, practices and technology – normally with only incremental improvements. However few state and local mandatory building codes actually keep pace. Large changes in codes generally occur after a catastrophic event - such as Katrina or the hurricanes, earthquake, etc. which reveals where a significant overhaul needs to occurInternational Property Maintenance Code (IPMC)Coordinated and comprehensive construction and fire codes for nationwide use. Developed by the International Code Council (ICC) through their governmental consensus process. Contains health-related provisions that can improve resident healthNew view: focuses attn on healthy and active lifestyles, preserving natural environment, conserving resources and addressing toxicity of materials and processes. Greening of baseline mandatory minim: two key developments – greater awareness of the need for change and broader practical experience with built projects that have raised bar at leading edge of building regulatory community GB provides improved perspective on safety – and looks at the long-term, cumulative implications of exposure to toxins and hazards often found indoors. and the environment’s constant exposure to pollutants, natural resource extraction and compounding effects of GHG emissions2009: International Code Council (ICC) launched development of the International Green Construction Code (IGCC) – Launched joint effort in March 2010 to release IGCC with Standard 189.1 as alt path to compliance.ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) Greening the Codes – Report initially done June 10: since Then – First statewide green building code implemented in CA; - published addenda to Standard 189 (standard for design of high-performance green buildings – excludes low-rise residential buildings), IGCC undergone two rounds of public comment; Next version of LEED finished round of public comment and released.NYCs Green Codes Task Force – example of national trend of communities to address economic, environmental and community health issues.. Within approx 18 months after Task Force released recommendations (feb 2010) 36 of Task Force’s 111 recommendation have been adopted or action is in process Green building rating systems – such as LEED, EarthCraft, and Green Communities – designed to benchmark beyond-code leadership for buildings that want to go beyond min standards. Important to back up with strong, more comprehensive green building codes. Safer, healthier and more environmentally responsible codes represent the heart of sustainable planning to raise the bar for the entire community. Code represent new baselineIncreasingly visible impact of LEED building system – highlighted need and potential for codes to address broader/expanded view of building-related risks. Not all hazards related to the built environment are tied to building failure or catastrophic event. New view: focuses attn on healthy and active lifestyles, preserving natural environment, conserving resources and addressing toxicity of materials and processes. Greening of baseline mandatory minim: two key developments – greater awareness of the need for change and broader practical experience with built projects that have raised bar at leading edge of building regulatory community GB provides improved perspective on safety – and looks at the long-term, cumulative implications of exposure to toxins and hazards often found indoors. and the environment’s constant exposure to pollutants, natural resource extraction and compounding effects of GHG emissions
Although numerous anecdotal reports discussing the link between green building and improved health exist, only a few studies have been conducted to date. NCHH: Tracks legislation and regulations at federal level and all fifty states. Offer trainings to non-profit housing property managers and owners, code enforcement officials to explain correlation between resident health and housing conditions. Website provides links to housing Codes at the state level and links to find local ordinance.Energy Plus Health – Weatherization Plus Health Training – materials to promote healthier weathization techniquesHome Asthma Reduction training workbooksNational Safe and Healthy Housing Coalition:
Advancing Green Policies – just recently released by the USGBCGreening the Codes – only provided May 2011, but there is a longer, more in-depth version from 2010Green Housing = Improved Health: White paper looking at GB and Health with Case studies done for a NWA SymposiumHealthy Living Environment – Enterprise links to publications and websites promoting green building and healthHow Healthy are National GB – report done by NCHH.USGBC Research Publications: Range from publications looking at GB from broad range of perspectivesUsing Executive Authorities to Achieve Greener Buildings: USGBC led guide for policymakers to enhance sustainability and efficiency in multifamity housing and commercial buildings. Provides recommendations as to how appraisal and underwriting practices at Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac can be updated to include green buliding, healthy practicesOriginally done in 2010; just been updated. Available on usgbc website under publications
Jeremy: Tuesday 10:45am - 12:15pmSession Series 5: Strengthening Collaboration and Leveraging ResourcesAn opportunity to think specifically about inter-agency collaboration and the leveraging of additional resources to advance common goals. Sessions focus on early lessons from the Sustainable Communities Planning grants, the use of data for interagency planning, the role of the non-governmental sector and public-private partnerships and strategies for facilitating successful interagency partnerships.5.3 Getting Results from Interagency Partnerships at the State and Local LevelHow do interagency partnerships at the state or local level work to achieve shared goals? Session addresses the many elements required for successful interagency partnerships, including generating buy-in within government agencies, finding champions to mobilize efforts, and using data to inform decisions and assessments.Asa: Tuesday 4pm - 5:15pmFacilitated Discussions and Training Sessions: Health Benefits of Energy Efficient and Green HomesUnderstand the health benefits of energy efficient and “green” homes for residents of all ages. The discussion will also touch on the overall community benefits of energy efficient and “green homes” – reduced greenhouse gas emissions – and how states and localities are adopting strategies to meet greenhouse gas emission reduction targets through energy efficient building standards.Asa Foss, U.S. Green Building Council (Session Lead)Eric Werling, U.S. Department of Energy
SSC2011_Noreen Beatley PPT
NHC Solutions for Sustainable Communities<br />Encouraging the Use of Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Building Practices:<br />Overview of Sustainable Building Practices<br />Noreen Beatley<br />Affordable Housing Initiative<br />U.S. Green Building Council<br />September 26, 2011<br />
U.S. Green Building Council<br />Mission: Transform the Built Environment<br />LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design<br />Affordable Housing Initiative<br />Next Generation?<br />
Health and Green Building: 21st Century<br />Health Criteria in Green Building Programs<br />Indoor Air Quality<br />Enhanced Ventilation and Air Filtering<br />Non-Toxic Building Materials<br />Integrated Pest Management <br />Moisture Management and Mold Reduction<br />Hazardous Chemical Testing and Mitigation<br /> Smoke-Free Environment<br />
Health and Green Building<br />Health Criteria in Green Building Programs<br />Tighter Building Envelopes<br />Temperature Control<br />Siting and Landscaping<br />Improved Lighting<br />Community Linkages<br />
Health and Green Building : Policy Update<br />442local jurisdictions<br />35state governments<br /> 14federal agencies<br />Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products<br />Phase Out Toxic and Inefficient Light Fixture Components<br />Renovation, Repair and Painting (EPA) Regulation<br />Healthy Housing Council Act of 2011<br />Safe and Healthy Housing Act of 2011<br />
Health and Green Building: Policy Update<br />Codes<br />2009 Surgeon General Call to Action to Promote Healthier Homes<br />International Code Council (ICC)<br />International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC)<br /> International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC)<br /> International Green Construction Code (IGCC)<br />NYC Green Codes Task Force<br />
Health and Green Building: Resources<br />International Codes Council<br />www.iccsafe.org<br />National Center for Healthy Homes: <br />www.nchh.org/Training/Green-and-Healthy-Housing.aspx<br />National Safe and Healthy Housing Coalition:<br />www.nchh.org/Policy/National-Safe-and-Healthy-Housing-Coalition.aspx<br />PHA Sustainability Network Database Project:<br />www.clpha.org/green_public_housing_database?s=Survey<br />U.S. Green Building Council: www.usgbc.org<br />
Health and Green Building: Publications<br />Advancing Green Building Policy in the States: 2011 Victories from Alabama to Wyoming<br />www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=10055<br />Greening the Codes (USGBC)<br />May 2011 Update: www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=7403<br />Green Housing = Improved Health: A Winning Combination <br />www.nchh.org/Portals/0/Contents/green_build_symposium_r3.pdf<br />Healthy Living Environment - Enterprise Community Partners<br />www.practitionerresources.org/documents.html?c=319<br />How Healthy are National Green Building Programs?<br />www.community-wealth.org/_pdfs/articles-publications/green/report-morley-tohn.pdf<br />USGBC Research Publications<br />www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=77<br />Using Executive Authorities to Achieve Greener Buildings (USGBC)<br />www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=7187<br />
For more information: USGBC Affordable Housing Initiative<br /> email@example.com<br />