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Philosophy of nursing

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Philosophy of nursing

  1. 1.  Philosophy of nursing states our thoughts on what we believe to be true about the nature of the profession of nursing and provide a basis for nursing activities..
  2. 2.  Idealism  Naturalism  Romanticism  Realism  Philosophical theism  Theistic realism  humanism  Existentialism
  3. 3.  Naturalism is the oldest known philosophy in the western world , which can be traced back to Aristotle, in the fourth century formulated by Thomas Aquinas(1225 and 1274). NATURALISM is "the philosophical belief that everything arises from natural properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual explanations are excluded or discounted.“ Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws
  4. 4.  An action is good if it is accord with human nature; bad if it is contrary to the nature  The nature of things can be discovered by reason.
  5. 5.  There are two principles of natural law ethics have special importance for health care. These are principle of double effect and principle of totality.  Principle of double effect: health care professionals may become involved in the situation s that result in evil consequences regardless of what courses of action is taken. Decision of administer a drug to relieve a cancer patient’s pain; for example remove of pregnant woman cancerous uterus will result in the death of the foetus  The natural of totality: according to the roman catholic version of natural law, individual can ethically dispose of their organs or interfere with those organ’s ability to function only to the extent that the well of the whole body requires.
  6. 6.  The strength of naturalism is its simplicity. It offers individual freedom from presumption and decreases the influences of the influence of confusion in our society today.  Weaknesses: the primary weakness of naturalism is its simplicity. Life and existence is so simplified that deep insight and adequate explanation cannot be formed.
  7. 7.  Thomas Aquinas  Thales  Jonathan Barnes  Jean Buridan
  8. 8.  In nursing practice: the nurse practionner should the good and the evil of the care administered to the patient and make sure the good is higher than ever.  In nursing education: in nursing school, student learn professional mortality, ethnics principles in order to show them what is accepted and unaccepted in their professional practice.  In nursing research: many researches have been conducted to asses patient’s conceptions about natural methods in family planning and the acceptance of organ ablation.  In nursing management : the nurse manager supervise the staff in order to see if their practice is according to naturalism philosophy principle.  In nursing behavior: naturalism brings about signing the form of consent with the patient before any treatment practice that modifies the nature of the patient.
  9. 9.  Naturalism is science-based. Naturalists believe that science is the most reliable descriptor of the world. Phenomena that cannot be scientifically proven (including fate(death), heaven and hell) are seen as imaginary. In addition, naturalists do not believe in the soul, instead postulating that biology, neurology and psychology fulfill the soul's supposed function. 
  10. 10. Philosophical Naturalism is the idea that nature is all there is. Also known as metaphysical naturalism, it is an outright rejection of all supernatural. Even in the presence of a seemingly supernatural situation, metaphysical naturalism will claim that there is a natural explanation underlying it.
  11. 11.  Religious Naturalism is a fast-growing movement within the free-thought community. It is essentially scientific naturalism coming together with religious language. This movement, which boasts Ursula Good enough as one of it’s intellectual heavyweights, includes the diverse community of Pantheists. Religious Naturalism is based on the knowledge that, for the majority of human history, social rules and practices have been reinforced by religion
  12. 12.  is the process of reconciling facts about the natural world with social and emotional states that shape human behavior. The facts about the natural world are best revealed to us through science. In essence, cultural naturalism attempts to reconcile scientific facts with human emotions, by placing the naturalistic facts in the context of human social life.
  13. 13.  Methodological naturalism posits that the naturalistic method is the only way for us humans to understand the universe. By definition, it concedes that there might exist non-naturalistic entities but the tools that we as humans possess can only identify natural entities. This is an epistemological claim (a claim about the nature and acquisition of knowledge). The scientific method as a refined systematic process is the culmination of a long history of honing the tools that we possess in order to understand reality. It is based on the philosophy of naturalism. Scientific Naturalism requires that hypothesis be formed and tested under the assumption that there are natural causes for all phenomena.
  14. 14.  In philosophy, idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing.
  15. 15.  Gorge bakeley  David Hume  Emmanuel Kant  R.Fith
  16. 16.  For nursing practice: The argument developed here begins by aligning by aligning medicine and related conception of nursing with materialism.  For nursing education: students learn consider the patient holistically; the body, mind and the influence of the environment because one aspect may affect the other.
  17. 17.  For nursing research: the research has been conducted and revealed that necessity to care holistically to the patient, considering the body, mind and the environment.  For nursing management research: Nurse manager supervises the staff to make sure the care given to the clients in consideration of holistic principles.  For nursing behavior: the alternative , idealism, brings with it a new set of problems, particularly the tendency to react against the perceived dominance of the medical profession instead of positing a philosophy of nursing that reflects a more considered response.
  18. 18.  CLASSICAL IDEALISM: Monistic idealism holds that consciousness, not matter, is the ground of all being. It is monist because it holds that there is only one type of thing in the universe and idealist because it holds that one thing to be consciousness.
  19. 19.  Subjective Idealism (immaterialism or phenomenalism) describes a relationship between experience and the world in which objects are no more than collections or "bundles" of sense data in the perceiver.
  20. 20. Transcendental idealism, founded by Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century, maintains that the mind shapes the world we perceive into the form of space-and-time
  21. 21. Objective idealism asserts that the reality of experiencing combines and transcends the realities of the object experienced and of the mind of the observer. Proponents include Thomas Hill Green, Josiah Royce, Benedetto Croce and Charles Sanders Peirce.
  22. 22. Schelling (1775–1854) claimed that the Fichte's "I" needs the Not-I, because there is no subject without object, and vice versa. So there is no difference between the subjective and the objective, that is, the ideal and the real. This is Schelling's "absolute identity": the ideas or mental images in the mind are identical to the extended objects which are external to the mind.
  23. 23.  Actual Idealism is a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a "grounded" idealism contrasting Kant and Hegel.
  24. 24.  Pluralistic idealism such as that of Gottfried Leibniz[44] takes the view that there are many individual minds that together underlie the existence of the observed world and make possible the existence of the physical universe.Unlike absolute idealism, pluralistic idealism does not assume the existence of a single ultimate mental reality or "Absolute". Leibniz' form of idealism, known as Panpsychism, views "monads"
  25. 25. DEFINITION  It comes from a Greek word “pragmata” which means, act, affairs, or business it a method of logic for determining the meaning of intellectual concept.  It also defined as a way of approaching situation or solving problems that emphasisis practical applications and consequences.
  26. 26.  Charles Sander Peirce (1839-1904) was the founder of American pragmatism( later called pierce pragmatism)  William James( 1842-1910)  John Dewey( 1859-1952) prominent philosophers of education referred to his brand of progmatism as instrumentalism.
  27. 27. INFLUENCE OF PRAGMATISM TO EDUCATION Rather than aphilosophy ,pragmatism is a way of doing philosophy that has major implictions for solving disputes in involving nursing science,theory , and practice that may other wise beinterminable. INFLUENCE OF OF PRAGMATISM TO PRACTICE The action of an organisation in its environment is the basic perspective from which the pragmatist proceeds,and our human capacity of theorizing is seen easy integral to intelligent practic,not on a separate sphere altogether.
  28. 28. INFLUENCE OF PRAGMATISM TO BEHAVIOR OF NURSING In pragmatism,Man is the measure of things,truth is what works. Pragmatism requires its adherent to look at specific practical consequences of act ,ideas or concept. CONCLUSION The philosophy of thepragmatist is helpful in day living. It promotes the idea that one should live through one experience at time.
  29. 29.  Romanticism is a broad movement of thought in philosophy, the arts, history, and political theory, at its height in Germany, England and France towards the end of the 18th and in the earlier part of the 19th centuries.
  30. 30.  Individualism The Romantics focused on the individual. They viewed the Self as a divine spark linking all human beings to one another and to a Greater Truth. Romantic musicians, poets and visual artists created art that reflected personal experiences, but represented universal themes.  Nature Romantic artists, musicians and poets saw nature as a dynamic teacher that helped humans understand their place in the universe.
  31. 31.  Emotions The Romantics explored emotional extremes in their work. For example, rather than simply depicting the subject's likeness, Romantic painters created portraits that explored their emotional and psychological states.  Transcendentalism In the United States, Romanticism gave rise to the transcendentalists, an offshoot of liberal Christianity. Transcendentalists, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, explored the role of individual thought in the perception of the world, the creative power of the consciousness and the unification of the human soul with the Universal Spirit or the One.
  32. 32. Introduction Realism, the philosophy of science which asserts that science can provide us with access to structures that exist independently of us (Bhaskar, 1997), has been gaining an increasingly significant position within both the natural and social sciences over
  33. 33.  Nursing education: nurses are in continuous pursuit for further studies to fulfill their pleasure in education since there are permanent possibilities of happiness.
  34. 34. DEF: is the belief that God exists (or must exist) independent of the teaching or revelation of any particular religion. It represents belief in a personal God entirely without doctrine. Some philosophical theists are persuaded of God's existence by philosophical arguments, while others consider themselves to have a religious faith that need not be, or could not be, supported by rational argument. Philosophical theism has parallels with the 18th century philosophical view called Deism.
  35. 35.  Theism- is belief that one god exists.  Atheism- an absence of belief in any gods or deities, or belief that gods or deities do not exist at all.  Deism- the belief that a god exists, but does not interact with events at the scale of human being.  Agnosticism-the opinion that it is not possible to know whether gods or deities exist, or the opinion that one does not know.
  36. 36.  Monolatry: the belief that there may be more than one deity, but not only one should be worshipped.  Henotheism- the belief that there may be more than one deity, but one is supreme.  Kat henotheism-The belief that there is more that one deity, but only one deity at a time should be worshipped. Each is supreme in turn
  37. 37. Philosophical theism conceives of nature (science), humanity (logic), and rational thought (reason), although possibly never completely understandable. Here are some theistic religion: Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Islam,… Atheistic religion Are Confucianism and Buddhism
  38. 38.  Thomas jay Oord  David Basinger  Martin Freeman  Winkie Pratney  Martin Garener  Walter Kaufmann  David Hume  Joseph Mecabe  Gordon Olson
  39. 39.  Theism in nursing practice: nurse are always with patients who have different believes about God and deities. Nurse should respect the belief of each patient in providing health care.  Theism in nursing education: the curriculum includes the different beliefs and how to manage patient/client’s beliefs  Theism in nursing management: A
  40. 40. is a philosophy based on the idea that God is real, acts in the universe, and is knowable through the senses and reason. As such, theistic realism stands as a middle ground between philosophical naturalism and fideism. While philosophical naturalism holds that the universe is self-explanatory, theistic realism holds that the universe can only be comprehensively explained with reference to God.
  41. 41.  Paul  St. Thomas Aquinas  Phillip Johnson  Gerard L. Gutek  Professors at Baylor college of Medicine
  42. 42.  Influence to nursing practice: in defining nature, theistic realistic stated that the purpose of science is to understand nature and God acts naturally, then, the purpose of science is to understand God Florence nightingale said that caring is to put patient in good condition then the nature will act on him.  Influence to nursing education: about theistic realism, true knowledge begin with acknowledgement of God and fear
  43. 43.  Influence to nursing management: to manage others, nurse manager have to be wise and knowledgeable.  Influence to nursing behaviors: The true knowledge begin with the acknowledgement of God and his power, since , to be good and knowledgeable nurse you have to believe in God.
  44. 44.  Is abroad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities particularly rationalism.
  45. 45.  Socrate(470-399 BCE),  Plato(384-345 BCE),  Aristole(384-322BCE)  Corliss Lamont(1997)  Josephine Peterson and Loretta Zderad
  46. 46.  In Nursing practice: many theorists have used the humanism philosophy as the bases of their theories. Benner&Wrubel;Green-Hernandez; Leininger;Paterson&Zderad; Watson; noted that humanism is a philosophy that is strongly held as a value of the profession. The human-centered theory of life is easily recognized in the views of the earliest nursing professionals who described nursing as professionalized , humanistic care, or a way of caring for the patient as a unique person.(Henderson ,nightingale). Florence Nightingale claimed that the essence of nursing rested on the nurse’s capacity to provide humane, sensitive care to the sick, which she believed would allow healing.
  47. 47.  In Nursing behavior: The practice of nurses must ensure the great good of client in the natural world according to the six tenets of humanism philosophy: As health care givers nurses are cognizant of the client in the client’s beliefs religious and beliefs and learn to evaluate how those beliefs influence the response to his environment. - Ensure that the quality of life for the client is maintained up to death. - Using the scientific method to resolve the problem of client (nursing process) - Encouraging the patients for making their own choice concerning their care plan. - The nurse must be careful in ethical and moral values, and to make an effort not to impose our values system on the others. - Ensuring a “ good life” for the client in providing an internal and externla environment conducive to health.
  48. 48.  In nursing readership: Humanistic leaders are those with emotional intelligence who constantly question themselves and seek awareness of themselves and others.  In nursing education: principle of humanism are taught in nursing school. A humanism philosophy allow fluidity in nurse student’s beliefs and encourages them to consider the humanness of the along which the scientific and technological advances of their care.
  49. 49. Read more : 1.http://www.ehow.com/info_8541879_philosophy-beliefs- romanticism.html 2.Agnew L. (1958) Florence Nightingale – statistician. American Journal of Nursing 3.The Possibility of Naturalism: a Philo-sophical Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences , 2nd edn. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead. Bhaskar R. (1997) 4.Read more : http://www.ehow.com/info_876273 7_beliefs-naturalists.html

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