Naturalism is the oldest known philosophy in the
western world , which can be traced back to Aristotle,
in the fourth century formulated by Thomas
Aquinas(1225 and 1274). NATURALISM is "the
philosophical belief that everything arises from natural
properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual
explanations are excluded or discounted.“ Adherents
of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws
are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of
the natural universe, that the changing universe at
every stage is a product of these laws
An action is good if it is accord with
human nature; bad if it is contrary to
The nature of things can be
discovered by reason.
There are two principles of natural law ethics have
special importance for health care. These are
principle of double effect and principle of totality.
Principle of double effect: health care professionals
may become involved in the situation s that result in
evil consequences regardless of what courses of
action is taken. Decision of administer a drug to
relieve a cancer patient’s pain; for example remove
of pregnant woman cancerous uterus will result in the
death of the foetus
The natural of totality: according to the roman
catholic version of natural law, individual can
ethically dispose of their organs or interfere with those
organ’s ability to function only to the extent that the
well of the whole body requires.
The strength of naturalism is its simplicity.
It offers individual freedom from
presumption and decreases the
influences of the influence of confusion
in our society today.
Weaknesses: the primary weakness of
naturalism is its simplicity. Life and
existence is so simplified that deep
insight and adequate explanation
cannot be formed.
In nursing practice: the nurse practionner should the good
and the evil of the care administered to the patient and
make sure the good is higher than ever.
In nursing education: in nursing school, student learn
professional mortality, ethnics principles in order to show
them what is accepted and unaccepted in their
In nursing research: many researches have been
conducted to asses patient’s conceptions about natural
methods in family planning and the acceptance of organ
In nursing management : the nurse manager supervise the
staff in order to see if their practice is according to naturalism
In nursing behavior: naturalism brings about signing the form
of consent with the patient before any treatment practice
that modifies the nature of the patient.
Naturalism is science-based. Naturalists
believe that science is the most reliable
descriptor of the world. Phenomena that
cannot be scientifically proven (including
fate(death), heaven and hell) are seen as
imaginary. In addition, naturalists do not
believe in the soul, instead postulating that
biology, neurology and psychology fulfill
the soul's supposed function.
Philosophical Naturalism is the idea that
nature is all there is. Also known as
metaphysical naturalism, it is an outright
rejection of all supernatural. Even in the
presence of a seemingly supernatural
situation, metaphysical naturalism will claim
that there is a natural explanation
Religious Naturalism is a fast-growing
movement within the free-thought
community. It is essentially scientific
naturalism coming together with religious
language. This movement, which boasts
Ursula Good enough as one of it’s
intellectual heavyweights, includes the
diverse community of Pantheists. Religious
Naturalism is based on the knowledge that,
for the majority of human history, social rules
and practices have been reinforced by
is the process of reconciling facts about
the natural world with social and
emotional states that shape human
behavior. The facts about the natural
world are best revealed to us through
science. In essence, cultural naturalism
attempts to reconcile scientific facts with
human emotions, by placing the
naturalistic facts in the context of human
Methodological naturalism posits that the naturalistic
method is the only way for us humans to understand
the universe. By definition, it concedes that there
might exist non-naturalistic entities but the tools that
we as humans possess can only identify natural
entities. This is an epistemological claim (a claim
about the nature and acquisition of knowledge). The
scientific method as a refined systematic process is
the culmination of a long history of honing the tools
that we possess in order to understand reality. It is
based on the philosophy of naturalism. Scientific
Naturalism requires that hypothesis be formed and
tested under the assumption that there are natural
causes for all phenomena.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of
philosophies which assert that reality, or
reality as we can know it, is
fundamentally mental, mentally
constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a
skepticism about the possibility of
knowing any mind-independent thing.
For nursing practice: The argument
developed here begins by aligning by
aligning medicine and related
conception of nursing with materialism.
For nursing education: students learn
consider the patient holistically; the
body, mind and the influence of the
environment because one aspect may
affect the other.
For nursing research: the research has been
conducted and revealed that necessity to care
holistically to the patient, considering the body, mind
and the environment.
For nursing management research: Nurse manager
supervises the staff to make sure the care given to the
clients in consideration of holistic principles.
For nursing behavior: the alternative , idealism, brings
with it a new set of problems, particularly the tendency
to react against the perceived dominance of the
medical profession instead of positing a philosophy of
nursing that reflects a more considered response.
CLASSICAL IDEALISM: Monistic idealism
holds that consciousness, not matter, is
the ground of all being. It is monist
because it holds that there is only one
type of thing in the universe and idealist
because it holds that one thing to be
Subjective Idealism (immaterialism or
phenomenalism) describes a relationship
between experience and the world in
which objects are no more than
collections or "bundles" of sense data in
Transcendental idealism, founded by
Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century,
maintains that the mind shapes the world
we perceive into the form of space-and-time
Objective idealism asserts that the
reality of experiencing combines and
transcends the realities of the object
experienced and of the mind of the
observer. Proponents include Thomas
Hill Green, Josiah Royce, Benedetto
Croce and Charles Sanders Peirce.
Schelling (1775–1854) claimed that the
Fichte's "I" needs the Not-I, because there is
no subject without object, and vice versa.
So there is no difference between the
subjective and the objective, that is, the
ideal and the real. This is Schelling's
"absolute identity": the ideas or mental
images in the mind are identical to the
extended objects which are external to the
Actual Idealism is a form of idealism
developed by Giovanni Gentile that
grew into a "grounded" idealism
contrasting Kant and Hegel.
Pluralistic idealism such as that of
Gottfried Leibniz takes the view that
there are many individual minds that
together underlie the existence of the
observed world and make possible the
existence of the physical universe.Unlike
absolute idealism, pluralistic idealism
does not assume the existence of a
single ultimate mental reality or
"Absolute". Leibniz' form of idealism,
known as Panpsychism, views "monads"
It comes from a Greek word “pragmata”
which means, act, affairs, or business it a
method of logic for determining the
meaning of intellectual concept.
It also defined as a way of approaching
situation or solving problems that
emphasisis practical applications and
Charles Sander Peirce (1839-1904) was the
founder of American pragmatism( later
called pierce pragmatism)
William James( 1842-1910)
John Dewey( 1859-1952) prominent
philosophers of education referred to his
brand of progmatism as instrumentalism.
INFLUENCE OF PRAGMATISM TO EDUCATION
Rather than aphilosophy ,pragmatism is a way of doing philosophy
that has major implictions for solving disputes in involving nursing
science,theory , and practice that may other wise beinterminable.
INFLUENCE OF OF PRAGMATISM TO PRACTICE
The action of an organisation in its environment is the basic
perspective from which the pragmatist proceeds,and our human
capacity of theorizing is seen easy integral to intelligent practic,not on
a separate sphere altogether.
INFLUENCE OF PRAGMATISM TO BEHAVIOR OF NURSING
In pragmatism,Man is the measure of things,truth is what
Pragmatism requires its adherent to look at specific
practical consequences of act ,ideas or concept.
The philosophy of thepragmatist is helpful in day
living. It promotes the idea that one should live
through one experience at time.
Romanticism is a broad movement of
thought in philosophy, the arts, history,
and political theory, at its height in
Germany, England and France towards
the end of the 18th and in the earlier
part of the 19th centuries.
The Romantics focused on the individual.
They viewed the Self as a divine spark
linking all human beings to one another
and to a Greater Truth. Romantic
musicians, poets and visual artists created
art that reflected personal experiences, but
represented universal themes.
Romantic artists, musicians and poets saw
nature as a dynamic teacher that helped
humans understand their place in the
The Romantics explored emotional extremes in
their work. For example, rather than simply
depicting the subject's likeness, Romantic
painters created portraits that explored their
emotional and psychological states.
In the United States, Romanticism gave rise to
the transcendentalists, an offshoot of liberal
Christianity. Transcendentalists, such as Ralph
Waldo Emerson, explored the role of individual
thought in the perception of the world, the
creative power of the consciousness and the
unification of the human soul with the
Universal Spirit or the One.
Realism, the philosophy of science which
science can provide us with access to
exist independently of us (Bhaskar, 1997),
gaining an increasingly significant position
both the natural and social sciences over
Nursing education: nurses are in continuous
pursuit for further studies to fulfill their
pleasure in education since there are
permanent possibilities of happiness.
DEF: is the belief that God exists (or must exist)
independent of the teaching or revelation of any
particular religion. It represents belief in a personal
God entirely without doctrine. Some philosophical
theists are persuaded of God's existence by
philosophical arguments, while others consider
themselves to have a religious faith that need not
be, or could not be, supported by rational
Philosophical theism has parallels with the 18th
century philosophical view called Deism.
Theism- is belief that one god exists.
Atheism- an absence of belief in
any gods or deities, or belief that
gods or deities do not exist at all.
Deism- the belief that a god exists,
but does not interact with events at
the scale of human being.
Agnosticism-the opinion that it is not
possible to know whether gods or
deities exist, or the opinion that one
does not know.
Monolatry: the belief that there may be
more than one deity, but not only one
should be worshipped.
Henotheism- the belief that there may
be more than one deity, but one is
Kat henotheism-The belief that there is
more that one deity, but only one deity
at a time should be worshipped. Each is
supreme in turn
Philosophical theism conceives of nature
(science), humanity (logic), and rational
thought (reason), although possibly never
completely understandable. Here are
some theistic religion: Hinduism, Christianity,
Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Islam,…
Atheistic religion Are Confucianism and
Thomas jay Oord
Theism in nursing practice: nurse are
always with patients who have
different believes about God and
deities. Nurse should respect the
belief of each patient in providing
Theism in nursing education: the
curriculum includes the different
beliefs and how to manage
Theism in nursing management: A
is a philosophy based on the idea that
God is real, acts in the universe, and is
knowable through the senses and reason.
As such, theistic realism stands as a
middle ground between philosophical
naturalism and fideism. While
philosophical naturalism holds that the
universe is self-explanatory, theistic
realism holds that the universe can only
be comprehensively explained with
reference to God.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Gerard L. Gutek
Professors at Baylor college of Medicine
Influence to nursing practice: in defining
nature, theistic realistic stated that the
purpose of science is to understand
nature and God acts naturally, then, the
purpose of science is to understand God
Florence nightingale said that caring is to
put patient in good condition then the
nature will act on him.
Influence to nursing education: about
theistic realism, true knowledge begin
with acknowledgement of God and fear
Influence to nursing management: to
manage others, nurse manager have to be
wise and knowledgeable.
Influence to nursing behaviors: The true
knowledge begin with the
acknowledgement of God and his power,
since , to be good and knowledgeable
nurse you have to believe in God.
Is abroad category of ethical
philosophies that affirm the dignity and
worth of all people, based on the ability
to determine right and wrong by appeal
to universal human qualities particularly
In Nursing practice: many theorists have used the
humanism philosophy as the bases of their theories.
Leininger;Paterson&Zderad; Watson; noted that humanism
is a philosophy that is strongly held as a value of the
profession. The human-centered theory of life is easily
recognized in the views of the earliest nursing professionals
who described nursing as professionalized , humanistic
care, or a way of caring for the patient as a unique
Florence Nightingale claimed that the essence of nursing
rested on the nurse’s capacity to provide humane,
sensitive care to the sick, which she believed would allow
In Nursing behavior: The practice of nurses must ensure the
great good of client in the natural world according to the six
tenets of humanism philosophy:
As health care givers nurses are cognizant of the client in the
client’s beliefs religious and beliefs and learn to evaluate how
those beliefs influence the response to his environment.
- Ensure that the quality of life for the client is maintained up
- Using the scientific method to resolve the problem of client
- Encouraging the patients for making their own choice
concerning their care plan.
- The nurse must be careful in ethical and moral values, and
to make an effort not to impose our values system on the
- Ensuring a “ good life” for the client in providing an internal
and externla environment conducive to health.
In nursing readership: Humanistic leaders
are those with emotional intelligence who
constantly question themselves and seek
awareness of themselves and others.
In nursing education: principle of humanism
are taught in nursing school. A humanism
philosophy allow fluidity in nurse student’s
beliefs and encourages them to consider
the humanness of the along which the
scientific and technological advances of
Read more :
2.Agnew L. (1958) Florence
Nightingale – statistician.
American Journal of Nursing
3.The Possibility of Naturalism: a Philo-sophical
Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences
2nd edn. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.
Bhaskar R. (1997)
4.Read more :