Foundry Industry Training Development in South Africa, Tony Patterson & Lucky Juganan, WFO presentation, 2012
The World Foundry Congress Mexico - April 2012 The Career Path Framework (CPF)Foundry industry training development in South Africa Lucky Juganan Tony Paterson
Overview1. Background to the foundry industry in South Africa2. Current training concerns3. Effects of changes in Government approaches4. The role of Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA’s)5. Artisan descriptor6. Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS)7. The training initiative
Background to the foundry industry in South Africa• South Africa - geographical position• developing country in the manufacturing stage of economic development.• Foundry industry initially Firms formed on the back of gold and diamond mining .• The industrial structure of the country and the location of the major cities reflects the influence of mining• More recent development of the non ferrous sector particularly serving the automotive sector.
Current foundry sector training concerns•Age profile too high•Need to attract new people•Lack of a career path•Modern technology development and IT basedcontrol and prediction systems•Challenges of energy, environmental issues•Need for a total review of training input.•Accreditation process
Effects of changes in Government approaches• The broad challenge of government is to improve the living standard of the electorate as a whole.• A particular challenge is employment.• The country has high levels of unemployment – 25 %• Education levels are low
Effects of changes in Government approaches Porter Activity cluster Effects of overarching government legislation Capital based, volume driven F S S R (Large) Firm/ (company / sector) structure, strategy and rivalry F Factor conditions Geography, location, people, PUSH D Demand PULL social stability, education, conditions language, Infrastructure, Local and trading policy, operating export demand environment, Currency and competition value, etc Skill, service R S I Related and based, customer supporting industries satisfaction driven Practical, educational Financial etc
.Effects of changes in Government approachesGovernments’ have three overlapping roles: Regulatory – control - setting the rules of the game Stewardship – enabling and facilitating economic growth. Management – of the business of governmentMajor government decision effects are observed inthe basic factor conditions, in related and supportingindustries and in overarching government legislation.Increasing direct government involvement in allsectors of the economy has been noted.
Effects of changes in Government approaches Porter diamond reconceptualised by Wickham to recognise Government pivotal role and interdependence with chance events (source Wickham 2005)
Effects of changes in Government approaches• Elections in RSA in 1994• The liberation movement, the ANC, in Government The political fight had been won Transfer of economic power faces challenges.• Values change from a liberation movement to Government has proved challenging A major government focus has been placed on control through administration of imposed systems• Tension between the past and future thinking is significant in terms of the development of training under consideration.
Effects of changes in Government approachesSouth Africa, as a developing country, is at the miningand manufacture stage of economic growth.• Revenue is required to finance infrastructure and social development. One thrust is ongoing employment in sectors that are revenue producing• A specific drive over decades has been to add value to primary products. The foundry industry is well positioned to both support existing industry and to add value Casting is recognised as the base process to a series of added value activities required to produce a component or product.
Effects of changes in Government approaches• ANC Government/COSATU (Union)/SACP (partner) core to industrial policy• Two aspects affected industry:(1) Interdependence between government, labour and (big)business as parts of a mixed economy recognised South African National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) structure established to facilitate interaction Practically, small and medium business, the world wide drivers of employment, not represented. Over years NEDLAC effectively replaced by a top down control approach (modelled on the Chinese Corporatist state)(2) Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA’s) developed byGovernment to manage training in different skill areas.
Effects of changes in Government approaches Government / COSATU FIGURE 3 Wickham reconceptualisation of Porter diamond modified to recognise Government /Trade Union pivotal roles
The role of SETA’s• SETA’s funded through a levy on company wages and salaries.• Initially companies could claim back for approved training, this not necessarily limited to approved unit standards.• Recently, two changes were implemented.o The first was to bring SETAs under more direct political control, to use SETA’s to meet policy objectives, to preferentially train in areas where there were agreed manpower shortages. Two impacts: Selection of priority training is based on shortage number (urgency), not on priority related to impact (importance). Previously claimable company training costs not aligned to present SETA policy objectives are now more difficult if not impossible to reclaim.o The second was to restructure the training curriculum and approval system. This resulted in an administrative burden.
The role of SETA’s• To facilitate Government thrusts:o Ongoing employment in sectors that are revenue producingo Tension between industry requirement for specific focussed training to enhance competitiveness and that of the government using training as a political instrument to develop employment and transferability.This affected the foundry career path framework (CPF)programme development discussed later.
The role of SETA’s•Foundry sector falls under the engineering SETA, the merSETA.•Artisan skill sets not complying with SETA requirements are notrecognised.•Training was required to facilitate not only industry needs, butalso to enable skills transfer from one industry to another.•Development and approval of unit standards, blocks of skilltraining tested against defined outcomes are the responsibility ofSETA’s•Incomers to the working environment assisted in developing lifeskills. (The NQF unit standard level 1 training)•National Qualification Framework (NQF) unit standards 2-4address the vocational skills required by artisans. NQF levels 5and 6 are higher level skills.•Specific industry sector related training replaced by generictraining to reduce differentiated artisan descriptor suite .
Artisan Descriptor (developed by Government)Broad generic description - an occupation where a qualifiedperson applies a high level of practical skills supported andreinforced by applied knowledge to:•Manufacture, produce, service, install or maintain tangiblegoods, products or equipment in an engineering and /or technicalwork environment•Uses tools and equipment to perform his/her duties•Measure and do fault finding on process, manufacturing,production and /or technical machinery and equipment to applycorrective or repair actions•Apply and adhere to all relevant health, safety andenvironmental legislation, and•Has an accumulative learning period covering knowledge,practical and workplace learning that is equivalent to three ormore years
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS)The current developments were based on the RALIS model:• Innovation is the main driver of prosperity in a society.Most innovation is applied in firms.• The innovation behaviour of firms is, first and foremost,determined by framework conditions, i.e. the competitivepressure in markets and the economic policies that shape theevolution of the economy.• In order to constantly innovate, companies rely on a variety ofspecialised technology institutions.• Firms depend on effective education and training institutionsthat support relevant life-long learning.
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS) The framework conditions underlying innovation
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS) Sequential interdependence between independent work centres - Coordination is achieved through planning and control Linking unit Pooled interdependence between otherwise independent work centres - Coordination is achieved through agreement of interaction procedures Reciprocal interdependence - each party is dependent on others - Coordination is achieved through adjustment THOMPSONS MODELS OF INTERDEPENDENCE
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS) FIRMSTECHNOLOGY EDUCATIONINSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Reciprocal interdependence - each party is dependent on others - Coordination is achieved through adjustment
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS)
Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS) The relationship between the RALIS and Porter models lies in the vertical axis, the related and supporting circumstances affecting firm structure, strategy and rivalry within the context of government policy Application of the RALIS process involves four steps: •A scan of the local innovation system to identify the main mechanisms and bottlenecks. •Involving relevant stakeholders along the value chain and encouraging interaction •Identifying practical actions. •Transferring know-how. The RALIS process led to the Career path initiative discussed
1. Background to the foundry industry in South Africa2. Current training concerns3. Effects of changes in Government approaches4. The role of Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA’s)5. Artisan descriptor6. Rapid appraisal of local innovation systems (RALIS)7. The training initiative
CPF• Led by UJ – Metal Casting Technology Station• Partnership between industry, government departments ( DTI, DST, DOL) , SAIF, AFSA, merSETA, GTZ• Program commenced 3rd quarter 2008• Group of 6 : Lucky Juganan, Richard Bean, Tony Paterson, Sinaye Mngidi, Adrie Elmohamadi , Abeeda Holdstock
PROCESS• The project was completed in five (5) phases:• Learning Pathway Development• Qualification and Standards Re-design and Development• Qualification Registration• Occupational Profile Development• Curriculum Development
CPF• Each of these phases was addressed in a series of meetings and workshops held within the task team and with all stakeholders and the foundry industry.• The first task was to generically characterise the foundry process. Activities were seen to involve six processes; die design, patternmaking, moulding, metal management, casting, fettling, machining and finishing operations.• Workshop activities were designed on the basis of the following foundry process
Foundry process• PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT ( including methods and quality assurance)• PATTERN MAKING / DIE MAKING• MOULDING• METAL MANAGEMENT (including melting and casting)• FINISHING OPERATIONS (including fettling, heat treatment, welding and surface treatment)
Foundry Process Flow Die design/ Tooling/ Pattern making and mouldingRaw Materialsand Meltingconsumables Casting Finishing and Dispatch Planning QA
NEW EDUCATION LANDSCAPE CHE,QCTO,SAQA• CHANGES WITHIN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS• DOL,DOE,• RESPONSIBILITY FOR TRADE AND OCCUPATIONS• SHIFT TO DHE & TRAINING• TWO QUALITY ASSURANCE BODIES – HEQC FOR ALL NQF 5 AND UP – QCTO FOR NQF 2,3,4
QUALIFICATIONS STANDARDS REGISTRATION• The scoping exercise identified several qualifications that have a relationship or influence on the foundry standards. These qualifications are:• Pattern making• Moulding• Foundry operation• Metal production• Tooling and machining• Production technology
QUALIFICATIONS STANDARDS REGISTRATION• An analysis of the current metals production, patternmaking and moulding qualifications was carried out to determine suitability for foundries. The overlap competencies in patternmaking and moulding qualifications were investigated and the amount of overlap determined.• Registration of Unit Standards and Qualifications were then allowed to proceed with SAQA
OCCUPATIONAL PROFILE DEVELOPMENT• The occupational profile development workshops produced the occupational profile for the three specialisation areas to the Metal Casting Trade Worker and the three specialisation areas for which occupational profiles were developed are Melter, Moulder/Coremaker and Foundry Patternmaker. The occupational profiles were tabled under the following headings:• Occupational code; Occupational Title, Occupational Descriptor; Occupational Purpose; Unique Product or Service; Occupational Responsibility; Occupational Context, the table below demonstrates in part how this was achieved.
Developing Occupational Profile• Developed 3 draft Tasks• Developed draft Product and Services for each task• Completed draft of Occupational Responsibilities for each task• Developed draft Occupational Context for each task
Occupational Profile• Review the draft Profile• Developing and confirm Practical Skill Modules – Occupational Responsibilities• Developing and confirming Workplace Modules from Workplace Context• Developing and confirming Knowledge Subjects Specification
Draft Occupational Map for the Foundries Specific Occupations indicating relevant job titles• Production/Operations Manager (Manufacturing)• Metal Manufacturing Technician• Metal Casting Trade Worker – Melter – Moulder – Foundry patternmaker/Inspector
ACRONYMS (sometimes useful)• AQP – Assessment Quality Partner• CHE – Council for Higher Education• DHET – Department of Higher Education & Training• DQP – Development Quality Partner• NAMB – National Artisan Moderation Body• NQF – National Qualification Framework• OFO – Organising Framework for Occupations• QCTO – Quality Council for Trades and Occupations• QDF – Qualifications Development Facilitator• RPL – Recognition of Prior Learning• SAQA – South African Qualifications Authority• SETA – Sector Education and Training Authority
STEPS RESPONSIBLE QUALIFICATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Submit 9 DQP & QDF Finalise Assess- QCTO QDF with Expert Practitioners, AQP &ment Specifications 8 Educationalists Manage Verifi- cation Process 7 DQP with Constituency Group Develop Module QDF with Expert Practi-tioners, and Subject 6 AQP & Educationalists SpecificationsManage DQP with ExpertVerification Process 5 Practitioners and AQPAppoint AQP 4 QCTO StaffDevelop Occupa- DQP with Experttional Profile and 3 Practitioners (inclIdentify AQP AssesorsOversee Scoping QCTOMeeting with 2 StaffConstituencyReceive and Pro- QCTOcess Application 1 Staff Curriculum Occupational Learning Com- Occupational Qualification Occupational Scope Profile ponent Curriculum Assessment Qualification RESULTS & & Specifications (incl Specifications SLA with SLA with Internal (B+C) (External) (C+D) 38 (DQP) (AQP) Assessment) A B C D E
Occupational CurriculumB Occupational Profile C Learning D Components Assessment Knowledge Products or Knowledge C3• Purpose of the Subject and Credits Subjects Specifications Specifications Services • Topics and Weighting Occupational Task Practical Skills Topic Elements & Range & • Assessment criteria for each Topic Occupational Applied Knowledge • Critical Elements to be assessed Responsibility Practical Skills externally & Assessment Standard & • Provider Accreditation Criteria • Purpose of the Occupational Qualification Applied Knowledge • Exemptions ResponsibilityOccupational Purpose • External Assessment Occupational Work Experience C2 Practical Skills Module Specifications Model & • Purpose of PS Module and Credits • Qualification Outcomes Context Workplace • Practical Skills , Condition & weighting to be Assessed (in Knowledge Practical Skill Activities and SoP each Phase) • Assessment criteria for each PS • Assessment Criteria for • Applied Knowledge for each PS each Outcome Products or Knowledge • Critical PS Activities to be assessed • Eligibility Requirements Services Practical Skills externally to qualify for the & • Provider Accreditation Criteria External Assessment • Criteria for Occupational Task Applied Knowledge • Exemptions Occupational Responsibility Practical Skills C1 Work Experience Module Registration of Assessors & Specifications Applied Knowledge • Purpose of WE Module and Notional Hours Work Experience Occupational & • Work Experience Context Workplace Work Activities (incl frequency and Knowledge SoP) • Contextual WP Knowledge Occupational Work Experience • Supporting evidence of Performance Context & • Criteria for approval of WP Workplace • WP Assignments to be assessed Knowledge externally
How the Occupational Profile is used in the Issues Discussed Curriculum• Agreed on the Occupational Title: Electroplater• Curriculum information –1. Determine the scope of the providing interrelationship between occupational curriculum. Electroplater and related occupations• Curriculum structure: some elements of the practical skills• Not completed international comparison and 1. Serve as the unit of analysis for the curriculum MESs – to be dealt with later in the process and 2. Guide the development of the subject module specifications• Completed entry Learner Requirements
Developing Subject Specifications C3.2 C3.1 Allocate knowledge focus areas to Define scope of C3.3 C3.4 the subject subjects Define the B8.1 Define purpose of the Topic element assessment subject criteria and Knowledge Topic Topic element allocate a focus area Subject weight Knowledge C3.5 focus area DefineProduct Topic element assessment Define the credits or criteria and for the subject Knowledge TopicService Topic element allocate a focus area Subject weight Knowledge focus area C3.6 Knowledge Define provider focus area accreditation Subject requirements Knowledge focus areaProduct or Knowledge C3.8 C3.8 C3.7Service focus area Identify exemptions Identify critical Identify Subject from educational topics to be assessment Knowledge programmes assessed criteria focus area externally
What When WhoProfiling Session Trade Experts Trade Experts,Practical Skills Practical Training ExpertsWork Experience Trade Experts Trade Experts,Trade Theory Educational ExpertsExternal Trade Experts,Assessment Educational ExpertsSpecification Trade Test ExpertsFinal Verification To be confirmedCurriculum Development and Agreement flow
The World Foundry Congress Mexico - April 2012The Career Path Framework (CPF)Foundry industry training development inSouth AfricaRichard Bean, Adrie Elmohammadi, Sinaye Mngidi, TonyPaterson, Lucky Juganan, Abeeda HoldstockEllen Huester, John Davies
ANNEXURE E: Melting and Casting Sub-Processes of Metals Management Furnace operationOperations • Activities• Furnace operations • Determine and calculate additions • Prepare equipment to tap • Prepare to tap temperature / ladle • Control tapping • Additions made during tapping – degassing • Complete furnace document • Blow oxygen • Operate furnaces• Induction furnaces: High Medium; Main frequency; under electrical operation • Reline furnaces• Furnace reline• EAF – FR; SlagmakingMake slag (slag formation practices)CupolaNon-electric form of meltingReverbElectric resistance (aluminum)Usage of PLCCharge controlChemistry (basics)Melting metallurgy