Energy Usage in South AfricanPermanent Mould (Die Casting)         Foundries         Carl Reinhardt             KJJC Tradi...
Disclaimer• Casting Services has relied substantially upon information provided  by the literature and by experts in the f...
Energy Costs Money• Don’t waste it     • Insulation     • Unburnt fuel     • Dross build up     • Wasted heat – often easi...
Energy Cost Money– Use it well   • Yield      – Casting Yield      – Machining Yield   • Rejects   • Metal Losses   • Don’...
Energy Costs Money– Use the most cost effective  • For your area  • For your furnace type  • For your metal type          ...
South African Foundries• Data  – How much Energy Do we Use?  – Data  – How much does it cost?  – Data  – How much do the d...
The Data           The Data must be                   relevant                   The Data must be                   compar...
South African Foundries• Permanent Mould Foundries  – Die casting     • Gravity        – Conventional        – Tilt       ...
Gravity Die CastingHigh Pressure Die Casting (Cold Chamber)                         Counter Gravity                       ...
South African Foundries• Other types of foundries  – Anything that isn’t a permanent mould foundry  – This data is collect...
The Data• Data Collected from site visits to foundries  between July 2009 to September 2009• Data from 38 Permanent mould ...
Types of Foundries          Data Collected from• 13 (+8 from Sept 2008) foundries who  engage in    • High Pressure Die Ca...
Types of Foundries          Data Collected from• Another 15 Foundries who do  – Gravity Casting  – Tilt (and Counter Gravi...
Types of Foundries              Data Collected from• A further 9 foundries  – Who do       • Gravity die casting       • L...
The Data• Total GJ (Energy usage of all 38 foundries over 12 month period)   – 447 453 GJ   – This is enough to theoretica...
The Data                              Total Energy Consum ption                                        Energy Cost        ...
The Data                                     Yield                                                                        ...
The Data                                     Yield                                                                  Yield ...
Dross                                                              Z n D rB ss Per cent ag e er cent ag e                 ...
The Data• Reject Rate  – Over half of the companies did not record their rejects    formally.  – Three quarters of them di...
Types of FoundriesData Collected from    Are you still with me?               21
Calculations to GJApproximate Calculation factors*•   Electricity – kWh to GJ – kWh x 3600/1000/1000•   Natural Gas – Norm...
The Costs of Energy in SA                                                                    R/GJ                         ...
Real Cost• According to Energy Workshop in USA August 2009• Efficiency of Furnaces• Furnace types for different Fuels   – ...
Real Cost to Heat Metal• Real Cost – Cost to put energy into metal              R/Metal GJ  – Depends on Furnace type – th...
Real Energy Cost to Heat Metal wrt Furnace type                                                              Efficiency   ...
Real Energy Cost to Heat Metal wrt Furnace type                               High Cost (low efficiency)                  ...
Conclusion• Use best energy for your area  – Find out how much different energy types cost    in your area• Use and setup ...
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Energy course 10 11-2009 - sa specific

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Energy Usage in South African
Permanent Mould (Die Casting)
Foundries

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Energy course 10 11-2009 - sa specific

  1. 1. Energy Usage in South AfricanPermanent Mould (Die Casting) Foundries Carl Reinhardt KJJC Trading cc Trading as Casting Services November 2009 1
  2. 2. Disclaimer• Casting Services has relied substantially upon information provided by the literature and by experts in the field. Casting Services has not made any assessment of the technology and no such assessment is implied by the statements made in this report.• The other information contained in this course has been complied from information from NADCA, NFTN, contained within Casting Services’ and associates files and database and from local companies and published industry information.• Every effort has been made to ensure that the information presented and the conclusions reached are realistic and not misleading. However Casting Services makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the information contained within this course and will accept no responsibility or liability for any loss incurred by any person or organisation relying on the information in this report 2
  3. 3. Energy Costs Money• Don’t waste it • Insulation • Unburnt fuel • Dross build up • Wasted heat – often easily “captured” use to preheat • Dross and metal loss 3
  4. 4. Energy Cost Money– Use it well • Yield – Casting Yield – Machining Yield • Rejects • Metal Losses • Don’t overheat your metal 4
  5. 5. Energy Costs Money– Use the most cost effective • For your area • For your furnace type • For your metal type 5
  6. 6. South African Foundries• Data – How much Energy Do we Use? – Data – How much does it cost? – Data – How much do the different energy types cost? – Data 6
  7. 7. The Data The Data must be relevant The Data must be comparableThe Data must be The Data must beclearly defined up to date The Data must be meaningful 7
  8. 8. South African Foundries• Permanent Mould Foundries – Die casting • Gravity – Conventional – Tilt – Counter Gravity/pseudo low pressure (tilt with furnace attached) • Low Pressure • High Pressure – Spin Casting • Vertical • Horizontal 8
  9. 9. Gravity Die CastingHigh Pressure Die Casting (Cold Chamber) Counter Gravity 9
  10. 10. South African Foundries• Other types of foundries – Anything that isn’t a permanent mould foundry – This data is collected from permanent mould foundries – Although there are a number similarities • Furnaces • Yields, metal losses, thermal + fuel losses etc • But the data is specific to and collected from Permanent mould foundries (although a small number of the foundries also had a sand department) 10
  11. 11. The Data• Data Collected from site visits to foundries between July 2009 to September 2009• Data from 38 Permanent mould Foundries• Data from another 8 Permanent mould foundries collected in September 2008 (pilot project) 11
  12. 12. Types of Foundries Data Collected from• 13 (+8 from Sept 2008) foundries who engage in • High Pressure Die Casting Hot and or Cold Chamber • Some of them also do Gravity (one did a little sand) • Some also Low Pressure • All non-ferrous – Aluminium and/or – Brass and/or – Zinc 12
  13. 13. Types of Foundries Data Collected from• Another 15 Foundries who do – Gravity Casting – Tilt (and Counter Gravity) – Some also did Low pressure casting – All ran • Aluminium • Some ran a bit of Zinc as well 13
  14. 14. Types of Foundries Data Collected from• A further 9 foundries – Who do • Gravity die casting • Low Pressure die casting • Some also do Sand casting• And a conti-caster making bearings• All non-ferrous – Aluminium and/or – Zinc and/or – Brass – One Foundry does Aluminium Gravity and Sand casting and sand casting bronze (Gun metal) 14
  15. 15. The Data• Total GJ (Energy usage of all 38 foundries over 12 month period) – 447 453 GJ – This is enough to theoretically melt and superheat 372 878 tons - These foundries only Melted 15 792tons• Total Rand paid for this energy (includes kWh, kVA Service charges, Gas etc) – R 51 707 272 (R115/GJ)• Average Cost of Energy as a percentage of sales – 5.46% of Turnover spent on Energy• Could we save any Energy ? YES• But holding Costs are not in here• One foundry has reported a 20% saving in energy usage due to insulation and lids. 15
  16. 16. The Data Total Energy Consum ption Energy Cost Energ y GJ/tonne C ast i ng Sal es co st s as % sold 90t 90th h M edian M edian 10t h10th 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 CompanyCompany 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 16
  17. 17. The Data Yield Yield Hot Cham ber Gravity 90th 90th M edian M edian 10th 10th 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24Company Company 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% 17
  18. 18. The Data Yield Yield Low Pressure Cold Cham ber 90th 90t h M edian M edian 10th 10t h 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 CompanyCompany 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 50.00% 55.00% 60.00% 65.00% 70.00% 75.00% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 18
  19. 19. Dross Z n D rB ss Per cent ag e er cent ag e o r ass D r o ss P A l D r o ss P er cent ag e 90t h 90t h 90t h M edian edian M M edian 1 h 1 h 0t 0t 1 h 0t 38 38 38 37 36 37 37 36 35 36 35 34 35 34 33 34 33 32 33 32 31 31 32 30 31 30 29 30 29 28 28 29 27 27 28 26 26 27 25 25 26 24 25Company 24 Company 23 23 24 Company 22 22 21 23 20 21 22 19 20 21 18 19 20 1 7 18 19 16 1 7 18 1 5 16 1 7 14 1 5 13 16 14 12 13 1 5 11 14 12 10 13 9 11 10 12 8 11 7 9 6 8 10 5 7 9 4 6 8 3 5 7 2 4 6 1 3 5 2 4 0.00% 1 3 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 2 0.00% 1 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 19
  20. 20. The Data• Reject Rate – Over half of the companies did not record their rejects formally. – Three quarters of them did not record rejects at casting (thrown back in the “pot”) – They don’t know how much energy (let alone other costs) they are wasting due to rejects – The Reject rates reported (although inaccurate as a result of above comments) • Gravity - median 8% • Hot Chamber – median 7.5% • Cold Chamber – median 12% • Low pressure – median 15% 20
  21. 21. Types of FoundriesData Collected from Are you still with me? 21
  22. 22. Calculations to GJApproximate Calculation factors*• Electricity – kWh to GJ – kWh x 3600/1000/1000• Natural Gas – Normally given in GJ (in SA)• Paraffin – Litres to GJ – Litres x 0.8 x 43.3 /1000• Coke – kg to GJ – kg x 27 / 1000• Diesel – Litres to GJ – Litres x 0.85 x 43 / 1000• LPG – kg to GJ – kg x 46.3 /1000 (density 0.5)• Other (Heavy oils etc), litres to GJ ≈ Litres x 0.93 x 41.7 / 1000* Actual values are specific to the fuel suppliers manufacture techniques and other factors 22
  23. 23. The Costs of Energy in SA R/GJ 10th percentile Average 90th percentile 10th percentile Median 90th percentileElectricity 70 234 275 R/kWh 0.2545 0.8457 0.9908Natural Gas 123 158 196 R/GJ 123.15 158.37 196.36Parafin 158 175 192 R/l 4.58 5.06 5.55Coke 222 222 222 R/kg 8.23 8.23 8.23Diesel 98 196 270 R/l 2.68 5.37 7.40 Average Unit Cost of Different Energy Types in South Africa [R/GJ]LPG 206 287 376 R/kg 4.46 6.20 8.13Oil - HFO toOil - HFO to Used Oil Used Oil 63 129 195 R/l 1.64 3.34 5.05 LPG [kg] Diesel(litres) 90th Percentile Coke(kg) Median 10th Percentile Parafin(litres) Natural Gas Electricity [kWh] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 R/GJ 23
  24. 24. Real Cost• According to Energy Workshop in USA August 2009• Efficiency of Furnaces• Furnace types for different Fuels – Electricity – • Resistance – Indirect (ŋ=50%-80%) Direct (Even higher) • Induction – Coreless / Channel (ŋ=59%-76%) – Paraffin,Diesel, LPG, Oil, ….. • Reverbatory – Radiant Roof (ŋ=10%-35%) Stack (ŋ=40%-45%) Crucible (ŋ=7%-19%) – Coke (Coal) • Crucible (pit furnace) (ŋ≈5%-12%) • Cupola (ŋ =40%-50%) 24
  25. 25. Real Cost to Heat Metal• Real Cost – Cost to put energy into metal R/Metal GJ – Depends on Furnace type – the furnaces efficiency – Depends on Energy Cost per Unit – R / metal GJ = Energy Cost per Unit /ŋfurnace 25
  26. 26. Real Energy Cost to Heat Metal wrt Furnace type Efficiency R/Metal GJEnergy Source Furnace Type Low High High LowElectric Resistance 50% 80% R 470 R 294 Induction 59% 76% R 398 R 309Natural Gas Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 10% 35% R 1,584 R 452 Electricity Costs for 2008 – Plus 25% for 2009 Stack 40% 45% R 396 R 352 Plus?? For 2010,11,12 Crucible 7% 19% R 2,262 R 834Paraffin Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) Electricity, Plus 25%-R 1,756 to R367 10% 35% R587 R 502 - R498 to R386 Stack 40% 45% R 439 R 390 Crucible 7% 19% R 2,508 R 924Diesel Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 10% 35% R 1,966 R 562 Stack 40% 45% R 492 R 437 Crucible 7% 19% R 2,809 R 1,035LPG Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 10% 35% R 2,871 R 820 Stack 40% 45% R 718 R 638 Crucible 7% 19% R 4,102 R 1,511Oil HFO/Recycled Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 10% 35% R 1,298 R 371 Stack 40% 45% R 324 R 288 Crucible 7% 19% R 1,854 R 683Coke Cupola 40% 50% R 556 R 444 Pit furnace 5% 12% R 4,444 R 1,852 26
  27. 27. Real Energy Cost to Heat Metal wrt Furnace type High Cost (low efficiency) Low Cost (High Efficiency) Coke Pit furnace 1,852 4,444 444 Coke Cupola 556 Oil Crucible 683 1,854 Oil Stack 288 324 Oil Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 371 1,298 LPG Crucible 1,511 4,102 LPG Stack 638 718 LPG Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 820 2,871 1,035 Diesel Crucible 2,809 437 Diesel Stack 492 562 Diesel Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 1,966 924 Parafinn Crucible 2,508 390 Paraffin Stack 439 502 Paraffin Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 1,756 834 Natural Gas Crucible 2,262 352 Natural Gas Stack 396 452Natural Gas Reverbatory (Radiant Roof) 1,584 309 Electric Induction 398 294 Electric Resistance 470 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 R / Metal GJ 27
  28. 28. Conclusion• Use best energy for your area – Find out how much different energy types cost in your area• Use and setup your furnaces efficiently• Use and setup your production systems efficiently 28

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