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Bluetooth Secure Simple 
Pairing Using NFC 
Part 1 
2014 NFC World Congress 
September 24, 2014 | Marseille, France
Presenter: 
Tore Austad 
Senior R&D Engineer, Wireless Design, Nordic Semiconductor ASA, Norway 
Tore Austad has worked at...
Outline 
• Bluetooth LE Technology overview 
• NFC Technology overview and the NFC Forum 
• The NFC Forum Connection Hando...
Bluetooth Low Energy Technology 
Overview 
• Essentials 
• Revision history and Terminology 
• LE Features 
• GAP and SM 
...
Bluetooth Technology: Essentials 
 Standard for Personal Area Network based on 
Ericsson research 
 Short range, low pow...
Bluetooth Technology: Revision 
History 
• Significant specification revisions: 
• Bluetooth 1.1 (2002): 1 Mb/s, first wid...
Bluetooth Technology: 
Terminology 
7 
BR/EDR/HS 1.1 2.0 3.0 BR/EDR/HS 4.0 Dual Mode (+LE) LE 4.0 Single Mode 
Figure from...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Configurations 
GENERIC ACCESS PROFILE (GAP): This profile defines the generic 
procedures relat...
Bluetooth Technology: 
LE Key Features 
 PHY compatible with all 4.0 Bluetooth devices 
 Simple to use 
– API available ...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Generic Access Profile Overview 
 Generic Access Profile 
– Common to BR/EDR and BLE 
– Mandato...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Security Manager Profile Overview 
 Security Manager Protocol 
– Handles pairing and bonding 
–...
Bluetooth Low Energy Security and 
Pairing Overview 
12
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Security Principles Overview 
 GAP (Generic Access Profile) defines the security modes and 
pro...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing and Bonding 
 Pairing is a three-phase procedure to establish keys to use for 
an encry...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing Process 
Initiator Responder 
Phase 1 
Phase 3 
Established LL connection 
Pair ing_Requ...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing Algorithms 
 Just Works 
– No key entered, suits sensors well (limited user 
interface)...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing IO Capabilities 
17 
Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section...
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing Algorithms 
18 
Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
Bluetooth LE Technology: 
Pairing Process 
Just 
work 
Passkey 
Entry 
OOB 
19 
Security Manager: BT Core specification 4....
NFC Technology 
– NFC Forum Specification Architecture 
– NFC Forum Specifications 
20
NFC Forum Architecture: 
By utilizing the key elements in existing and recognized standards like ISO/IEC 18092 and 
ISO/IE...
NFC Forum Architecture 
Scope for this workshop 
Bluetooth Secure 
Simple Pairing Using 
NFC Appl. Document 
NFC Forum NDE...
NFC Forum Mission & Goals 
• Develop standards-based Near Field Communication specifications that 
define a modular archit...
NFC Forum Connection Handover 
Specification 
– Terms 
– Negotiated Handover 
– Static Handover 
– Mediated Handover 
24
NFC Forum Connection Handover 
Specification: Terms 
 Specification groups devices into three terms: 
1. Handover Request...
NFC Forum Connection Handover 
Specification: Static Handover 
Handover Requestor Handover Selector 
Read NFC Forum Tag 
N...
The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: 
Static Handover 
Case: A user purchases a headset and wants to use it with his t...
The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: 
Static Handover 
Case: A user purchases a headset and wants to use it with his t...
The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: 
Static Handover 
Case: Depending on application, the user may start or stop musi...
NFC Forum Connection Handover 
Specification: Negotiated Handover 
Handover Requestor Handover Selector 
NDEF with Handove...
The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: 
Negotiated Handover 
Case: Two users want to pair their telephones 
The users do...
The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: 
Negotiated Handover 
Case: Two users wants to pair their telephones 
Depending o...
NFC-Forum Connection Handover 
Specification: Mediated Handover 
Handover Mediator 
Handover Request carrier “Hm” 
Handove...
NFC Forum Connection Handover 
Technical Specification 
Revision History 
 Version 1.1 November 2008 
– Static Handover a...
NFC Forum BT SSP Using NFC 
Application Document 
– Objectives 
– Document structure 
– Record types for LE and BR/EDR 
– ...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing 
Using NFC: Objectives 
 Application document: 
– The document is administered by the NF...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing 
Using NFC: Document Structure 
• Version 1.0, October 2011, contains 
recommendations fo...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing / LE 
OOB Pairing Using NFC: Record Types 
 Mime types 
– One Mime type defined for the ...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: 
AD and EIR Data 
The format used in the Bluetooth configuration data record i...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: 
Mandatory and Optional Configuration Data 
 Mandatory data types 
– Some dat...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: 
Bluetooth References 
 Bluetooth core specification 
– The application docum...
Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: 
NFC Forum References 
 Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC 
Applicati...
Success Factors 
– Interoperability 
– Compliance 
– Use of N-Mark 
43
Success Factors: Interoperability 
First key to success is a good user experience across different 
products 
• The user m...
Success Factors: Interoperability 
• Do interoperability testing 
• In-house with different target products 
• At Bluetoot...
Success Factors: Compliance 
• Do compliance testing 
• End product needs to comply on all layers 
• Physical layer 
• Pro...
Success Factors: Use of N-Mark 
• The user needs to know where to touch the devices 
• The N-Mark will guide the user to w...
Connection Handover White Paper 
Just Announced! 
48 
• Informative guide for 
developers 
• Hands on tips for 
using Conn...
Examples of Products in the Market 
– Products in the market 
– New possibilities 
49
Products in the Market with Bluetooth Pairing 
with NFC 
50
Opportunities for Bluetooth Pairing with NFC 
The Internet of Things 
• Expectation for products are large 
• Huge number ...
Opportunities for Bluetooth LE Pairing with 
NFC 
Opportunities 
• Activity trackers 
• Toys 
• Advanced sport equipment 
...
Demonstration with Windows 8 / 
Android 
53
Windows 8 and Android Support 
• Windows 8.1 supports connection handover to Bluetooth 
• Many Android phones with NFC and...
Windows 8 and Android Support 
• Windows 8.1 supports connection handover to Bluetooth 
• Many Android phones with NFC and...
Questions and Answers 
– 20 minutes Q&A period 
– You may also visit: 
– http://nfc-forum.org/what-is-nfc/resources/ 
– ht...
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Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Part 1

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Part 1 of the Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Workshop by Tore Austad of Nordic Semiconductor ASA at NFC World Congress

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Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Part 1

  1. 1. Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Part 1 2014 NFC World Congress September 24, 2014 | Marseille, France
  2. 2. Presenter: Tore Austad Senior R&D Engineer, Wireless Design, Nordic Semiconductor ASA, Norway Tore Austad has worked at Nordic Semiconductor ASA for 15 years as a Senior R&D engineer. Tore has been involved in development projects for ultra-low power wireless ICs for the 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.4 GHz ISM bands. For the last two years, Tore has focused on how to combine NFC and Bluetooth Low Energy technologies and ways to improve the user experience. Tore has been a member and an active contributor to the NFC Forum Reference Application Framework Working Group from 2012 to 2014. Nordic Semiconductor ASA 2
  3. 3. Outline • Bluetooth LE Technology overview • NFC Technology overview and the NFC Forum • The NFC Forum Connection Handover specification • The NFC Forum BT SSP using NFC application document • Success factors • Example of products in the market • Demonstration with Windows 8 / Android • Question and Answers 3
  4. 4. Bluetooth Low Energy Technology Overview • Essentials • Revision history and Terminology • LE Features • GAP and SM 4
  5. 5. Bluetooth Technology: Essentials  Standard for Personal Area Network based on Ericsson research  Short range, low power  Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)  2.4 GHz ISM band  Bluetooth Special Interest Group formed in 1998  20,000+ SIG member companies  Billions of products shipped http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/History-of-Bluetooth.aspx http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/Board-of-Directors.aspx 5
  6. 6. Bluetooth Technology: Revision History • Significant specification revisions: • Bluetooth 1.1 (2002): 1 Mb/s, first widely implemented version • Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR (2004): Adds 2Mb/s and 3Mb/s data rates • Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR (2007): Secure Simple Pairing • Bluetooth 3.0 + HS (2009): Adds alternate PHY (802.11 initially) Bluetooth 4.0 + HS (2010): EDR, HS and low energy Bluetooth Simple Secure Pairing Using NFC Application Document: Version 1.0 Bluetooth 2.1 SSP Version 1.1 Bluetooth 2.1 for BR/EDR with SSP + Bluetooth 4.0 Out of Band pairing for LE Bluetooth 4.1 (December 2013): https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications 6
  7. 7. Bluetooth Technology: Terminology 7 BR/EDR/HS 1.1 2.0 3.0 BR/EDR/HS 4.0 Dual Mode (+LE) LE 4.0 Single Mode Figure from: http://www.bluetooth.com/pages/Bluetooth-Brand.aspx
  8. 8. Bluetooth LE Technology: Configurations GENERIC ACCESS PROFILE (GAP): This profile defines the generic procedures related to discovery of Bluetooth devices (idle mode procedures) and link management aspects of connecting to Bluetooth devices (connecting mode procedures). It also defines procedures related to use of different security levels. In addition, this profile includes common format requirements for parameters accessible on the user interface level. GENERIC ATTRIBUTE PROFILE (GATT): This specification defines the Generic Attribute Profile that describes a service framework using the Attribute Protocol for discovering services, and for reading and writing characteristic values on a peer device. ATTRIBUTE PROTOCOL (ATT): This specification defines the Attribute Protocol; a protocol for discovering, reading, and writing attributes on a peer device SECURITY MANAGER (SM) defines the protocol and behavior to manage pairing, authentication and encryption between LE devices. LOGICAL LINK CONTROL AND ADAPTATION PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION (L2CAP) supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and reassembly, and the conveying of quality of service information. The protocol state machine, packet format, and composition are described in this document. 8 Figure from: https://developer.bluetooth.org/TechnologyOverview/Pages/BLE.aspx Bluetooth core specification version 4.0
  9. 9. Bluetooth Technology: LE Key Features  PHY compatible with all 4.0 Bluetooth devices  Simple to use – API available on Windows, Apple and Android  Low complexity – Cheap – Low memory footprint  Ultra Low Power – Small packets – Short RX and TX windows – Race to idle • Turn radio on as seldom as possible • Turn radio off as soon as possible  Coin-cell battery 1+ year  Fast connection in 6 ms and teardown 9
  10. 10. Bluetooth LE Technology: Generic Access Profile Overview  Generic Access Profile – Common to BR/EDR and BLE – Mandatory for all BLE profiles – Procedures to discover and connect to devices – Roles • Peripheral (Slave) • Central (Master) • Broadcaster (Advertiser) • Observer (Scanner) – Security • Creating bonds with peer devices • Attribute access security requirements • Privacy – Advertising data format GAP Overview 10 Figure from: https://developer.bluetooth.org/TechnologyOverview/Pages/BLE.aspx Generic Access Profile: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part C
  11. 11. Bluetooth LE Technology: Security Manager Profile Overview  Security Manager Protocol – Handles pairing and bonding – Security parameter negotiation – Encryption key generation and distribution SM Overview 11 Figure from: https://developer.bluetooth.org/TechnologyOverview/Pages/BLE.aspx Generic Access Profile: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part C
  12. 12. Bluetooth Low Energy Security and Pairing Overview 12
  13. 13. Bluetooth LE Technology: Security Principles Overview  GAP (Generic Access Profile) defines the security modes and procedures  SM (Security Manager Protocol) defines the protocol  BT ADDR : Public vs. Random • Fixed length 48 bits (+1 bit defining Public/Random) • Public Address is unique • Random Address can be freely generated • Static address does not change over time (never or only if power-cycled) • Private address changes over time to offer additional security (Privacy)  Security modes and levels • Defined at GAP level • Security Mode 1 (3 levels) • Level 1 : No security (No authentication and no encryption) • Level 2 : Unauthenticated pairing with encryption (Unauthenticated = no MITM) • Level 3 : Authenticated pairing with encryption 13 Generic Access Profile: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part C section 10.2 and 10.8
  14. 14. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing and Bonding  Pairing is a three-phase procedure to establish keys to use for an encrypted link  Pairing phase 1 allows 2 devices to exchange their input/output capabilities, which will decide what security scheme can be used  Phase 2 and 3 allows 2 devices to share keys that will be used at different stages of security features  3 phases : – Phase 1 : Pairing request & response – Phase 2 : Pairing over SM protocol + short-term encryption – Phase 3 : Keys exchange + long-term encryption  Bonding devices store encryption keys for later secure communication. 14 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
  15. 15. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing Process Initiator Responder Phase 1 Phase 3 Established LL connection Pair ing_Request Pair ing_Response Pair ing over SMP Establishment of encrypted connection with key generated in phase 2 Key Distribution Phase 2 Key Distribution Key Distribution 15 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
  16. 16. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing Algorithms  Just Works – No key entered, suits sensors well (limited user interface)  Passkey Entry – Requires advanced user interface, e.g., keyboard  OOB (Out Of Band) – Previously securely shared information that can be used to replace the key in Passkey Entry  MITM (Man-In-The-Middle) requires Passkey Entry or Out of Band – OOB link need to be Man-In-The-Middle resistant (Bluetooth core spec. Volume 3 part H, section 2.3.5.4) 16 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
  17. 17. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing IO Capabilities 17 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
  18. 18. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing Algorithms 18 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 2
  19. 19. Bluetooth LE Technology: Pairing Process Just work Passkey Entry OOB 19 Security Manager: BT Core specification 4.0 Volume 3 part H section 5.3
  20. 20. NFC Technology – NFC Forum Specification Architecture – NFC Forum Specifications 20
  21. 21. NFC Forum Architecture: By utilizing the key elements in existing and recognized standards like ISO/IEC 18092 and ISO/IEC 14443-2,3,4, as well as JIS X6319-4, the NFC Forum Specifications form a technology standard that harmonizes and extends existing contactless standards, unlocking the full capabilities of NFC technology across the different contactless operating modes: peer-to-peer mode, reader/writer mode, and card emulation mode. 21
  22. 22. NFC Forum Architecture Scope for this workshop Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Appl. Document NFC Forum NDEF Technical Specification Bluetooth Simple Secure Pairing using NFC application document is independent of Digital and RF Analog sub technology. NFC Forum Connection Handover Technical Specification 22
  23. 23. NFC Forum Mission & Goals • Develop standards-based Near Field Communication specifications that define a modular architecture and interoperability parameters for NFC devices and protocols • Encourage the development of products using NFC Forum specifications • Work to ensure that products claiming NFC capabilities comply with NFC Forum specifications • Educate consumers and enterprises globally about NFC Specification and Application Documents Compliance Branding 23
  24. 24. NFC Forum Connection Handover Specification – Terms – Negotiated Handover – Static Handover – Mediated Handover 24
  25. 25. NFC Forum Connection Handover Specification: Terms  Specification groups devices into three terms: 1. Handover Requestor: • NFC Forum device that initiates the handover operation 2. Handover Selector: • NFC Forum device or NFC Forum Tag that responds to the Handover Requestor 3. Handover Mediator: • NFC Forum device that can facilitate connection between two other NFC-enabled devices  Specification groups handover cases into three schemes: 1. Static Handover: • Provision of an NDEF message to an NFC Forum device containing alternative carrier information that may be used for further data exchange 2. Negotiated Handover: • Exchange of NDEF messages between two NFC Forum devices to agree on one or several alternative carriers and associated parameter set for further data exchange 3. Mediated Handover: • Exchange of NDEF messages between two NFC-enabled devices via a third NFC Forum device (handover mediator) to agree on one or several alternative carriers and associated parameter set for further data exchange. 25
  26. 26. NFC Forum Connection Handover Specification: Static Handover Handover Requestor Handover Selector Read NFC Forum Tag NDEF with Handover Select record Data exchange on, e.g. , BT-LE 26
  27. 27. The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: Static Handover Case: A user purchases a headset and wants to use it with his telephone The user does the tap The telephone contains a BT device and an NFC reader The headset contains a BT device and an NFC Tag The telephone will start reading the NFC Tag with NFC technology. NDEF message on Tag will contain a Bluetooth carrier configuration data record that contains Bluetooth address = Headset Device address Generic access profile = Headset Local name = “Cool Headset” 27
  28. 28. The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: Static Handover Case: A user purchases a headset and wants to use it with his telephone User is prompted on screen: “Do you want to connect to Headset ‘Cool Headset’?” The telephone starts Bluetooth scanning for a device with ‘Headset device Address’ after it has read the NFC tag The headset starts Bluetooth advertising with its own ‘Headset device Address’ after the NFC Tag content is read. Advertising for X number of minutes Bluetooth link is established by a simple intuitive user interaction 28
  29. 29. The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: Static Handover Case: Depending on application, the user may start or stop music by a tap 29
  30. 30. NFC Forum Connection Handover Specification: Negotiated Handover Handover Requestor Handover Selector NDEF with Handover Request NDEF with Handover Select record NDEF with Handover Request NDEF with Handover Select record Data exchange on, e.g., BT-LE 30
  31. 31. The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: Negotiated Handover Case: Two users want to pair their telephones The users do the tap The telephone contains a BT device and a NFC Device The headset contains a BT device and a NFC device The first telephone will send a Handover request message containing a set of carrier configuration data records. Bluetooth BR/EDR Bluetooth LE WLAN Each with a set of configuration data The second one will respond with a set of carrier configuration data records, each with configuration data. 31
  32. 32. The Pairing Process with the Use of NFC: Negotiated Handover Case: Two users wants to pair their telephones Depending on application, the users may be prompted to connect on one of the common carriers. The Handover requestor may change its configuration to adopt to the received configuration data or send a new request with updated configuration The telephone will make itself connectable on the alternative carrier(s) The telephone will make itself connectable on the alternative carrier(s) Connection on the alternative carrier 32
  33. 33. NFC-Forum Connection Handover Specification: Mediated Handover Handover Mediator Handover Request carrier “Hm” Handover Mediation response Handover Request carrier “Hm” Handover Mediation response Handover Initiate request Handover Initiate response “Hm” Data exchange on, e.g. , BT-BR 33
  34. 34. NFC Forum Connection Handover Technical Specification Revision History  Version 1.1 November 2008 – Static Handover and Negotiated Handover  Version 1.2 July 2010 – Adds LLCP message transport and collision resolution  Version 1.3 January 2014 – Adds Mediated Handover Version 1.3 is a superset of 1.2 and 1.2 is a superset of version 1.1. You only need to relate to the latest version. 34
  35. 35. NFC Forum BT SSP Using NFC Application Document – Objectives – Document structure – Record types for LE and BR/EDR – AD and EIR data – Mandatory and optional data types – Bluetooth references 35
  36. 36. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: Objectives  Application document: – The document is administered by the NFC Forum – The document is jointly developed and approved by the NFC-Forum and the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)  What is described in the document: – The application document only describes the Bluetooth specific content in the “carrier configuration record” pointed to by the alternative carrier record described in the connection handover specification. – Connection handover message composition is described in the Connection Handover specification and the NDEF structure is defined in the NFC Forum NDEF specification. – Bluetooth data types and pairing process are described in Bluetooth specifications 36
  37. 37. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: Document Structure • Version 1.0, October 2011, contains recommendations for BT-BR/EDR • Version 1.1, January 2014, recommendations for BT-LE added Common section for BT-BR/EDR Section only relevant for BT-BR/EDR This section is equal to version 1.0.1 of the document Section only relevant for BT-LE This sections are new to version 1.1 of the document Examples for Negotiated, Static and simplified Tag Format Different sub-sections for BR/EDR and LE. BR/EDR examples are equal to version 1.0.1. LE examples are new for this version 37
  38. 38. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing / LE OOB Pairing Using NFC: Record Types  Mime types – One Mime type defined for the NDEF record type name for Bluetooth BR/EDR configuration data record: application/vnd.bluetooth.ep.oob – One Mime type defined for the NDEF record type name for Bluetooth LE configuration data record: application/vnd.bluetooth.le.oob – Mime types defined by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) • http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml#application – May define both BR/EDR and LE in same handover message, then need two carrier data configuration records with different record type name ( MIME = Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions ) 38
  39. 39. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: AD and EIR Data The format used in the Bluetooth configuration data record is the Extended Inquiry Response (EIR) data format for Bluetooth BR/EDR and the Advertising and Scan Response Data (AD) format for Bluetooth LE. 1. The EIR and AD formats are described in Bluetooth Core specification 2. The different EIR and AD types are described in the Bluetooth Core specification Supplement 3. EIR and AD data types values can be found in Bluetooth Assigned numbers Examples of EIR and AD types are • Local name • Security keys • Manufacturer data • Appearance EIR and AD data types are defined by Bluetooth SIG 39
  40. 40. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: Mandatory and Optional Configuration Data  Mandatory data types – Some data types are defined as mandatory – Bluetooth BR/EDR mandatory data • Bluetooth device address – Bluetooth LE mandatory data • LE Bluetooth device address • LE Role  Optional data types – All other EIR or AD types may be included in the carrier configuration record – The receiver of the EIR or AD types may use or may ignore any of the optional data types 40
  41. 41. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: Bluetooth References  Bluetooth core specification – The application document refers to version 4.0 – Core specification Addendum  Bluetooth core specification Supplement – Version v4  Bluetooth Assigned Numbers – Values for EIR and AD data types  All specifications are free to download: – https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications – https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/assigned-numbers 41
  42. 42. Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC: NFC Forum References  Bluetooth® Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC Application Document  NFC Forum Connection Handover Technical Specification  NFC Forum NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) Technical Specification  All specifications are free to download: http://nfc-forum. org/our-work/ specifications-and- application-documents/ specificati ons/nfc-forum-technical-specifications/ 42
  43. 43. Success Factors – Interoperability – Compliance – Use of N-Mark 43
  44. 44. Success Factors: Interoperability First key to success is a good user experience across different products • The user must not experience that BT-pairing using NFC is possible only for some products. E.g., possible with Vendor A and not possible with Vendor B. • Use NFC-Forum-compliant devices when implementing Ensure interoperability on device level. • Follow recommendations from the NFC Forum and the Bluetooth Special Interest Group The two organizations have given recommendations so that all can implement the same way. If not, market fragmentation will appear. 44
  45. 45. Success Factors: Interoperability • Do interoperability testing • In-house with different target products • At Bluetooth UnPlugfests • At NFC Forum Plugfests • An NFC Forum plugfest is: “NFC Forum Plugfest events are designed to create a safe real-world environment where developers can verify device interaction across product implementations. All testing is confidential.” http://nfc-forum.org/our-work/compliance/plugfest-events/ • A Bluetooth UnPlugFest is: “UnPlugFest (UPF) events are nonprofit interoperability testing events organized for the benefit of Bluetooth SIG members to improve the interoperability of Bluetooth® enabled devices. The events are held three times a year, once in each region — Europe, Asia and North America. The UPF’s sole purpose is to improve the interoperability of all Bluetooth enabled devices. Unreleased and unannounced products and prototypes are tested in this confidential forum.” https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/news-events/upcoming-events/ testing-events/unplugfest 45
  46. 46. Success Factors: Compliance • Do compliance testing • End product needs to comply on all layers • Physical layer • Protocol levels • No compliance > poor or no interoperability • NFC Forum Certification Program: • Use products that comply with the NFC Forum specifications and that have passed certification. • Be sure that analog test-cases pass after integration of certified parts into end product. http://nfc-forum.org/our-work/compliance/certification-program/ • Only use Bluetooth qualified products https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/test-qualification/qualification-overview 46
  47. 47. Success Factors: Use of N-Mark • The user needs to know where to touch the devices • The N-Mark will guide the user to where to make the tap http://nfc-forum.org/our-work/nfc-branding/ n-mark/ 47
  48. 48. Connection Handover White Paper Just Announced! 48 • Informative guide for developers • Hands on tips for using Connection Handover • Free download: • http://nfc-forum. org/connection-handover/
  49. 49. Examples of Products in the Market – Products in the market – New possibilities 49
  50. 50. Products in the Market with Bluetooth Pairing with NFC 50
  51. 51. Opportunities for Bluetooth Pairing with NFC The Internet of Things • Expectation for products are large • Huge number of products will have Bluetooth Low Energy • Huge number of products will have limited user interface Many people find the Bluetooth pairing process to be difficult and instruction manual must be studied or help from retailer is needed to complete. The combination of NFC and Bluetooth offers the user an simple and intuitive method to initiate the pairing. • Just tap the N-marks together and follow instructions on the screen. Opportunity: Every product that contains a Bluetooth link aimed for pairing. 51
  52. 52. Opportunities for Bluetooth LE Pairing with NFC Opportunities • Activity trackers • Toys • Advanced sport equipment • Industrial sensors • Watches • Gaming • Healthcare • PC Peripherals • Automation • Mobile accessories • ….. • …. 52
  53. 53. Demonstration with Windows 8 / Android 53
  54. 54. Windows 8 and Android Support • Windows 8.1 supports connection handover to Bluetooth • Many Android phones with NFC and Bluetooth support connection handover to Bluetooth Recommendation for connection handover to Bluetooth LE released Q1/2014 54
  55. 55. Windows 8 and Android Support • Windows 8.1 supports connection handover to Bluetooth • Many Android phones with NFC and Bluetooth support connection handover to Bluetooth Recommendation for connection handover to Bluetooth LE released Q1/2014 55
  56. 56. Questions and Answers – 20 minutes Q&A period – You may also visit: – http://nfc-forum.org/what-is-nfc/resources/ – http://nfc-forum.org/contact-us/ 56

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