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  1. 1. Nelson Ola. Cybernetics "Κυβερνήτης" Plato. The magic of the Cybernetics.
  2. 2. 2 To myqueen,Patricia, andmyprincesMichael andNelson.
  3. 3. 3 "Cybernetics is biggerbite of thefruit of theTree of Knowledge" Bateson, 1972. GregoryBateson Anthropologist, linguist, cybersocialscientist.
  4. 4. 4 Cybernetics. Word related tothe Greek rootΚυβερνήτης, refers in Spanishto "Cybernetics", whose meaningis to governand governor, to describethe helmsman, whichgovernsor directsa boatwas reported byPlato428. C., todialogue withSocrates, called Πολιτεία, "Dialogues of Plato" in his book"The Republic" 390-385. C.
  5. 5. 5 INTRODUCTION When dust my books and notes written on philosophy, psychology, history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, industrial chemistry, computer science, computation, simulation, systems theory, flow diagrams, operating systems, computer programming, my first thesis (Industrial Chemistry, Applied Solar Energy, treatment with psychotherapy and psychosomatic diseases with natural medicine reinforcement) work in Psychology, Psychotherapy, Natural Medicine, Cognitive Science, Robotics, Bionics and Cybernetics... Remembering places, campuses, libraries and beloved teachers in Quito, Los Angeles, New York, Maryland, Boston, Munich ... Universities like Harvard, MIT in Boston, the USPD, SPDI, Berkeley at Los Angeles, University Bonn Germany, the readings of Canterbury, EPN Polytechnic Ecuador National ... reviewing some old books related to "cyber" in order to share this knowledge with my students in some colleges and universities, I was drawn back, and very motivated to re-educate and raise awareness of new generations on the magical meaning of the word "cybernetics", Natural lexical word originating from one of the masters of ancient Greece and its creator, Plato (428 Πλάτων. C./427 a. C. - 347 a. C.) philosopher, very noticeable systematic, talkative and mentor of several philosophers and mathematicians, student of Socrates (Σωκράτης, Sokrates, 470-399. C.), who was the teacher of Aristotle (Ἀ ριστοτέλης, Aristotle 384 a.) . Analyzing and studying again Norbet Wiener (26-11-1984, Columbia, 18/03/1983 Stockholm, Sweden) pure mathematician remembered great track record of nineteenth century and early twentieth century, called the father of cybernetics, along with the notes many of those closest to the issue as his friend Mexican Arturo Rosenblueth, physician, physiologist and scientist (Harvard University 1985) and reading some interesting facts about those seeking even a teaching method or several ways to teach, wishing eagerly explain what cybernetics and what you can offer the world, then I realized that actual experience had been describing only the most visible part of a huge iceberg (ice block), without scrutinizing the icy depths on a rock view immense sea ... A powerful and wonderful word, listen only unconsciously leads to a trip to the future, "CIBERTNETICA" I would say is: "The magic wand ..." not complete the sentence, simply because to do so in right now, I would have said it all, patience dear friends, will complete somewhere special this talk... and thus to understand universal knowledge, knowledge wise beyond science itself, where applications of this old and new science are naturally showing the lives of human beings as if by magic, one after another. Multiple applications everyday cyber in our lives and to improve it, (this is the original idea) hundreds of examples that we will pass this reading revising the meantime, other discoveries and inventions based on Cybernetics, caress out light in the coming days, months, years, decades and why not say for centuries to come, this phenomenon occurs today or domino pyramid shape gradually, not wrong if I say: "Humans would just understanding the meaning of origin of the universe, and for that ... and learn to handle the elements or the strings of a parallel universe very different from ours, it seems more sophisticated and yet unreal to the universe that we know. "
  6. 6. 6 WORD CYBERNETICS Higher in science, to understand and teach the future generations. "Understand what cybernetics is extremely easy, but to explain it as such, it becomes extremely difficult and even more so when it comes to applications", I say, because to do so in a good way and correctly, the instructor, teacher or professor would seem to require some prior knowledge, which preferably should ignore them at first, to understand the magnificence of this quasi magical information, especially of open- mindedness on the part of those seeking the truth through science, convinced to accept this knowledge naturally by the student, is a requirement and must seek a teaching method that conforms to describe its meaning and content, in order to do this properly, deserves as though old knowledge that is apparently very modern to the present day, as the teaching of the "cyber" is given by two teachers universals, as Plato and Aristotle, who patiently taught through philosophy, using a different methodology, based on parables, metaphors and even using examples based on metaphysics, but specifically, dialogue, all this in order to explain to his students and followersof the time. On this and other knowledge in a dialectic and inductive (Socrates: "Knowledge is naturally latent in the soul and the need to find out."), Versed in several premises and proposals, topics whose knowledge is very loosely applied in sciences, such as physics, mathematics, calculus, chemistry, biology, astronomy, social sciences and even in a holistic way ... It's like cybernetics have been designed by an expert jeweler, as does the professional craftsman, a glove, the same that can seamlessly fit into any field of science and practical life. Cybernetics to be rediscovered by Norbert Wiener pin century (twentieth century) for this, our new century, the twentieth century, is actually a contribution to humanity and say rediscovered and dusted of Greek origin, because it is a matter they will continue to talk for ever, as the man or machines (cyborgs, bionic, robots ...) continue populating this our beautiful planet. Anyway modestly try to emulate his teaching methods, with the difference driving here today "Cyber Elements" high tech as the latest generation microprocessors, touch screens, retinal camera, voice recognition software that facilitates my job and is the intelligent part of my laptop (Mac Book Pro), satellite listening background music, and accompanied by the barking of my colleague and close friend who seems to communicate with others of its kind, taking care of my family sleep in this morning and cold full of inspiration, with the fun of it, trying to use a language understandable, simple and friendly, especially human, and I promise not to digress for passionate that if I do this and apologize, telling them in advance to talk and write about CYBERNETICS take us in two different ways, the same as he magically readers
  7. 7. 7 located at two different points of the reality we perceive, a very human, walking on the right hemisphere of our brain, but we also realize using the logical hemisphere and mathematician, the left hemisphere is on and activate our brains, using and balancing the two hemispheres at once, hence will meet at the midpoint or vertex of the very beginning of knowledge, where the roads come together and converge, science, life and technology. Cybernetics, Well Come to Experience!. FROM THE CYBER SYSTEMS. To understand cybernetics, depart from the concept and meaning of SYSTEM (SYSTEM, σύστημα), valid to explain where the union of the parts of a whole (set theory: Georg Cantor, IXX century), form a system, example solar system planets formed by an organized move around its parent star the sun, the sun is here cybernetic function of governing, controlling this system, just after being the focus of the concentric orbits and maintain astronomical information their task, on which the planets that form (The solar system is part of the spiral galaxy called Milky Way, located in the spiral arm called the Orion Arm, 28,000 light years from the galactic center.), as another Examples are digital electronics, the system of base 10 or decimal system and system base 16 or hexadecimal, used to represent mathematical syntax, and literal characters, used by humans to communicate with machines, here the base 10 or base 16, are to be part of this numbering system, with digital or binary system consisting of the number zero 0 off or the number 1 on (bits) of a digital or binary base 2, Here the binary system is the communication cyber man (animal) machine (Meccano), also see here that there is another system for measuring storage capacity as the byte (eight binary characters), kilobytes Kb (exactly thousand twenty-four binary characters), Megabytes Mb (thousand kilobytes) ... here the full implementation cyber another example, in humans, the nervous system (NS), capable of receiving and processing internal and external stimuli through of the senses, cyber base that controls the central nervous system is the (CNS) central nervous system connected to the brain (limbic system), then the control is the brain, cyber ... these are examples that allow us to understand that a whatever the system, meets one condition, that of having a system that governs, able to control and communicate processes within a closed system (closed loop system) or an open system (open loop system), closed when system power output is the same or the same data (input, process, output, input) or open if it accepts different data types as input and output the result as different (input, process, output, separate entry), whatever however complex this system seems, the goal of cybernetics is intelligently directing a job or task information feed itself, ie with negative feedback, better known as feedback (feedback) (-), or external power ( +), ie with positive feedback, because their primary work function, making this in the conductor system for which the application was developed. Another example would be in a formula or whatever this equation, where we have data, unknowns and formulas, formulas meet here CYBERNETICS work because the formulas contain all the elements that help clear the unknowns through given data (power) and solve the problem through a final result, once again fulfilling the outcome cyber input (input), process (process), output (output) in any proposed
  8. 8. 8 system. DATA a = 1, b = 1, INCOGNITA: c = x, FORMULAS: a + b = c, b = c, axb = c, a / b = c, ... and so on. The systems can be represented in different ways and resolved by any method conceptual, analytical or scientific but always helped derivative and basic knowledge of arithmetic and mathematics, simply to explain exactly, their function or functions within the system behavior, cybernetically of what you want to physically represent, so through the applications are also mathematical models, which come alive in mechanical projects, electronics, intelligently programmed systems, the aim is one, represent the result expressed in a real application and specifies using the technology or engineering, for example in a bank, an ATM represent a person (man) who works as a cashier behind a bank counter, a digital scale, a scale replacing analog or mechanical The touch fingerprint as data access control and entry system ... all these applications and more, tending as the primary basis of cybernetic control systems. Cybernetics, Systems, Control and Communications This explains the theories of systems, control theory and communication theory, are based logic to cybernetics according to the starting point of any specific application for which it was designed or inteligenciado the system, so other sciences are born related as cybernetic logic, control logic. A STARTING POINT FROM THE CYBERNETICS Cybernetics to be understood in another way, we can say that part of the grid and its center called vertex or zero (Cartesian plane, René Descartes philosopher and mathematician 1596-1650), the center of the grid also known in physics as absolute zero (1942 Albert Einstein, Satyendranath Bose), of which if we have enough time and patience, I will discuss later in another section, for now we will refer only to the Cartesian plane and their axes (x, y) respectively, both positive and negative , then we have x = 0, y = 0, the point of origin or guideline vertex (0,0) is the source of the "Cyber Point" cyber Cartesian plane, base and starting from any representation cybernetically speaking, Eureka ..! CYBERNETICS more complex. So far I have discussed only the basic systems generally mathematically, there are other types of more complex systems where cybernetics demonstrates its leadership power and quantify based systems (first order logic) and qualify (Qualifier modal )
  9. 9. 9 development of humanity through the political, social, health, education, safety and welfare, conventional systems leading, organizing and controlling the activities of human beings according to rules, laws, ordinances ... that governed in all areas, environments and areas of daily life. Plato, it shows in the first instance, when he talks that cybernetics is the art of governing or managing a ship or a country, lead or lead and manage human resources, ie it is the social cybernetics or Second Cybernetics Order, the power to govern, steer the ship, as does the captain to control your ship and crew. OPERATION OF THINGS FROM THE CYBERNETICS From cybernetics, word discovered and used by Plato, is the knowledge of how things we see or think of how they do it, is surrounded in mystique to be discovered, although we seem to accept enormous, as demonstrated the facts, they allow us to understand the universe we know, at least, our own, we know that our universe is in full swing and it has a beat KINETIC (Kinetic: William Thomson, known as Lord Kelvin in 1849) that keeps him alive and in continuous expansion, at least until now, in which we read this paragraph. (Theory of the expanding universe). Science studies and tries to understand the behavior of the macrocosm based on the respective analysis and monitors everything that happens in our microcosm, perhaps because it is closer and understandable to the laws that we know today, but things work out there differently and that their laws may vary, cybernetics tries to explain this from the point of view of the study, philosophical analysis, analytical and numerical, daring the right belonging to refute all the known and established to date . CYBERNETICS PERCEPTION IN HUMANS AND MACHINES. Cybernetically humans perceive reality through their senses or using biological sensors (senses), and physiologically specialized course, the goal is to get to understand all the features of human behavior in relation to their behavior or environment actually wraps, features that allow us to discover who is, for this here and where it goes, the answer is cybernetics, witnessing how we will be responding through new proposals, to pass this work will appear as by magic. Meanwhile, in the present century, cybernetics comes to life and reappears to position itself as a mainstay in the science of the modern era, making a strong and definite notice of the future that awaits us, telling us that the truth of the matter is closer of what we see or think we discover, if applied intelligently, we join forces, knowledge and results so far acquired or obtained the benefit of man, nature and the planet, then amazed to find all human beings with the findings of a future more sophisticated than we have until now, that is well applied cybernetics, take science and humanity of the hand to another level of life, very different from what we know today, will happen as if by magic.
  10. 10. 10 "Cybernetics is the magic wand of God". Nelson Ola. Intelligent animal, human beings and machines. "Intelligence is the human sensory capacity to learn, solve and implement ..." (Ola Nelson 1992) of this work is being undertaken neurons through synapses occurred inside the brain, this change in the machines intelligence is integrated in closed circuits or chips (Read Only Memory ROM - Firmware, Ascher Opler 1967) and a computer is just that, a computer and not another different device such as a monitor, printer or a stylus, so each element belongs to a system and is personalized or intelligence function within the. "The memory in humans is the ability to store data as sensory information to be processed .." (Ola Nelson, 1992) of this work are also responsible neurons through synapses, with the difference that in the systems or electronic machines, some data to be stored need of assistance on a chip integrated memory or storage media such as CD's, hard drives, Flash memories ... known as open-access memory or RAM (random access memory or Read - BIOS - Firmware - SO). "Logic is the sensory capacity, the mind has to rate or discern between right and wrong, according to natural inference engines and demonstrating mathematically, using truth tables." (Nelson Ola 2000) (true or false V / F, Charles Sanders Peirce, 1880. Tractus logical and Philosophicus, Wittgenstien Ludwin, 1921). Quantifiers are also presented as "little", "down", "much", "very" ... or qualifiers "very high", "lower", "not wide", "not much", "very little" , which determines the fuzzy logic (University of California at Berkeley, Lotfi A. Zadeh, 1965), being an adaptation of natural language, the same that will be programmed to make a decision if the decision (IF), then (THEN ). knowledge and make it serve the old mechanical and electrical systems, In the previous sections or paragraphs, cybernetics meet its target, the same is to integrate human modern electronic applications in machines, memory (RAM) and intelligence (ROM). Giving as a result the man-machine integration into a system where the logic of man (animal) is at the service of the machines to communicate and perform tasks (work) together. "The machines can learn from your mistakes, if you apply a neural programming, self-learning and inference based on artificial intelligence" Among human beings (animal) can identify people with different kinds of skills and abilities that are characterized by their knowledge, skills and experience to solve problems or situations correctly, and its capacity for invention or creativity, known as
  11. 11. 11 specialists or experts in specific areas, in the same way with the help of cybernetics, the human being created systems (machines) expert systems (IS: Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence AI. Jhon McCarthy 1956) that can perform tasks mechanical, electronic and routine , based on the application needed for the type of work to be performed, which are nothing but programmed routines integrated in different application systems, these are characterized by knowledge, the ability to solve problems or situations correctly, based to information given to the database and stored in its memory, meeting with Artificial Intelligence, provided the machine or device for the performance of work (AI: Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy 1956) or through an application program or software (Software: John W. Tukey 1957.) CYBER AGENTS unnatural The natural human intelligence (animal), put into unnatural agents (machines) has been called Artificial Intelligence (AI), to satisfy an objective, task or job, consistently optimizing production run time, quality and results ie machines do and what man would not do or would take long hours without time improve the quality and results of the work in series, here again cybernetics takes control of complex and routine human tasks ( dangerous) in most cases, replacing him as the man is engaged in other activities, tasks or solutions within the time and space that used to develop as such. "The technology of the future, automated systems, robots, will assist humans devote their personal efforts to be a better human being." MAN, another level of development with the machines. Humanity as such and with the help of CYBERNETICS goes to another level of control of the world around him, while handles multiple tasks and work to machines programmed, creating artifacts or robotic machines (Robotiks: Rossum's Universal Robots Karel Capek 1921, Isaac Asimov 1950, I, Robot) that develop them programmed routines, repetitive tasks, expert (SE) and intelligent (AI), creating and inventing countless parts and elements based on nanotechnology (Richard Feynman, Nobel Laureate in Physics 1965), the same as new systems are intelligently linked spreadsheet, effort and work, all this doubt will happen if a robotic application next level, integrating it into a single system to mechanics, mechanics, control auto, electronics, computer science, physical sciences and mathematics, and basic sciences to its creation. There is a new science known as Mechatronics to integrate these elements, where the parts come together to form cybernetically a single application or a single robot. Cybernetics through robotics is not only applicable to systems of mass production at industrial level with the use of robotic arms capable of assembling, joining and welding parts, ordering, counting, quality control ... also been tested in the management of administrative processes, mechanical and electronic, that being
  12. 12. 12 repetitive tasks in the daily work of humans become repetitive, by which they can be applied in different areas of everyday life such as: Everyday intelligent machines: ATMs, candy dispensers, beverage, food, toilet paper, cleaning towels, condoms, electronic fuel dispensers, automatic bill counters, coin change consoles and bills ... In medicine: Operating intelligent biomedical Consoles, blood pressure meters, microscopes for chemical laboratories, networks of medical information, patient data bases ... intelligent prosthesis. Electronic Accessories for Sport: Exercise Equipment, Boards and electronic watches, athletic Chips Control, Biometric Access Control ... At home: Washers and Dryers intelligent clothing, temperature control houses, apartments and buildings, electric and microwave ovens, refrigerators intelligent gaming machines and casino, entertainment and gaming consoles (Play Stations), Satellite Communication and wireless, new units of ground transportation and air transportation, digital storage devices for voice, data, video, music (multimedia), Geographic Position Locators GPS, terrestrial and satellite telecommunications, cellular (Cellular Phones), IP Multimedia Communications ( Internet Protocol), Internet Services, WiFi wireless networks, intranets and extranets, Internet Service, Clouds, social networks and millions of applications (app) for smartphones (Smart Phones), Novel Notebooks, iPad's (Apple Inc. in April 2010) we could continue with the list and see how cybernetics is the surface on these wonderful advances. Another of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind based on cybernetics and is used by millions of people to communicate and communicate logarar at remarkable speeds, better known as Baud, which is about characters or 1kBd = 1000 tones per second (Baud Rate), through a modem or signal modulator, connected to the computer or computer (soft / smart modem) to a telephone and satellite TV and even there the cybernetic process to other computers or servers in the world, so it begins the "Internet" (Internet Protocol Suite TCP / IP, 1982) invaluable tool use and abuse now, but previously and historically existed a system of North American military called "Arpanet" (Licklider, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Tylor, 1963.) systems based on the study of applications in cyberspace (William Gibson NeuroMate, 1984, Johnny Mnemonic, 1981 in the book "Burnning Chrome", 1981) imagine word for communication between computers connected together to form a large and unimaginable a global or world where computers via satellite and telecommunications servers can chat, share, store and process type systems multimedia (voice, data and images) for use by multiple applications in scientific and innovative technologies through wireless networks, including networks available for free that man can communicate with multiple computers at once, such as desktop computers, laptops, access control equipment, camcorders, cellular smart, control, handling equipment and computer accessories ... here again cybernetics in all its glory.
  13. 13. 13 CYBERNETICS IN CYBERSPACE. "On February 8, 1996, in Davos, Switzerland, John Perry Barlow wrote the Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace in calling on governments not to exercise sovereignty over cyberspace, defined it as the new home of Mind" . Though cyberspace should not be confused with the real Internet, the term often refers to objects and identities that exist within the same network, so you could say metaphorically that a website "is in cyberspace ". According to this interpretation, the events taking place on the Internet are not happening in countries where participants or servers are physically, but" in cyberspace. "This seems a reasonable view that extends after use distributed services (such as Freenet), and the identity and physical location of participants is impossible to determine because anonymity or pseudonymity communication. therefore could not apply the laws of any country. "Taken from Wikipedia. Second order cybernetics. The second-order cybernetics (Heinz von Foerster 1970) studied and not just the system or cybernetic concept, but also to humans who applies this knowledge (operator), ie the observer as part of the same system, the system to which it belongs. The term second order cybernetics tuene several enthusiasts, including doctors and health specialists, such as doctors, physiologists, neurologists, psychologists and even specialists in language and communication, and the biologists, Luwin Von Bertalanffy, co-creator and founder the concept of systems theory. SOCIAL CYBERNETICS.
  14. 14. 14 The term Social Cybernetics was released by Heinz Von Foerster in his lecture entitled "Cybernetics of Cybernetics", where the operator is the observer and critic to understand the theories of social and how they work or are directed human groups , districts, provinces, cities, countries. The social cybernetics as Heinz V. Foerster., Is also part of the overall Cyber said, so the observer or operator joins be part of the system to be critical of the order or disorder (chaos) without sacrificing other criteria not to change its vision, mission and objectives, becomes autonomous. "If we do well, someone else will determine a purpose for us. Moreover, if we do so, we would give them excuses to those who want to transfer responsibility for their own actions to someone else. " Heinz V. Foerster. Including the observer (or cybernetician Operator). The inclusion of the subject as an observer and the diversion of the attention of users to the comments of the comments (which enriched the observations themselves) transformed into an epistemology cybernetics, a discipline that had something to say not only about the structure ontological reality but on knowledge of that reality, its limits and possibilities, difficulties and constraints. Heinz Von Foerster and Margaret Mead said they began the period of the second- order cybernetics, second order systems being those who, as mentioned above, are self-referential and autological capacity. Cybernetics turned on itself and used his concepts to see users of these concepts and the relationship of these concepts through established with their environment. In short, studying cybernetics and not just the system or cybernetic concept, but the cybernetician or operator of the system as part of the system itself. In other words, the observer was passed which states the purpose of the system to the observer states operating their own purpose. The cybernetician no longer wondered: where are the circular links in this system? But are beginning to ask how we generate this system, through the notion of circularity?. UTILITY OF CYBERNETICS
  15. 15. 15 Cybernetics currently has interest in designing intelligent machine or auto organizations, which automatically rearranges (modeling) and its operating system, even more control over it. This concept was expanded to include a new goal: to understand the "machines" (systems) that are made, which are not organized by us, living organisms, or that we form as members or participants, for example, social systems , which also organized us, but your organization participate indirectly feeding the system even unconsciously, ie self-organizing systems that are not necessarily living, eg stars, swirls, etc.. This interest in self organizing systems led to increasing attention on two notions: that of autonomy, the fact that these systems be governed by their own laws, and self- referential, a logical operation by which a transaction takes itself as object, as when, for example, the language we speak, we thought, and we are aware of our consciousness. Central notions of cybernetics. The central notions of cybernetics (circularity, information, feedback, goal, regulation ...) and related notions that had been incorporated into the conceptual network of discipline: order, organization, random noise ... began to be used for understanding systems auto organizers, biological and social, with emphasis on autonomy and self- reference phenomena involved. The stage was then able to take a step that would be essential to meet squarely in the realm of epistemology: questioning the principle of objectivity, to assume that all such notions before us were not independent observers of the observed phenomena. Not only could describe circular self-referential links, they generated a standalone system or delimited, there in the system observed: and we, the observers, could be understood in the same terms and, indeed, the observation process itself delimiting another autonomous system, in which observers and observed system interact through self-referential processes, through which all the talk about a system was related to our own properties to make such an observation. So, our own culture became important to make certain observations, generating constraints for thei type of observations that we could do. In that structure includes, from the constraints imposed by the physicality (eg sensitivity to light rays, and the infrared or X-rays, or a sound, such as a bat) to the language restrictions, structure grammatical constraints representative process,
  16. 16. 16 specific cultural interests, etc… HISTORICALLY CYBERNETICS. Wiener Norvert chose the term cybernetics in tribute to Clarence Maxwell English physicist who in 1868 defined feedback mechanisms. Novert could not imagine that long before the Greek philosopher Plato, he Kybernetike comfortable using the term to refer to the art of navigation as the helmsman, or many years later in 1834 another brilliant physicist, Ampere Andrew French, used the term cybernetics as statecraft in politics. The cyber movement showed that the barriers that exist between mathematics, biology and electronics wherefore Cybernetics and should not be a science, not as a discipline, but as a movement of ideas, this interdisciplinary study of the structure regulatory systems, and q is binculada to control theory and systems theory both in its origins and in its evolution. In the second half of the twentieth century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social systems (ie, based on the language). affect complex systems and then adapt to their external environment, in technical terms, focuses on communication and control functions, both external and internal phenomena of the system. This ability naturally in living organisms and has been imitated in machines and organizations.
  17. 17. 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY: • FOERSTER, H. von (1981). Observing Systems, Seaside. California: Intersystems Publications. • Vocabulaire cognitives of Sciences, Neuroscience, pysichologie, intelligente, artificielle, linguistique et philosophie. Oliver Houde, Daniel Kaiser, Oliver Koenig, Joelle Proust and Francois Rstier. Press Universitaires de France, 1998. •FOERSTER, H. von (1991). seeds cybernetics. Barcelona, Gedisa. • Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms, Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1986- 1996. • Artificial Intelligence to New Synthesis, Nils J. Nilsson, Morgan Kaufmann, 1998 • Watzlawick, P., Beavin Bavelas, J., and JACKSON, D. (1989). Theory of human communication. Interactions, pathologies and paradoxes. Barcelona: Herder. • WIENER, N. (1954). The human use of human beings: Cybernetics and Society. New York, Avon. • Cybernetics, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, • WIENER, N. (1975). Cybernetics: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, MIT Press. i