Reading Efficiency

4,411 views

Published on

Reading Your Texts Efficiently
Do you read slowly?

Do you have trouble focusing when reading?

Is it hard to remember what you read?

This workshop will introduce you to strategies to use before, during & after reading to help you learn how to best focus & how to select important information from a text. It will also show you ways to improve your abilities to retain & analyze what you have read.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,411
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
260
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Reading Efficiency

  1. 1. Reading Efficiency: Getting the Most Out ofWhat You Read
  2. 2. Workshop DescriptionDo you read slowly?Do you have trouble remembering what you have read?Being able to read more efficiently and effectively will help you be more successful with your studies at Empire State College.This workshop is designed to give you strategies for getting the best value from your reading and is designed to introduce you to a variety of reading strategies to use before, during and after reading to engage your thought processes and improve your abilities to retain and analyze what you have read.The skills and strategies in this workshop will assist you in learning how to best focus when you read and how to select important information from a text in order to recall it for class discussions and assignments.
  3. 3. • Reading & Decoding• Textbook Reading & Comprehension Agenda • SQ3R/SQ5R • Skimming & Scanning• Reading & Notetaking • Says/Does • Mindmapping• Critical Reading • PTR2
  4. 4. The Efficient Reader… The Slow Reader…Adjusts Speed to Need Reads Everything SameUses a Pacer Lets Eyes WanderPractices Speed Reading Rarely (if ever) PracticesKeeps Reading Re-reads SentencesReads with a Purpose Reads “to the end”Marks Text for Memory Leaves Pages CleanReads Multi-Word Reads One Word at aPhrases TimeReads Ideas Reads Words
  5. 5. Reading & DecodingCollege reading entails having not only to read and comprehend a subject, but it also entails reading for a specific purpose, being able to analyze the material you read, and to read between the lines.Let’s look at 3 levels of reading and decoding:• Decoding for meaning – using context clues• Reading for meaning – not word for word• Reading with a purpose – knowing what you are reading about and why you are reading it
  6. 6. Decoding for Meaning – Using context clues
  7. 7. Decoding for Meaning – Using context cluesRaining Cats and Dogs Belly Button
  8. 8. Sunny Side Up Talent Show
  9. 9. Reading for Meaning – not word for wordAoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer in waht oredrthe ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnttihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at therghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses andyou can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs isbcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raedervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as awlohe.
  10. 10. Reading for Meaning – not word for word Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.According to a researcher at Cambridge University, it doesnt matter in what order theletters in a word are, the only important thing is that the first and last letter be at theright place. The rest can be a total mess and you can still read it without problem.This is because the human mind does not read every letter by itself but the word as awhole. http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/~mattd/Cmabrigde/
  11. 11. Reading with a Purpose What is this about?A newspaper is better than a magazine. A seashore isa better place than the street. At first it is better to runthan to walk. You may have to try several times. Ittakes some skill but it’s easy to learn. Even youngchildren can enjoy it. Once you are successful,complications are minimal. Birds seldom get tooclose. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too manypeople doing the same thing can also cause problems.One needs lots of room. If there are no complications,it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as ananchor. If things break loose from it, however, youwill not get a second chance.
  12. 12. Reading with a Purpose Flying a KiteA newspaper is better than a magazine. A seashore isa better place than the street. At first it is better to runthan to walk. You may have to try several times. Ittakes some skill but it’s easy to learn. Even youngchildren can enjoy it. Once you are successful,complications are minimal. Birds seldom get tooclose. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too manypeople doing the same thing can also cause problems.One needs lots of room. If there are no complications,it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as ananchor. If things break loose from it, however, youwill not get a second chance.
  13. 13. Comprehension
  14. 14. Comprehension TipsCREATE INTEREST• Set Goals: • “What is my purpose for doing this reading?” • “What do I want to learn?”• Look about how to best take notes Think at lesson objectives• Learn new vocabulary• Preview the reading• Review introductory informationUSE WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW• Activate prior knowledge (schema): “What do I know about the topic?”
  15. 15. *CREATE A POSITIVE READING ENVIRONMENT*• Relatively free of interruptions (phone, email, TV, friends) friends/family)• Free of distractions (noise, people watching, windows)• Study in the same place & time (routine)• Not too comfortable (easily fall asleep)• Choose a time when you are mentally alert **INCREASE YOUR ATTENTION SPAN**• Set specific and manageable study goals• Read with a purpose• Read actively (create study aids)• Keep a distractions list• Vary your reading• Take breaks• Approach assignment with a positive attitude
  16. 16. *CREATE A POSITIVE READING ENVIRONMENT*• Relatively free of interruptions (phone, email, TV, friends)• Free of distractions (noise, people watching, windows)• Study in the same place & time (routine)• Not too comfortable (easily fall asleep)• Choose a time when you are mentally alert **INCREASE YOUR ATTENTION SPAN**• Set specific and manageable study goals• Read with a purpose• Read actively (create study aids)• Keep a distractions list• Vary your reading• Take breaks• Approach assignment with a positive attitude
  17. 17. Identifying Your Purpose For Reading Using Bloom’s Taxonomy Appraise, assess, or EVALUATION critique on a basis of Specific standards & criteria. Accomplish a personal task SYNTHESIS after devising plan of action. Identify the elements (assumptions, ANALYSIS hypotheses, evidence) and structure of a situation. Remember knowledge or principles in APPLICATION order to solve a problem and apply rules. Demonstrate understanding, interpret, &COMPREHENSION extrapolate from a certain body of knowledge, facts and ideas. Recall words, facts, dates, convention, classification,KNOWLEDGE principles, theories, etc. in the approximate form in which they were learned.
  18. 18. What is the following about??? This is an easy thing to do. If possible, you will do it athome, but you can always go somewhere else if it is necessary. Beware of doing too much at once. This is a majormistake and may cost you quite a bit of money. It is far betterto do too little than attempt to do too much. Make sureeverything is grouped properly. Put everything into itsappropriate place. Now you are ready to proceed. The next step is to putthings into another convenient arrangement. Once done,you’ll probably have to start again really soon. Most likely,you’ll be doing this for the rest of your life---- perhaps not.Who knows?
  19. 19. Doing LaundryThis is an easy thing to do. If possible, you will do it athome, but you can always go somewhere else if it isnecessary. Beware of doing too much at once. This is a majormistake and may cost you quite a bit of money. It is farbetter to do too little than attempt to do too much. Makesure everything is grouped properly. Put everything intoits appropriate place. Now you are ready to proceed. The next step is toput things into another convenient arrangement. Oncedone, you’ll probably have to start again really soon.Most likely, you’ll be doing this for the rest of your life---- perhaps not. Who knows?
  20. 20. Schema A schema in general is a specific, well-documented, and consistent plan. The related word, scheme means a loosely described plan.A schema (pl. schemata), inpsychology and cognitivescience, is a mental structure(prior knowledge) thatrepresents some aspect of theworld. People use schemata toorganize current knowledgeand provide a framework forfuture understanding.
  21. 21. Reading Efficiency & Comprehension Strategies• SQ3R• Says/Does• PTR2• Mindmapping
  22. 22. Textbook Study System SQ3R5 step method that was designed to help people become more active in their reading and retain information more easily. Survey- Read intro, summary; skim headings, boldface, pictures, charts, graphs, etc. Question- set purpose for reading Read- break into sections Recite-key information in your own words Review -scan material; talk about it with classmate if possible; identify themes and relationships between concepts SQ3R system was developed during WWII to help military personnel enrolled in special programs ready faster and study better.Research shows students who learn system and use it conscientiously - read 22% faster - comprehend 10% more - retain 80% of material.
  23. 23. SQ5R Study Method URVEY-Read intro, summary; skim headings, boldface, pictures, charts, graphs, etc. UESTION-set purpose for reading EAD-break into sections ESPOND-think about what you read ECORD-highlight, take notes ECITE-key information in your own words EVIEW-scan material; talk about it with classmate if possible; identify themes and relationships between concepts
  24. 24. Survey Objective: To get a solid overview of what you are going to be reading. What it does… Prepares your mental processing system. Why do it ?• Better able to concentrate with a frame of reference.• Be able to identify location of important information. Endstate…Better understanding/comprehension/retention of material
  25. 25. Survey Applied to Your Studies• Begin by looking at the learning contract and assignments• Take note of assigned terms and problems• Skim any handouts• Read the introduction• Skim (rapidly) through the chapter, notice main headings and visuals• Read the summary/intro overview of the chapter
  26. 26. SkimmingGoal: Read parts of text that contain the most important information and skip what is least important.How • All of the steps for scanning AND • Read first sentence of each paragraph • Note last sentences of paragraph for summary • Pick out and identify key words • (vocabulary, formulas/ equations, names, numbers, dates…) • Maps, charts, graphs, timelines or diagrams = summary of key idea, event or relationship • General Rule = Skip more than you read
  27. 27. Thinking about: Organization of TextsEXTERNAL 1. Preface, table of contents, appendices, bibliography, index, title page, list of tables and illustrations, glossary 2. Introduction/summary statements, headings, graphs, charts, illustrations, guide questions
  28. 28. Restatement: Reading What a Text Says Description:Describing What a Text Does Interpretation:Analyzing What a Text Means
  29. 29. EXAMPLES of Ways to Read and Discuss Text From: www.criticalreading.com/ways_to_read.htmConsider the following nursery rhyme... Mary had a little lamb, Its fleece was white as snow, and everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go.What A Text Says talks about the topic of the original text, Mary and the lamb. Mary had a lamb that followed her everywhere.What A Text Does talks about the story. The nursery rhyme describes a pet that followed its mistress everywhere.What a Text Means talks about meaning within the story, here the idea of innocent devotion. An image of innocent devotion is conveyed by the story of a lambs close connection to its mistress. The devotion is emphasized by repetition that emphasizes the constancy of the lambs actions ("everywhere"…"sure to go.") The notion of innocence is conveyed by the image of a young lamb, "white as snow." By making it seem that this connection between pet and mistress is natural and good, the nursery rhyme asserts innocent devotion as a positive relationship.
  30. 30. SAYS/DOES EXAMPLE Copyright New York Times Company Aug 9, 2005 CONGRESS has an amazing new scheme to cut crime, automobile fatalities and energy consumption. There is one hitch. We have to stay in bed until sunrise during the first weekCongress of November -- lights out, televisions and radios off and please Intro toattempts stay away from that coffee maker. topic with to humorousinfluence Of course, doing so might interfere with breakfast, school attendance, morning workouts and jobs. Thats because during linkages to social dailyproblems that week, the sun wont rise until 7:30 a.m. at the earliest. If impact of with you live on the western edge of your time zone, expect darkness change inchange in until 8:30 a.m. Sorry, Boise. Good night, Grand Rapids. DLS. time Congress has extended daylight saving time by four weeks: In 2007, our clocks will spring forward on the second Sunday of March and fall back on the first Sunday of November. AndChange in frankly, there may be another hitch or two in the plan. First, Provides DLS is the trick of shifting unused morning light to evening was currentextended intended to exploit long summer days, when sunrise occurs state of 4 weeks between 4:00 and 5:00 a.m. Standard Time -- hours of daylight affairsand points that do not exist during the short days of March and November. with & out Second, after nearly 100 years, daylight saving has yet to save critique of problems the change us anything. The idea of falsifying clocks was proposed by the with in DLS. British architect William Willett in 1907, but the Germans were original intent & the first to try it in 1916, hoping that it would help them current conserve fuel during the First World War. Then Britain and change America gave their clocks a whirl.
  31. 31. Strategies for Reading Texts Class warfare Time; New York; Mar 4, 2002; Ron Stodghill Abstract: Not everyone is as receptive to jRoTcs soft nudge into the rank and file. "I enjoyed [JROTC] , but I never wanted to pursue a career in themilitary," says the Rev. [Edward Cook], 27, a former JROTC cadet and a 1993 graduate of Jacksons Forest Hill High School. Still, as a seminary student and director of the day-care center at Greater NewJerusalem Missionary Baptist Church in Jackson, Cook says those old experiences in JROTC are proving relevant in his work today.]
  32. 32. SAYS SAYS DOES DOES Shunta WHOS GOING TO ARGUE WITH this outcome? Back in 1992 Shunta Belle was on the Bell’s life fast track to nowhere, "hanging around thugs and drug dealers and trying to prove myselfexperience to them." Then, as a freshman at Provine High School in Jackson, Miss., she signed up for Provides& getting on the spit-and-shine, no-nonsense world of the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps. For Case Study the first year, Belle held on to a few of her underachieving civilian comrades. But over thetrack when next three years, she picked up new friends, a better attitude and a fresh set of goals to Example of started match. "I got serious about things," she says, "and I wanted to be around people who + impact of JROTC. wanted something out of life." Today Belle, 23, is a fire fighter in her hometown department. JROTC It is stories like Belles that have helped fuel the growth of JROTC. Started in 1916, JROTC established a beachhead at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy in Norwich, Vt. Currently the program can be found in some 3,000 public schools across the JROTC started nation, and its Pentagon funding is expected to rise more than 50%, from $215 million last Backgroundin 1916, in about year to $326 million by 2004. JROTC has its best-known booster in Colin Powell, who was info on the 3,000 public a ROTC cadet as a student at City College of New York. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of history, schools in US, $$ up to $326 Staff, he decided that JROTC offered the best prescription for saving lost inner-city youths. development mil from $215 "Yes, Ill admit, the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of and costs of mil for 2004. Collin Powell- Junior ROTC. But society got a far greater payoff," Powell later wrote in his 1995 JROTC Poster child autobiography, My American Journey. "Inner-city kids, many from broken homes, found example stability and role models in junior Rom They got a taste of discipline, the work ethic, and they experienced pride of membership in something healthier than a gang." There are quite a few people, however, who believe that those success stories come atOpposition to too high a price. After all, JROTC teaches kids how to act and think like soldiers before Presents JROTC – they are old enough to know their own mind. Critics argue that because such programs are Counter “success among the few sources of additional funding for some of the nations neediest schools, they argument to stories” have exploit poor kids by putting them on a military track, to the exclusion of other options. The the their cost debate has heated up as a growing number of school districts have begun offering JROTC, positives of “Exploit theneediest kids” while others in such cities as Oakland, Calif., and Chicago have scrapped conventional JROTC teaching methods to convert some schools into public military academies. “cost morethan they say”
  33. 33. PTR2P =roblem INTRO T hesisR = easons BODYR =esults Conclusion
  34. 34. Are military programs in the inner-city public schools rescuing at-risk kids or pushing them to become soldiers? WHOS GOING TO ARGUE WITH this outcome? Back in 1992 Shunta Belle was on the fast track to nowhere, "hanging around thugs and drug dealers and trying to prove myself to them." Then, as a freshman at Provine High School in Jackson, Miss., she signed up for the spit-and-shine, no-nonsense world of the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps. For the first year, Belle held on to a few of her underachieving civilian comrades. But over the next three years, she picked up new friends, a better attitude and a fresh set of goals to match. "I got serious about things," she says, "and IProblem wanted to be around people who wanted something out of life." Today Belle, 23, is a fire fighter in her hometown department. It is stories like Belles that have helped fuel the growth of JROTC. Started in 1916, JROTC established a beachhead at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy in Norwich, Vt. Currently the program can be found in some 3,000 public schools across the nation, and its Pentagon funding is expected to rise more than 50%, from $215 million last year to $326 million by 2004. JROTC has its best-known booster in Colin Powell, who was a ROTC cadet as a student at City College of New York. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he decided that JROTC offered the bestThesis prescription for saving lost inner-city youths. "Yes, Ill admit, the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of Junior ROTC. But society got a far greater payoff," Powell later wrote in his 1995 autobiography, My American Journey. "Inner-city kids, many from broken homes, found stability and role models in junior Rom They got a taste of discipline, the work ethic, and they experienced pride of membership in something healthier than a gang." There are quite a few people, however, who believe that those success stories come at too high a price. After all, JROTC teaches kids how to act and think like soldiers before they are old enough to know their own mind. Critics argue that because such programs are among the few sources of additional funding for some of the nations neediest schools, theyReasons exploit poor kids by putting them on a military track, to the exclusion of other options. The debate has heated up as a growing number of school districts have begun offering JROTC, while others in such cities as Oakland, Calif., and Chicago have scrapped conventional teaching methods to convert some schools into public military R1 academies. One of the biggest selling points of JROTC to school districts is that its matching federal funds provide a cost-effective way to broaden a schools curriculum. But thats a claim opponents say masks many hidden expenses. A recent study R1 by the American Friends Service Committee argues, for example, that after school districts subsidize military instructors salaries, renovate facilities to accommodate JROTC instruction and fork over for mandated field trips, JROTC is usually pricier than conventional academic programs.
  35. 35. The Benefits of Mind MappingConcept mapping can be done for several purposes: • to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.). • to design a complex structure (long texts, large web sites, etc.); • to communicate complex ideas. • to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge • to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding.Concept maps: • Show relationships between ideas. • Acts as a memory trigger. • Makes it easier to remember information. • Improves reading comprehension. • Unequaled tool for organizing information. • The act of organizing materials is studying.
  36. 36. BRAINST O RMING LECTURE STUDY GROUP TEXTBOOK CHAPTER CHAPTER NO TES NOTES LESS ON What Can I WHAT TO PARAGRAPHSO BJECTIV ES Graphically? Organize G.O RO UGH TES T DRAFTS REVIEW
  37. 37. SimilaritiesDifferences Differences Object, Event Object, Event or Person or Person
  38. 38. Persuasive Essay State the Gi ve bri ef outli ne Tell w hy AddressIntroducti on Summari ze facts of argument to argument i s arguments of your argument follow reasonable the other si de Supports organization of ideas Helps form logical arguments Serves as reminder of audience and purpose
  39. 39. Line 8 Line 1Line 7 Title of Line 2 Poem by Line 6 Author Line 3 Line 5 Line 4
  40. 40. Concept Map PracticeInstructions: Read the following passage on principles of classification, and do a concept map of everything you read in the passage.Classification consists of placing together in categories those things that resemble each other. While this sounds simple, in actual practice it may be quite difficult. First of all, we have to decide what kind of similarities are the most important for our purpose. One of the earliest classification schemes placed in one category all those organisms which lived in the same habitat. Thus fish, whales, and penguins were classified as swimming creatures. This type of classification was often based on the principle that creatures possessing analogous organs should be classified together. Analogous organs are organs that have the same function. The fins of fishes and the flippers of whales and penguins are analogous organs because they are all used for swimming. The wings of birds, bats, and insects are analogous organs that make flying possible.As more knowledge was gained about the anatomy of living things, it became apparent that similarities of habitat and of analogous organs were often rather superficial. The fact that bats have fur and nurse their young, birds have feathers and lay eggs, while insects are cold-blooded and have no internal skeleton suggested that these organisms differ from one another in more important ways than they resemble one another. An appreciation of the truly significant ways in which organisms resemble or differ from one another enabled the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus to found the modern system of classification. In 1753 he published a classification of the plants which was followed, in 1758, by a classification of the animals. For this work he is often called the father of taxonomy, the name given to the study of classification. His system of classification is fundamentally the system we use today. It is based on the principle of homology. Homologous organs are organs which show the same basic structure, the same general relationship to other organs, and the same pattern of very early growth. They need not, however, share the same function. An examination of the bones of the whales flipper, the bats wing, and mans arm reveals the same basic pattern (Fig.2-2). Furthermore, all these appendages are found in the same part of the body and develop in similar ways. They are homologous organs, although they are used to carry out quite different functions. Linnaeus felt that the difference in function was trivial, while the homology of the organs provided a sound basis for grouping these animals together. Why is classification based upon homology so significant? The answer to this question was not given until 1859 when Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution, According to Darwin, a classification based upon the presence of homologous organs is a classification based upon kinship. He felt that all creatures sharing homologous organs is a classification based upon kinship. He felt that all creatures sharing homologous organs are related to one another, having inherited their homologous organs from a common ancestor. Thus man, the bat, and the whale all had a single ancestor who possessed the basic forelimb structure that these creatures possess - although obviously in a quite modified form - today. Source: http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/note-taking/class1.html
  41. 41. Source: http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/note-taking/class1a.html
  42. 42. Reading Efficiency ResourcesREADING TEXTS• Pre-Reading Strategies www.studygs.net/preread.htm• Critical Reading www.esc.edu/ESConline/Across_ESC/WritingResourceCenter.nsf/wholeshortlinks2/Academic+Reading• Studying Efficiently gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/asc/index.gw/Site_ID/46/Page_ID/14536/• Textbook Reading Strategies academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/208.HTM• How to Study – Reading Resources www.howtostudy.org/resources_skill.php?id=10• Dartmouth Academic Skills Center www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/reading.html• St. Louis University Reading Resource Center www.slu.edu/x14076.xml• Rochester Institute of Technology – Academic Support Center – On Textbook Reading www.rit.edu/studentaffairs/asc/college_programs/lng_pwr/index.php?l1=3&l2=7&location=37• James Cook University – Reading Efficiency - http://www.jcu.edu.au/office/tld/learningskills/effreading/MINDMAPPING• Theory Behind Concept Mapping cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm• Mindmapping Overview members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/Creative/Mindmap/• Reading Comprehension & Mindmapping Video www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvnbKEHOQIY&feature=related• University of Victoria www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/reading-skills/• James Cook University – Mindmapping - http://www.jcu.edu.au/office/tld/learningskills/mindmap/index.html
  43. 43. Please give us your feedback at:http://bit.lyreadingeffecientworkshopThank you for attending tonights workshop If you would like to view this worship again to refresh your memory or just for fun please visit:www.necacademicsupport.pbworks.com

×