Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Nutrient Management


Published on

Presentation by Chris Augustin, NDSU Extension Service nutrient management specialist. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Nutrient Management

  1. 1. Nutrient Management 2010 ND Feedlot School<br />Chris Augustin<br />Carrington Research Extension Center<br />Nutrient Management Specialist<br />701-652-2951<br /><br /><br />
  2. 2. AFO Rules<br />Animal Feeding Operation (AFO) Definition<br />Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and <br />Crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.<br />
  3. 3. AFO Rules<br />Number of Animals<br />CAFO<br />>1,000 Cattle <br />Medium AFO<br />300-999<br />Small AFO<br /><300<br />
  4. 4. Compliance Concerns<br />Permits<br />CAFO—Yes, NDPDES permit <br />Medium AFO—Permit if<br />The facility is within ¼ mile of surface water<br />Or impacting waters of the state. <br />Small AFO—if state determines impacting waters of the state<br />
  5. 5. Compliance Concerns<br />Nutrient Management Plan<br />CAFO—Yes. Submit to NDDoH<br />Medium or Small AFO<br />Yes, if permit required and manure is applied daily or to frozen ground; soil test levels reveal high P levels or NDDoH requests a copy<br />
  6. 6. Compliance Concerns<br />Recordkeeping Requirements<br />CAFO—Retained for 5 years <br />Weekly inspection of water pollution control structures and liquid level of liquid manure storage structures<br />Daily inspection of water lines<br />Mortality management<br />Copy of manure storage structure designs<br />Date, time and volume of any overflows<br />
  7. 7. Compliance Concerns<br />Permits are good for 5 years<br />180 days before expiration, renewal shall be submitted<br />A permit may be transferred with proper notification to the NDDoH.<br />
  8. 8. NMPs Need<br />Manure transfer in last year<br />Acres available for land application<br />Summary of discharges in previous years<br />Type of livestock<br /># of days/year on site<br />Estimate of manure production<br />Duration of manure storage<br />Map of application and mark sensitive areas<br />Crop rotation<br />Soil/manure test results<br />Recommended fertilizer rates<br />North Dakota Livestock Program Design Manual<br />
  9. 9. Acreage Requirements<br />The more cattle, the more the acres needed but not a magic cows/acre number<br />Crop rotation and soil test levels have huge impact on acres needed and future use of those fields for manure<br />Corn performs well on manure fertilized fields<br />
  10. 10. Manure Nutrient Balancing<br />Type of livestock<br />700 Finishing Beef<br /># of days/year on site<br />365<br />Estimate of manure production <br />Beef Feeding Operation Siting and Design Basics (NM-1155)<br />64 lbs/day = 8,176 tons/year<br />16 lbs N/ton = 130,816 lbs N/year <br />7.1 lbs P/ton = 58,050 lbs P/year <br />14.5 lbs K/ton = 118,882 lbs K/year<br />145lbs N/14 ton Corn Silage =452 acres<br />18 tons/acre, 128lbs P/acre<br />
  11. 11. Prioritizing Fields<br />Soil fertility<br />Apply N for crop needs<br />Monitor PI<br />Do not apply manure on fields 125 ≥ ppm P<br />Crop sequence<br />Proximity to neighbors<br />Be courteous about timing<br />Incorporate w/in 24 hours of application<br />Proximity to surface waters<br />At least 100ft away from surface waters unless 35ft buffer strip or if buffer is deemed not necessary<br />
  12. 12. Map of Application and Sensitive Areas<br />Livestock Unit<br />
  13. 13. Q7A<br /> Q7C<br /> Q7B<br /> Q9H<br /> Q6<br /> Q9A<br /> Q8<br /> Q9B<br /> Q5<br /> Q9C<br /> Q9D<br /> Q9E<br /> Q3<br /> Q9F<br /> Q9G<br /> Q2<br /> Q4<br /> Q1<br /> Q9Y<br /> 8<br />Field 1<br />Field 3<br />Field 5<br />Field 2<br />Field 4<br />Field 6<br />Map of Application<br />Field 7<br /> P10<br /> P1<br /> P2<br /> P3<br /> P9<br />CREC<br /> P4<br /> P5<br /> P8<br /> P6<br /> P7<br />N<br />Field 11<br /> 20<br />Field 12<br />Field 23<br />Field 13<br /> 19<br />Field 14a<br />Field 21<br /> 18<br />Field 14b<br />Field 22<br />15<br />Field 24<br /> 17<br /> 16<br />Livestock Unit<br />Butts<br />
  14. 14. Field 1<br />Map of Application<br />CREC<br />N<br />Field 14a<br />Field 14b<br />Field 17 & 16 <br />Livestock Unit<br />
  15. 15. 1,176ft<br />2 field lengths/load for longest field length<br />N<br />Flag 1= 3 field lengths/load<br />1,140ft<br />1,000ft<br />Flag 3= 4 field lengths/load<br />CREC Livestock Unit<br />750ft<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Soil Test Trends<br /><ul><li>Long-term issue of N and P management
  18. 18. Crops need 3 units of N for every unit of P
  19. 19. Manure has near 1:1 ratio of N:P</li></ul>Data collected from NDSU Soil Testing Lab. <br />
  20. 20. Typical Manure Analysis<br />Manure<br />Compost<br />50% Total N Mineralized1st Year<br />80% Total P Mineralized 1st Year<br />90% Total K Mineralized 1st Year<br /><ul><li>20% Total N Mineralized1st Year
  21. 21. 30% Total P Mineralized 1st Year
  22. 22. 30% Total K Mineralized 1st Year</li></li></ul><li>Sampling Manure<br /><ul><li>Collect 10-15 subsamples
  23. 23. Mix
  24. 24. Package
  25. 25. Account for differences
  26. 26. Animals, Storage Facilities, Age
  27. 27. Keep samples cool/freeze</li></li></ul><li>Manure/Soil Testers<br />NDSU Soil Science Department<br /><br />701-231-9589<br />Agvise<br /><br />701-587-6010 <br />DHIA<br /><br />800.369.2697    <br />Manure Test Cost $22-50<br />Soil Test Cost $10-40 <br />
  28. 28. Sheet Method<br />lbs of Manure on Sheet x 21.8<br />Plastic Sheet ft2<br />Tons/acre= <br /><ul><li>8’ x 2’ 8.75”
  29. 29. 7’ x 3’ 1.25”
  30. 30. 6’ x 3’ 7.5”
  31. 31. 5’ x 4’ 4.25”</li></ul>Materials<br /><ul><li>Bucket, Scale, Sheet</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Weigh empty bucket and sheet
  32. 32. Lay out the sheet</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Anchor sheet</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Measure square feet of sheet</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Record tractor gear, engine RPM, and spreader settings
  33. 33. Apply the manure</li></li></ul><li>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Weigh the manure covered sheet in the bucket</li></li></ul><li>Pen Surface Management<br />Pen Surface Management often overlooked<br />Muddy pens can decrease gains by 10%<br />From an odor and manure mgt. standpoint the most important<br />Scrape the pens and stockpile manure in convenient location<br />If maximizing pen space—scrape pen surface at least every 10 days<br />
  35. 35. Pen Surface Management<br />If it is not practical to scrape every 10 days, the operator should consider a higher frequency of scraping under these conditions:<br />when wet lot conditions are anticipated (i.e. in spring) reduces odor <br />when dry lot conditions are anticipated (i.e. mid- to late summer) reduces dust<br />Scrape manure accumulation areas (i.e. waters and feed bunks)<br />Scraping pens periodically can save 50% of the N<br />
  36. 36. Spring Thaw Maintenance<br />Monitor system.<br />Review Operations and Maintenance.<br />Notify NDDoH if there is a <br />spill.<br />
  37. 37. Spring Thaw Maintenance<br />Pump containment pond in the fall.<br />Pile snow outside containment area.<br />Clear snow and ice frozen pipes, culverts, and solid separator.<br />
  38. 38. Containment Pond Management<br />Monitor pond levels<br />Pull water from the middle.<br />Direct discharge in areas where environmental impact is minimal.<br />Spread water over large grass/hay land area.<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Containment Pond Management<br />Pull water from the middle.<br />Direct discharge in areas where environmental impact is minimal.<br />Spread water over large grass/hay land area.<br />
  41. 41. Mortality Management<br />NDCC 36-14-19<br />Animals are considered to die of a contagious disease until another cause of death is apparent.<br />Must be managed w/in 36 hours<br />
  42. 42. Mortality Management<br />Rendering<br />Incineration<br />Burial<br />Composting<br />Consult NDDoH<br />
  43. 43. Mortality Management Burial<br />Deeper than 4ft<br />At least 4ft above water table<br />200ft from water<br />In fine textured soils<br />Mound soil to shed precipitation<br />
  44. 44. Mortality Management Composting<br />Area that drains, but into water of the state<br />Area not prone to leaching<br />Natural decomposition<br />Does not attract rodents<br />End result is a pathogen free, soil like product with bones that shatter<br />
  45. 45. Mortality Management Composting<br /><ul><li>Surround dead animal with >12 inches of bulking agent (straw or sawdust)
  46. 46. Maintain moisture content of bulking agent
  47. 47. Aerobic microbes work on carcass
  48. 48. Odorous gases diffuse into bulking agent where aerobic composting takes over</li></li></ul><li>Managing Microorganisms<br /><ul><li>Indigenous populations of fungi and bacteria will start to decompose the carcass.
  49. 49. Its YOUR job to take care of microorganisms.
  50. 50. Maintain ~50% water
  51. 51. Aerobic Conditions
  52. 52. Hot Temperatures</li></li></ul><li>Selecting Bulking Material<br /><ul><li>Rich in Carbon
  53. 53. Airy material
  54. 54. Won’t blow away</li></li></ul><li>C:N Ratios of Composting Materials<br />Rynk et al., 1992<br />
  55. 55. Laying Carcasses<br />Dept. of Agricultural & Biosytems Engineering, Iowa State University <br />
  56. 56. <ul><li>Lay bulking material on pad floor</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Lay carcass on bulking material</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cover carcass with more bulking material</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Monitor pile temperatures and moisture</li></li></ul><li>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Turn piles once temps 120OF
  58. 58. Continue monitoring piles
  59. 59. Turn again</li></li></ul><li>
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Cost Analysis of Manure Fertilizer<br /><ul><li>46-0-0 = $415/ton
  62. 62. 82-0-0 = $470/ton
  63. 63. 11-52-0 = $500/ton
  64. 64. 0-0-60 = $465/ton
  65. 65. $64/25 tons Manure
  66. 66. Manure Analysis
  67. 67. 7-7-10/ton</li></li></ul><li>
  68. 68. Spring Wheat Response of Fall vs. Spring Applied Manure<br /><ul><li>2008 and 2009
  69. 69. Applied 150lbs of N from manure (50% mineralization) and urea
  70. 70. Conventional Till
  71. 71. Spring and Fall application</li></li></ul><li>
  72. 72.
  73. 73.
  74. 74.
  75. 75. Spring Wheat Response of Fall vs. Spring Applied Manure<br /><ul><li>Yield = Urea (a) > Fall Manure (ab) > Spring Manure (b) > Check (c)
  76. 76. Protein = Urea (a) > Fall Manure (b) > Spring Manure (b) > Check (b)
  77. 77. Both growing season were not ideal for microbial action
  78. 78. 50% N mineralization should be adjusted for high N demands during early growth</li></li></ul><li>Did the Manure Make Me Money?<br /><ul><li>$4.20 Base Price
  79. 79. 15.3% Protein = $5.70/bu
  80. 80. 14.5% Protein = $5.40/bu
  81. 81. 14.1% Protein = $4.95/bu
  82. 82. 13.9% Protein =$4.80/bu</li></li></ul><li>
  83. 83. More Info<br />Nutrient Management News<br /> <br /><br /><br /> <br /><br />
  84. 84. Conclusion<br />Follow NMP and ground truth soil and manure.<br />Calibrate spreader.<br />Maintain records.<br />Plan ahead.<br />Maintain your facility.<br />Manure is good for the soil, cost effective, and can make you money.<br />
  85. 85. Questions?<br />