Promoting Positive BehaviorsStacy A. Layer, MA, BCBABehavior Analyst, ManagerStacy.Layer@ ch.com            mandJulie Sevi...
Miami Children’s Hospital   Dan Marino Outpatient Center    ◦ 2900 S. Com erce Pkwy, Weston, FL                 m      33...
Miami Children’s Hospital   Dan Marino Outpatient Center    ◦ 20,000 gallon, heated, covered pool
Needs Assessment   Find out what goal(s) the fam or caregiver hopes                                        ily    to acco...
Strategies   Be prepared!    ◦ Minim transition tim between activities           ize            e    ◦ Keep children enga...
Strategy: Create Rules Be brief and clear Avoid rules that start with “no” or  “don’t”    ◦ The child what to do and giv...
Promoting Instruction Following Use a participant’s nam prior to a specific instruction                            e  or ...
Strategies Only the m    aterials relevant to the target  skill should be within the child’s reach Minim   ize potential...
Prompting Strategies Errorless: If there is no or little likelihood  that the child can perform the skill Three-step pro...
Easier said than done…   If all else fails, here are som behavioral                                   e    tips!
Hum Behavior   an   Behavior is    ◦ a function of both genetic and physiological      factors as well as each child’s hi...
Behavioral Function Topography is what the behavior looks like Function is why the behavior occurs   Topography ≠ Funct...
Behavioral Function         Behavior         Not Behavior                     Being sad, scared, orCrying                 ...
Functions of Behavior   Socially Mediated    ◦ Access to Attention    ◦ Escape from Dem   ands/Aversive Situation    ◦ Ac...
Exam Behavior    ple   Tantrum    ◦   Crying    ◦   Yelling    ◦   Flopping to floor    ◦   Hitting    ◦   Kicking    ◦  ...
Attention Maintained Tantrum   Attention includes:    ◦ Eye contact    ◦ Any vocal response      Reprimands, praise, com...
Attention Maintained Tantrum   Indicators:    ◦ Child looks at you or caregiver prior to engaging      in the behavior   ...
Attention Maintained Tantrum   Proactive Strategies:    ◦ Provide children with som form of attention                    ...
Attention Maintained Tantrum   Reactive Strategies:    ◦   Ignore the behavior, not the child    ◦   Continue activity wi...
Escape Maintained Tantrum   Escape includes:    ◦ Delaying compliance or aversive event      Repeating instructions mult...
Escape Maintained Tantrum   Indicators    ◦ Behavior begins im ediately following a dem                          m       ...
Escape Maintained Tantrum   Proactive Strategies:    ◦ Provide clear instructions      Use m al num of words during inte...
Escape Maintained Tantrum   Reactive Strategies:    ◦ 3-step prompting      Give directive instructions      Tell, Show...
Tangibles Maintained Tantrum   Tangible Item include:                 s    ◦   Toys    ◦   Food/Candy    ◦   Clothes    ◦...
Tangibles Maintained Tantrum   Indicators:    ◦ Child requests an item and is denied prior to      engaging in the behavi...
Tangibles Maintained Tantrum   Proactive Strategies:    ◦ Provide choices prior to undesirable behaviors      (NOT after)...
Tangibles Maintained Tantrum   Reactive Strategies:    ◦ Block access to item until an appropriate                       ...
Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum   Automatic/Sensory input includes:    ◦ Auditory stimulation from screaming    ◦ Ta...
Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum   Indicators:    ◦ Behaviors occur regardless of socially mediated      consequences
Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum   How to Respond:    ◦ Provide the sensory input proactively to prevent      problem...
Healthy Consequences   Avoid saying, “No,” or “Don’t do    that”    ◦ Tell the child what he should be doing instead Use...
Functional Reinforcers Discover why the problem behavior occurs Use the specific behavioral function as a  reinforcer in...
NOT Healthy Consequences
"Promoting Positive Behaviors" by Stacy Layer- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012
"Promoting Positive Behaviors" by Stacy Layer- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012
"Promoting Positive Behaviors" by Stacy Layer- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012
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"Promoting Positive Behaviors" by Stacy Layer- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012

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"Promoting Positive Behaviors" by Stacy Layer- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012

  1. 1. Promoting Positive BehaviorsStacy A. Layer, MA, BCBABehavior Analyst, ManagerStacy.Layer@ ch.com mandJulie SevillaAquatics CoordinatorJulie.Sevilla@ ch.com m
  2. 2. Miami Children’s Hospital Dan Marino Outpatient Center ◦ 2900 S. Com erce Pkwy, Weston, FL m 33331
  3. 3. Miami Children’s Hospital Dan Marino Outpatient Center ◦ 20,000 gallon, heated, covered pool
  4. 4. Needs Assessment Find out what goal(s) the fam or caregiver hopes ily to accom plish through swim lessons. Determine the child’s diagnosis, physical and cognitive lim itations, com unication abilities, and m levels/types of problem behaviors. Learn about any m edical considerations and allergies the child m have. ay Determine the child’s preferred gam toys, es, activities, and form of praise and reward system . Determine the child’s preferred m ethod of teaching to facilitate learning (prom pts, instructions, visual supports).
  5. 5. Strategies Be prepared! ◦ Minim transition tim between activities ize e ◦ Keep children engaged at ALL tim es Establish rules and review at start of EVERY activity and frequently throughout activities Transitions: Provide verbal warnings prior to changes in activities Dem onstrate the new skill Keep the fun in fundam entals Always end on a good note ◦ Stop activities while interest is high Provide pro-active choices Follow a consistent schedule Carefully select demands and follow through always
  6. 6. Strategy: Create Rules Be brief and clear Avoid rules that start with “no” or “don’t” ◦ The child what to do and give rules that are incompatible with undesirable behavior ◦ Example: “Keep your hands and feet to yourself” versus “No hitting, kicking or pushing” Praise or reinforce rule following m often ore than you call attention to rule breaking Post rules using both written words and pictures or symbols
  7. 7. Promoting Instruction Following Use a participant’s nam prior to a specific instruction e or com ent m When giving directional instructions, label landmarks ◦ Tell the participant to “swim to the ladder” instead of “swim over there” Use the least num of words possible in your ber instructions ◦ Say, “swim to the wall” instead of, “now we are going to swim over to the wall nice and fast” Give one set of directions at a time Check for understanding by asking participants questions such as, ◦ “Where will you stop?” ◦ “How many laps will you do?”
  8. 8. Strategies Only the m aterials relevant to the target skill should be within the child’s reach Minim ize potentially aversive aspects of the lesson and transitions ◦ Warnings ◦ Non-directive prompting ◦ Choices ◦ Errorless Teaching
  9. 9. Prompting Strategies Errorless: If there is no or little likelihood that the child can perform the skill Three-step prom pting: If there is som ore a high likelihood that the child can perform the skill
  10. 10. Easier said than done… If all else fails, here are som behavioral e tips!
  11. 11. Hum Behavior an Behavior is ◦ a function of both genetic and physiological factors as well as each child’s history of personal experiences (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). ◦ Anything a person says or does that can be observed by m than one person ore ◦ Does not include internal events, such as thoughts or feelings ◦ DOES include behavioral bi-products of internal events Respond to behaviors, not perceived emotions
  12. 12. Behavioral Function Topography is what the behavior looks like Function is why the behavior occurs Topography ≠ Function Focusing on function will help you respond effectively
  13. 13. Behavioral Function Behavior Not Behavior Being sad, scared, orCrying upsetSmiling Being happyKicking Mad or angry Sensory or self-Hand Flapping stimmingCompliance Ignoring, defiantHeart Palpitations Anxiousw/Sweating
  14. 14. Functions of Behavior Socially Mediated ◦ Access to Attention ◦ Escape from Dem ands/Aversive Situation ◦ Access to Tangible Item s Non-socially Mediated ◦ Automatic/Sensory Input
  15. 15. Exam Behavior ple Tantrum ◦ Crying ◦ Yelling ◦ Flopping to floor ◦ Hitting ◦ Kicking ◦ Throwing objects
  16. 16. Attention Maintained Tantrum Attention includes: ◦ Eye contact ◦ Any vocal response  Reprimands, praise, comforting, shhing ◦ Physical contact  Hugs, pat on the back ◦ Non-verbal reactions  Gasping, laughing, thum up bs ◦ Facial Expressions  Smiling, frowning
  17. 17. Attention Maintained Tantrum Indicators: ◦ Child looks at you or caregiver prior to engaging in the behavior ◦ Behavior begins when caregivers are engaged in conversation and not focused on the child ◦ Behavior stops tem porarily when attention is provided
  18. 18. Attention Maintained Tantrum Proactive Strategies: ◦ Provide children with som form of attention e every couple of minutes ◦ Ignore any behaviors you do not want to see repeated
  19. 19. Attention Maintained Tantrum Reactive Strategies: ◦ Ignore the behavior, not the child ◦ Continue activity without disruption ◦ Do not m eye contact ake ◦ Wait to provide attention until a desirable behavior occurs
  20. 20. Escape Maintained Tantrum Escape includes: ◦ Delaying compliance or aversive event  Repeating instructions multiple times  Providing “1 more minute”  Waiting until child is calm – this m never ay happen! ◦ Avoiding compliance or aversive event completely
  21. 21. Escape Maintained Tantrum Indicators ◦ Behavior begins im ediately following a dem m and or onset of aversive event ◦ Behavior decreases tem porarily when a break (escape or avoidance) is provided
  22. 22. Escape Maintained Tantrum Proactive Strategies: ◦ Provide clear instructions  Use m al num of words during interactions inim ber ◦ Disguise instructions with games  “My turn…Your turn…”  “Stick out your tongue like a frog catching a fly for dinner” ◦ Avoid asking too many questions  Questions resem dem ble ands
  23. 23. Escape Maintained Tantrum Reactive Strategies: ◦ 3-step prompting  Give directive instructions  Tell, Show, Help or Vocal, Model, Physical ◦ Do not stop or delay demand or aversive event
  24. 24. Tangibles Maintained Tantrum Tangible Item include: s ◦ Toys ◦ Food/Candy ◦ Clothes ◦ Security blankets/pillows/dolls ◦ All objects
  25. 25. Tangibles Maintained Tantrum Indicators: ◦ Child requests an item and is denied prior to engaging in the behavior ◦ Behavior begins when caregivers remove objects from child’s possession ◦ Behavior stops temporarily when item are s returned
  26. 26. Tangibles Maintained Tantrum Proactive Strategies: ◦ Provide choices prior to undesirable behaviors (NOT after) ◦ Arrange environm so that dangerous/enticing ent item are out of reach s  Have child friendly item readily available s
  27. 27. Tangibles Maintained Tantrum Reactive Strategies: ◦ Block access to item until an appropriate s request is made ◦ Once item is rem oved, continue activity without disruption
  28. 28. Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum Automatic/Sensory input includes: ◦ Auditory stimulation from screaming ◦ Tactile input from hitting ◦ Visual stimulation from watching thrown objects
  29. 29. Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum Indicators: ◦ Behaviors occur regardless of socially mediated consequences
  30. 30. Autom atic/Sensory MaintainedTantrum How to Respond: ◦ Provide the sensory input proactively to prevent problem behavior ◦ Provide alternative, appropriate means of gaining sensory input ◦ Block inappropriate sensory input to prevent future occurrences
  31. 31. Healthy Consequences Avoid saying, “No,” or “Don’t do that” ◦ Tell the child what he should be doing instead Use positive, descriptive com ents to the m exclusion of negative phrases, criticism or s, em threats pty Rem ain calm
  32. 32. Functional Reinforcers Discover why the problem behavior occurs Use the specific behavioral function as a reinforcer instead of arbitrary rewards ◦ Exam A child cries and throws tantrum ple: s every tim he is at a table-top activity because e he would rather be up walking around and looking out the window. How could you reinforce sitting quietly?
  33. 33. NOT Healthy Consequences

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