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The Semantic Web and
why Wikipedia should bother
          Jakob Voß




                       Wikimania 2007
           ...
Agenda

(1) The Semantic Web
(2) Wikipedia’s contribution
(3) Examples and problems
(4) Possible solutions
The Semantic Web

    Everything can be linked via its URI
●



    Every data in triples with typed links
●




         ...
The Semantic Web

    Ontologies define
●


    common structures and rules
    More data is generated by aggregation
●


...
Wikipedia’s contribution

    Largest source of freely available
●


    non-specialized data
    Templates and categories...
Aggregating and Reasoning
Aggregating and Reasoning

Which polish authors are currently
   most published in Germany?
Aggregating and Reasoning

    Which polish authors are currently
       most published in Germany?
    Currently publishe...
Aggregating and Reasoning

    Which polish authors are currently
       most published in Germany?
    Currently publishe...
Aggregating and Reasoning

    Which polish authors are currently
       most published in Germany?
    Currently publishe...
Aggregating and Reasoning

subject       predicate       object
Publication   published-in   Germany
Publication   has-aut...
Where is Poland?
Where is Poland?


          Somewhere here
Where is Poland?


                        Somewhere here
Or five times here in
Maine, Ohia, or NY
Where is Poland?


                        Somewhere here
Or five times here in
Maine, Ohia, or NY




                   ...
Poland around 1619




Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Poland 1772...1793..1795
Poland 1945–
Where is Poland?

    Reality is complex, confusing, and fuzzy
●



    What’s the »default« Poland?
●



    Humans can l...
Example #2

    Presidents of the United States
    Bill Clinton       1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20
●
Example #2

    Presidents of the United States
    Bill Clinton       1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20
●



    George W. Bush    ...
Example #2

    Presidents of the United States
    Bill Clinton       1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20
●



    George W. Bush    ...
Example #2

    Presidents of the United States
    Bill Clinton        1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20
●



    George W. Bush   ...
Presidents of the United States

    George W. Bush       2001-01-20 – 2002-06-29
●



    Dick Cheney               07:09...
Presidents of the United States

    The devil is in the details ;-)
●



    Automatic reasoning will
●


    give you in...
Example #3

 Finally a clear division




                        女性
男性
                        XX
XY
So let’s formalize...

owl:disjointWith
”Classes may be stated to be disjoint from
 each other. For example, Man and Woman...
A clear division?

     Other chromosal sexes (karotype)
    Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X...
●



    Klinefelter syndr...
A clear division?

     Other chromosal sexes (karotype)
    Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X...
●



    Klinefelter syndr...
A clear division?

     Other chromosal sexes (karotype)
    Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X...
●



    Klinefelter syndr...
A clear division?

    Reality is far more complicated
●



    Many kinds of exceptions
●
Problems

    Clear divisions discriminate
●



    Discussion and context gets lost
●



    Example #4
●


     IF  your...
Not our problem?

    Ẁikipedia is already used as
●


    source by millions of people
    People can think, judge and as...
Possible Solutions

    More of all (data, aggregation, reasoning)
●



    Less of all
●



    Statements about statemen...
Summary

    Semantic Web is great
●



    Reality is based on exceptions
●



    Simplification is useful but dangerous...
More to read

    Shadbolt, Berners-Lee, and Hall: The Semantic Web
●


    Revisited. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21 (3) pp....
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Jakob Voss Wikipedia2007

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Jakob Voss Wikipedia2007

  1. 1. The Semantic Web and why Wikipedia should bother Jakob Voß Wikimania 2007 Taipei, Taiwan, 2007-08-03
  2. 2. Agenda (1) The Semantic Web (2) Wikipedia’s contribution (3) Examples and problems (4) Possible solutions
  3. 3. The Semantic Web Everything can be linked via its URI ● Every data in triples with typed links ● Image taken from: Semantic Wikipedia (2006)
  4. 4. The Semantic Web Ontologies define ● common structures and rules More data is generated by aggregation ● and reasoning on distributed data from several sources Software agents understand your ● commands, aggregate, reason, decide and act independently (at least in theory)
  5. 5. Wikipedia’s contribution Largest source of freely available ● non-specialized data Templates and categories ● contain structured data Persondata – DBpedia.org – Geodata – ... – Semantic MediaWiki ● adds typed links and attributes
  6. 6. Aggregating and Reasoning
  7. 7. Aggregating and Reasoning Which polish authors are currently most published in Germany?
  8. 8. Aggregating and Reasoning Which polish authors are currently most published in Germany? Currently published in Germany ● List of published books by book vendors – or by the German National Library
  9. 9. Aggregating and Reasoning Which polish authors are currently most published in Germany? Currently published in Germany ● Authors ● National Library catalouge contains author – and uniquely identifies author by PND-ID
  10. 10. Aggregating and Reasoning Which polish authors are currently most published in Germany? Currently published in Germany ● Authors ● Polish authors ● German Wikipedia contains PND => article – Article linked via Interwiki => more articles – Biographical articles contain place of birth – Place of birth linked to country via category –
  11. 11. Aggregating and Reasoning subject predicate object Publication published-in Germany Publication has-author Person Person born-in Town Town place-in Poland
  12. 12. Where is Poland?
  13. 13. Where is Poland? Somewhere here
  14. 14. Where is Poland? Somewhere here Or five times here in Maine, Ohia, or NY
  15. 15. Where is Poland? Somewhere here Or five times here in Maine, Ohia, or NY Or did you mean Poland, Kiribati?
  16. 16. Poland around 1619 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
  17. 17. Poland 1772...1793..1795
  18. 18. Poland 1945–
  19. 19. Where is Poland? Reality is complex, confusing, and fuzzy ● What’s the »default« Poland? ● Humans can look up context in Wikipedia ● Semantic Web only consists of statements ●
  20. 20. Example #2 Presidents of the United States Bill Clinton 1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20 ●
  21. 21. Example #2 Presidents of the United States Bill Clinton 1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20 ● George W. Bush 2001-01-20 – 2009-01-20 ●
  22. 22. Example #2 Presidents of the United States Bill Clinton 1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20 ● George W. Bush 2001-01-20 – 2009-01-20 ● Barack Obama 2009-01-20 – ●
  23. 23. Example #2 Presidents of the United States Bill Clinton 1993-01-20 – 2001-01-20 ● George W. Bush 2001-01-20 – 2009-01-20 ● Barack Obama 2009-01-20 – 2013-01-20 ● A. Schwarzenegger 2013-01-20 – ●
  24. 24. Presidents of the United States George W. Bush 2001-01-20 – 2002-06-29 ● Dick Cheney 07:09 – 09:24 a.m. ● George W. Bush 2002-06-29 – 2007-07-21 ● Dick Cheney 07:14 – 09:21 a.m. ● George W. Bush 2007–07-21 – ● Twice president of the US (see 25th amendment)
  25. 25. Presidents of the United States The devil is in the details ;-) ● Automatic reasoning will ● give you inconvenient results
  26. 26. Example #3 Finally a clear division 女性 男性 XX XY
  27. 27. So let’s formalize... owl:disjointWith ”Classes may be stated to be disjoint from each other. For example, Man and Woman can be stated to be disjoint classes. [...] a reasoner can deduce that if A is an instance of Man, then A is not an instance of Woman.“ OWL Web Ontology Language Guide http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-guide/
  28. 28. A clear division? Other chromosal sexes (karotype) Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X... ● Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), XYY-Syndrome ... ●
  29. 29. A clear division? Other chromosal sexes (karotype) Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X... ● Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), XYY-Syndrome ... ● Intersexuality, Hermaproditism Chromosomal sex inconsistent with phenotypic ● sex or phenotype is not just male or female
  30. 30. A clear division? Other chromosal sexes (karotype) Turner syndrome (X_), Trisomy X... ● Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), XYY-Syndrome ... ● Intersexuality, Hermaproditism Chromosomal sex inconsistent with phenotypic ● sex or phenotype is not just male or female Gender identity Gender with which a person identifies ● independent from biological sex.
  31. 31. A clear division? Reality is far more complicated ● Many kinds of exceptions ●
  32. 32. Problems Clear divisions discriminate ● Discussion and context gets lost ● Example #4 ● IF your name = X AND X on a list of suspected terrorists THEN you have a problem
  33. 33. Not our problem? Ẁikipedia is already used as ● source by millions of people People can think, judge and ask, ● computers cannot We create definitions that will be used in ● thousands of applications Statistics lie ● Aggragation/resoning even lies better
  34. 34. Possible Solutions More of all (data, aggregation, reasoning) ● Less of all ● Statements about statements ● Fuzzy logic ● Data provenance / data lineage ● Allow exceptions ● Teach people to be careful ● Do not expect or believe simple answers ● It’s just dirty data ●
  35. 35. Summary Semantic Web is great ● Reality is based on exceptions ● Simplification is useful but dangerous ● Data POV != NPOV ● We also bear responsability for ● stupid use of Wikipedia data Never stop analyzing and thinking ● instead of relying on computers
  36. 36. More to read Shadbolt, Berners-Lee, and Hall: The Semantic Web ● Revisited. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21 (3) pp. 96-101. May/June 2006. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12614/01/Semantic_Web_Revisted.pdf Völkel, Krötzsch, Vrandecic, Haller, and Studer: ● Semantic Wikipedia. Proceedings of the WWW2006. http://www.aifb.uni-karlsruhe.de/Publikationen/showPublikation_english?publ_id= Doctorow: Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw- ● men of the meta-utopia. August 2001. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap.htm Geoffrey and Star: Sorting Things Out: Classification ● and Its Consequences. MIT Press, 1999.

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