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Ofelia García åhörarkopior från Symposium 2015

  1. THE TRANSLANGUAGING CURRENT IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION Ofelia García The Graduate Center, City University of New York October 8, 2015
  2. Framing Question How do I today teach Swedish as a second language to children, adolescents and adults?
  3. Overview • Where has language education been? • Where is language education going? • Two teachers and a translanguaging pedagogy. • US situations.Translanguaging theory beyond.
  4. Traditional conceptualizations of language in language education Languages (and cultures) as autonomous bounded concepts • Norms of idealized “native language” speaker. • Acquisition of a “second” language.
  5. Traditional conceptualizations of language based on constructions of standards and norms…. Why? To “manage” differences
  6. Traditional conceptualizations of language education • Subtractive bilingualism for those considered “others” • Additive bilingualism for those who belong
  7. Traditional conceptualizations Subtractive bilingualism for “others”
  8. Traditional conceptualizations Additive bilingualism for the elite
  9. Traditional conceptualizations of language education Goal of language education = to teach a “second language” • To “others” who will not participate meaningfully • To “own” who could only “add” to a linguistic and cultural identity that is left undisturbed.
  10. Traditional language education pedagogy based on language construction Pedagogies of complete separation Pedagogies based on diglossia
  11. The world has turned…… and language education has not always Why not?
  12. How has the world turned? A neoliberal economic regime (Harvey, 2005) • Deregulation of markets • Privatization and withdrawal of state from social provisions • Deterritorialization & displacements • Spaces are interconnected • Transnational circulation (capital, commodities, labor and people). Technology • Migrations & displacements
  13. What have been the effects of deregulation and deterritorialization on language education? Breaking out of the box
  14. Breaking outs? •  1. Many marginalized communities have broken out of boundaries that had been imposed • Subtractive bilingualism questioned • 2. The powerful have broken out of their national borders • Additive bilingualism no longer sufficient • Turn toward plurilingualism
  15. Breaking out has made Dynamic bilingualism visible • Complexity • Interconnectivity • Multiplicity but • One tree
  16. How does dynamic bilingualism re-shape conceptualizations of “second language” education? è Dialogic, formed through social interaction + Not a “second” language. New language features & practices
  17. Can learners acquire a “second language” as a self-contained system? •  No!!!!!! •  Example: Two 5 year old “English language learners” who are speakers of “Spanish” in a bilingual classroom •  What are they doing?
  18. A 5 year old “English language learner” in an “English” class T: This tree is bigger. That tree is smaller. Alicia: [Tries out under her breath]. This tree is grander. (9/23/2007)
  19. Snack Time for a 5 year old “English language learner” [Looking out the window and talking to himself] A: Está lloviendo mucho. [It is raining a lot] Look [telling the others]. It's washing. There washing afuera [outside] (10/19/2007)
  20. What are these “English learners” doing? • These learners are not simply adding “English”, a whole autonomous language to a “Spanish”. • They are using their own language features in interrelationship with new ones to make meaning and communicate. • They are constructing their dynamic bilingual repertoire by adding features to those they already have.
  21. What are the “English learners” doing? They are not code- switching From one national language to another They are TRANSLANGUAGING Using their full language repertoire of features to make meaning and extend their repertoire
  22. Translanguaging: From bilingual speaker’s perspective A single language system “Even though Spanish runs through my heart, English rules my veins”
  23. Language performances of bilinguals – Not code-switching but One language system – 36.06
  24. Language performances from the bilingual speaker´s angle FnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFn Socially constructed as English LOTETranslanguaging Space
  25. What “language learners” do…. Whether they are deploying ONLY FEATURES THAT HAVE BEEN APPROVED BY SCHOOL for the task Or deploying ANY OF THE FEATURES in their language repertoire to show what they know and can do Learners ALWAYS leverage their entire language repertoire in the process. FnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFnFn
  26. Not “language learners” but Emergent Bilinguals/ Voices always under construction …..
  27. The translanguaging corriente García, Johnson & Seltzer, forthcoming (Caslon) “Sometimes you see it, sometimes you don’t” but always present Why? Coordination of all language features into a linguistic performance
  28. How do you leverage the translanguaging corriente in teaching? TRANSLANGUAGING PEDAGOGY The deployment of a speaker’s full linguistic repertoire to learn and develop ways of using language and extend their repertoire & to equalize positions of learners
  29. CUNY-NYSIEB, 2012 - today The Graduate Center, The City University of New York RISLUS (Research InsCtute for the Study of Languages in Urban Society & the Ph.D. Program in Urban EducaCon Funded by The New York State EducaCon Department Principal InvesCgators: Ricardo Otheguy, Ofelia García, Kate Menken Project Director: Maite (María Teresa) Sánchez LEADERSHIP COMPONENT Associate InvesCgators: L. Ascenzi-Moreno, B. Collins, A. Ebe, C. Espinosa, M. Kaya, E. Kearney, and K. Mahoney, V. Pérez Research Assistants: K. Carpenter, I. Espinet, L. Guzmán Valerio, Maria Peña, and K. Seltzer Field Associates: C. Celic, and C. Solorza NETWORK COMPONENT Research Assistants: L. Herrera, S. Hesson Contributors In the past : N. Flores, T. Kleyn, L. Pappas, H. Woodley
  30. Publication tab ! Translanguaging!in!Curriculum!and!Instruction:! A!CUNY7NYSIEB!Guide!for!Educators! Andy%Brown’s%5 th %grade%class,%CUNY9NYSIEB%School% Sarah!Hesson! Kate!Seltzer! Heather!H.!Woodley!! % December%2014%% % THIS%GUIDE%HAS%NOT%BEEN%REVIEWED%BY%THE%NEW%YORK%STATE%EDUCATION%DEPARTMENT% % %
  31. A “monolingual” teacher in an English-medium classroom 5th grade – 10 year olds What is Andy Brown doing?
  32. What is Andy Brown doing? Constructing a translanguaging space •  Linguistic landscape of classroom reflects multilingualism of children •  All ways of using language in classrooms in conversation with each other •  Building metalinguistic awareness •  Building linguistic tolerance toward each other •  Working against linguistic hierarchies •  Involving families and others •  Developing multiliteracies
  33. What is Andy Brown doing? Translanguaging to build on the existing language repertoire of students •  Acting as co-learner •  Recognizing & building on linguistic strengths •  Putting classroom’s language repertoires in conversation with each other •  Questioning dictionaries & manuals (“means”/”medios” -- “significa”) •  Recognizing difficulty of translation •  Recognizing the variability of language •  Recognizing differences in script & literacy directionality •  Normalizing linguistic diversity •  Bringing forth the translanguaging corriente
  34. A teacher who is bilingual in an English-medium classroom 11th grade – 17 year olds What is Camila Leiva doing?
  35. Pan American International High School Rap Monday with music videos from El Chivo of Quinto Sol & Eminem
  36. “SÍ SE PUEDE” “YES WE CAN” El Chivo of Quinto Sol Against deportation of undocumented immigrants & separation of children. Call to action “I’ll tell you the truth about illegal aliens! Immigration is out of control, Fellows”. “We got to do something.” “If you take my mother, it will hurt my heart.” “No me separen de mi mamá y mi papá.”
  37. “Mosh” by Eminem Against policies of then Pres. George Bush – War in Iraq Call to action •  Pledge of allegiance by schoolchildren- “One nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all” cf. with •  Deaf ears of then President George W. Bush, the US Supreme Court and Congress to the pleas of the people against the war in Iraq.
  38. Sí se puede Mosh El Chivo of Quinto Sol Eminem Terrorismo es un pretexto. Esto no es algo nuevo. Lo mismo le pasó a mi padre; también a mi abuelo. El racismo no termina, Es el mismo duelo. ¿Dónde quedó la libertad que fundó este suelo? Con miedo nos rechazan, Le temen a mi raza. Son miles de niños que han perdido su casa, Separando a padre, hijos y hermanos. Unidos todos, sí se puede. All you can see is a sea of people, some white and some black. Don’t matter what color, all that matters we gathered together to celebrate for the same cause, Don’t matter the weather. If it rains, let it rain, Yeah, the wetter the better. They ain´t gonna stop us. They can´t. We stronger than ever. They tell us no. We say Yeah! They tell us stop. We say Go! Rebel. With a rebel yell raise hell. We gonna let ‘em know.
  39. The music videos: Translanguaging in LISTENING/VIEWING •  Multimodalities in music videos •  Simultaneous listening and viewing •  Translanguaging & transculturation in music videos •  Deconstructing autonomous language •  Different language practices •  Rapping, spoken, written, “slang” •  Call for unity of all practices – Unidos todos/ a sea of people together •  The continuum of translanguaging performances by people in videos •  Different points along the monolingual-bilingual continuum •  El Chivo born in Los Angeles but rap is in Spanish; Eminem born in the US but moving back and forth with whole repertoire. •  Different entry point to lesson
  40. The music video: Translanguaging in DIALOGUE & DISCUSSION •  In groups, students translanguage with each other •  In discussion with teacher, students translanguage to participate •  I-Pads for meaning. •  Teacher makes links to translanguaging & transculturation for strength in unity •  “Even though the song is in Spanish, we’re choosing words in English. Quinto Sol grew up in the US but they do hip-hop in Spanish, and we’re doing the same.” •  Sí se puede”“unidos todos con esta canción” (El Chivo) vs.” “all that matters we gathered together” and it is then that “they ain’t gonna stop us” since “we stronger now more than ever” (Eminem)
  41. LITERACY and Translanguaging
  42. Literacy and Translanguaging
  43. Translanguaging for literacy •  Discussion of reading using translanguaging •  Translation/writing using translanguaging •  Different entry points to writing
  44. Translanguaging for metalinguistic awareness •  The power of language practices that are not the dominant ones when speakers are all together •  Awareness of different language practices. •  “We gathered” together. “We stronger” •  Let ‘em know. •  Rhyming: Together, weather better, ever, •  Alliteration: Wetter/better •  Awareness of the construction of standard language •  Awareness of complexity and dynamism of bilingualism •  Drawing on students’ full linguistic repertoire to perform with features desired in formal school settings
  45. Translanguaging to create a trans-subject to change perspectives and terms through which conversations are had. FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE
  46. What translanguaging enables •  Translanguaging equalizes the distance between home language practices and those desired in school. •  Translanguaging liberates and includes the multilingual voices of speakers that have been constrained or repressed in school •  Translanguaging normalizes multilingual use, speakers and audiences •  Translanguaging is more than a simple scaffold, it is expressive/transformational (changes terms through which conversations are had).
  47. Reframing the question through a translanguaging lens…… • How do I teach Swedish as a second language to children, adolescents and adults who are new to Sweden? • How do I engage students in appropriating the language features associated with Swedish into their own unique language repertoire?
  48. To answer the question: A translanguaging pedagogy Acknowledge the translanguaging current and learn to navigate it to move forward Andy & Camila’s translanguaging pedagogy: 1.  Stance 2.  Design 3.  Shifts
  49. Atranslanguaging pedagogy can assist us in answering the transformed question of how to engage students in appropriating the language features of Swedish into their language repertoire. Adjö