Timeless Principles in Form Based Codes


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Timeless Principles in Form Based Codes

  1. 1. Timeless Principles in Form-Based Codes Photo: Arcadia Realty Focus North Texas Symposium January 28, 2011 Dennis Wilson, FAICP, CNU-ATimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  2. 2. People are attracted to places that “feel good”, are comfortable and provide the opportunity for commerce and social interaction.Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  3. 3. 1. Creating unique zones and amenities 2. Alternative transportation Modes 3. Re-Use of Buildings 4. Variety of housing types, size and affordability 5. Civic Architecture/ LandmarksTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  4. 4. Identify Development Zones (T-Zones) Ensure Uniqueness of Zones Take Advantage of local views and topography Proximity of Open Space, trails, schools, retail servicesTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  5. 5. Source: James WassellTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  6. 6. Transects Source: James WassellTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  7. 7. Source: DPZTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  8. 8. Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  9. 9. Proximity to  Open Space  Trails  Retail Services  Schools  TransitTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  10. 10.  Properties within 100 feet of public open space have a 23% Premium.  There is a measurable premium for up to a quarter mile.  Three Minute Walk Accounts for 85% of Total Premium. 41% 63% 76% 85% 91% Source: Valuing Open Space: Land Economics and Neighborhood Parks Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center For Real Estate, and School Of Architecture Based on MLS Data for 3,400 Home Re-sales Near 15 Neighborhood Parks Across DFWTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  11. 11.  Open Space & Trails Mix of Unit Types Housing Tree Elementary School The Homestead at Mills Branch Arcadia RealtyTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  12. 12. Conventional (21 Lots)Layout Cluster Design (21 Lots) Source: Randall ArendtTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  13. 13. Pedestrians Bicycles Autos Transit Street DesignTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  14. 14.  Create centers Connected by OS, trails, roads and transitTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  15. 15. Create blocks for ease of circulation for pedestrians and vehiclesTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  16. 16. Street Design Roadway Parking Amenity Zone Sidewalk Building Face Little Elm Downtown Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  17. 17. Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  18. 18.  Opportunities to “Meet and Greet” Classic Elements ~ Windows at grade along all street faces ~ Windows above to be oriented vertically ~ Trees and awnings to provide shade ~ Brick, stone and stucco constructionTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  19. 19.  Bulb-outs at crossings  Special paving at crosswalks  On-street parking and street trees  Pedestrian- oriented signageTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  20. 20. Shade for Pedestrians, Vehiclesand Paved Surfaces Lawrence-Livermore Labs: 7-11 degrees cooler ambient 40 degrees cooler on surfaceTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  21. 21. Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  22. 22. Quality Materials and Construction Flex Space Building ExpressionTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  23. 23.  Buildings must be flexible for different uses over time Parking lots that can be turned into Structured parking with lined buildings Parking structures with flat floor plates that can be used for other uses when no longer needed Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  24. 24.  Required Flex Space at Grade Quality Materials 16’ min. Ceiling Ht. Building Expression Firewall Separation ~ Tripartite ~ Articulation Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  25. 25. Flex Buildings – Industrial/Lofts/OfficesTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  26. 26. Historic District N. Goliad St. N. Alamo St. San Jacinto. Fannin St. Interurban 205 R Kaufman St. San Augustine R Rusk St. 66 66 pedestrian R R R Washington St. R Dennison St. City Hall 66Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  27. 27. Life Cycle Needs Changing Demographics and Preferences Changing Work Patterns & Job CreationTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  28. 28. DFW in 2005 Traditional Families:  26% of all Households are single persons 2000 = 27% 2010 = 20%  47% of Mortgagees are singles People Living Alone : DMN Sept 26, 2005 2000 = 27% 2010 = 33% The Metroplex will add about 4 million people “For the first time in over the next 25 years; going from 5 million in history - there are now more people living alone 2000, to 9.1m in 2030. in households than there are traditional families of a husband, wife and child.” Source: William Frey, Brookings InstituteTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  29. 29. Source: The Implications of Changing US Demographics for Housing Choice, 2001, Martha Farnsworth RicheTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  30. 30. Ensuring a Mix of Housing:  Require mix of unit types on larger properties  Require range of apartment size in multi-familyTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  31. 31. Office Building Types  Home Office  Live-Work  Mixed Use Centers  Flexible loft spaceTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  32. 32. Creating a distinctive destination Compactness Background Architecture, Landmark and CivicTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  33. 33. Characteristics Min/max Stories, with transition to adjacent single family areas Street trees and pedestrian lighting “Build-to” lines for all buildings Public space for community events and festivals Classic architectural elements Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  34. 34. Buildings  Tripartite architecture/Bay Rhythm/Expression  Ground floor must be constructed of durable materials Expression Line Between Ground Floor  Retail at-grade and upper Floors ~ Canopies on south, east and Top west sides Middle ~ Clear glass Base  Maximum leasable area for non- residential of X s.f. Bay Rhythm  Windows at grade to be between 30% and 70% of façadeTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  35. 35. Residential At Grade Retail At GradeTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  36. 36. Rockwall DowntownTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  37. 37. Initial Value Long Term Value SustainabilityTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  38. 38. Initial Value  Meets an immediate market need or opportunity  Benefits from being New Long Term Value  Attracts re-investment and infill  Sustained ValueTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  39. 39. Lifecycle Analysis Compact, Pedestrian- oriented Mixed Use Development Typical Suburban Auto-oriented DevelopmentTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  40. 40. Medium to Small Lots Large Lots 628 Lots Min. 1,200 s.f. Apartments TOTAL SITE: 283.6 ac. Source: Arcadia DevelopmentTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  41. 41. Impact: 18 additional lots Smallest Lot Value $5,000 more than largest lot on Avg Lot size 9,131 s.f. other Plan Open Space Per Lot 4,300 s.f. 65% Fewer Net Effective Lot Size 13,431 s.f. Children TOTAL SITE: 283.6 ac. Source: Arcadia Development Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  42. 42. Vs. Estimated Initial Value Added Tax Base $18-20 MillionTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  43. 43. Transit Proximity Premiums Properties near DART light rail stations recorded valuation increases about 25% greater than neighborhoods in a control group not served by DART between 1994 and 1998. Between 1997 and 2001, median values of residential properties increased 32.1% near DART stations compared to 19.5% in non-DART areas. Median values of office buildings near DART/LRT DART stations increased 24.7% versus 11.5% for non-DART properties. Source: UNT Center for Economic Development and Research, DART Light Rail’s Effect on Taxable Property Valuations and Transit-Oriented Development, January 2003: Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  44. 44.  Mixture of UsesProviding Sustainability  Variety of unit size & type  Quality Flexible Infrastructure of Buildings, Parks, Streets and Trails  Travel Options – walk, cycle, transit  Shade paved areas  Connected to walkways, transit, open space and services  Reduced parking footprintTimeless Principles TOWNSCAPE
  45. 45. Timeless Principles TOWNSCAPE