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From Content Creation to Content Delivery: Partnering to Improve E-book Accessibility

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Part I. We will discuss how publishers, aggregators, and libraries can partner to provide a better experience for users. We will discuss the consolidated results of a number of studies and audits of eBook accessibility, limitations and options for creating accessible PDF and EPUB eBook files, the real-life impact of these limitations on users, and what skillsets we can help to develop and disseminate to help close the gap.

Part II. We will discuss the methods to assess accessibility of your eBooks, website or other electronic resources. We will look at both automated testing systems and usability testing. After this session we hope you will have an understanding of how these two approaches can be leveraged to help optimize the research experience for your users.

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From Content Creation to Content Delivery: Partnering to Improve E-book Accessibility

  1. 1. From Content Creation to Content Delivery: Partnering to Improve E-book Accessibility Emma Waecker, Melissa Fulkerson, Jill Power and JaEun Ku
  2. 2. PART1: Content Creation and Delivery Emma Waecker and Melissa Fulkerson
  3. 3. What is accessibility? Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities.
  4. 4. Who benefits from accessibility?
  5. 5. Accessibility of e-book resources is twofold E-book Content • Content creators need to include: • Semantic tags for document structure like <header> • Alternative text for images • Captions for figures • Semantic markup for tables like <figure> • Consistent pagination • Choose the best format: EPUB vs. PDF E-book platform Websites or platforms need to: • Retain publisher's accessibility features • Include meaningful structure on webpages • Provide options to skip to the main content • Develop and test with various assistive technologies
  6. 6. EBSCO publisher content survey Publishers creating EPUB 69% Delivery volume from EPUB-providing publishers 87% Publishers planning to meet WCAG 2.0 accessibility standards 49% Lack of expertise / time 45% Lack of knowledge 21% Technical / system limitations 20% Budget restrictions 18%
  7. 7. Big 10 Academic Alliance evaluations Most common accessibility issues across platforms Scanned or untagged documents Focus management problems Keyboard functionality problems Insufficient color contrast Missing image descriptions / alt text Source data from Big 10 site
  8. 8. Jisc platform and publisher audit 2016 Assessment dimensions Support documentation Appearance Navigation Screen reader & text to speech compatibility Access Images Source data from Jisc site
  9. 9. Jisc platform and publisher audit 201665.15% 46.23% 51.82% 48.90% 41.77% 48.79% 59.65% 46.89% 43.94% 40.00% 55.86% 45.42% 49.69% 41.34% 34.48% 38.85% 42.07% 48.11% 41.15% 39.51% 32.21% 34.34% 35.66% 34.93% 34.43% 36.11% 29.41% 29.09% 33.33% 36.58% 40.20% 33.33% 36.67% 30.85% 34.36% 40.02% 34.26% 38.21% 37.50% 39.62% 31.85% 32.48% 31.84% 17.65% 73.48% 83.65% 83.64% 78.33% 79.75% 78.48% 63.16% 72.05% 77.58% 70.91% 61.42% 65.41% 70.99% 70.02% 74.41% 69.42% 58.78% 51.89% 53.59% 61.55% 66.21% 60.26% 61.48% 55.08% 53.75% 52.37% 52.94% 60.85% 60.95% 53.74% 45.10% 53.70% 50.30% 52.46% 47.95% 47.88% 47.21% 45.44% 37.50% 43.40% 39.85% 36.85% 41.69% 56.86% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% Unweighted Average Score Average Score Average Minimum Potential Score Average Maximum Potential Score Source data from Jisc site
  10. 10. What can we do? Train our teams* Perceivable P Operable O Understandable U Robust R Advocate and prioritize Focus on EPUB Involve our users *More information on WebAIM's POUR principles
  11. 11. Production Workflow • Challenges • PDF as format more challenging for accessibility • Proper tagging of images • Sending content to aggregators, ensuring features are included • Author Guidelines • Manuscript guidelines include requirements for image captions, tagging etc. • Vendor Workflow • Vendors take raw book files and create final products, including script writing for videos based on written content • Output Types • Epub/PDF main output type
  12. 12. Epub vs PDF Comparison Feature EPUB PDF Integrates Web Standards – Dynamic Linking Y N Reflowable Text (Optimized Display) Y N Accessibility Standards Y Y* Searchable Images, Formulas, Tables Y N Support for Non-Roman Languages Y N Adjustable Font Size, Background Color, Text Y N Audio, Video, Quizzes Y N Print-Corollary Pagination N* Y
  13. 13. 2018 Main Focus Areas • EPub3/PDF • Continuous improvement to get closer to Benetech's Born Accessible Certified • Accessible book/journal content on ScienceDirect • Web Applications • More teams integrating accessibility testing before launch • Enhanced reporting/scorecards • WCAG 2.0 Level AA Compliance • Customer – Facing Activity • Continue to refine VPAT service package • Streamline remediation process • Staff Training • Belting system rolled out to 100 staff • Accessibility Guild – cross functional team • Alt-Text • Goal is alt-text in workflow as "business as usual"
  14. 14. Awards, Partnerships, and Publications
  15. 15. PART2: Accessibility Testing Jill Power and JaEun Ku
  16. 16. Best Practices Accessibility Testing
  17. 17. Automated Testing A Good Starting Point
  18. 18. WebAIM WAVE Part II : Accessibility Testing
  19. 19. HTML CodeSniffer Part II : Accessibility Testing
  20. 20. Deque Corporation’s aXe Part II : Accessibility Testing
  21. 21. Automated tests can reliably evaluate roughly 30% of accessibility issues. -Hiram Kuykendall, MicroAssist Source:https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/role-web-accessibility-testing-tools/ Part II : Accessibility Testing
  22. 22. What can be tested with Browser Extensions • Presence of alt-text for images • Presence of link text for links, redundant links • Presence of form labels • Presence of page title, language indicator • Presence of landmarks • Contrast ratios • Proper table structure and tags • Proper semantic structure, appropriately nested markup Part II : Accessibility Testing
  23. 23. Other Automated Accessibility Testing Solutions Part II : Accessibility Testing
  24. 24. Manual Testing Walk the Walk
  25. 25. What can be tested with manual testing? • Content within alt-text associated with figures and images • Content of link text • Tab order of content on the page • Page structure using headings and landmarks • Impact of resizing or magnifying the page • Consistency of navigation and interactive elements across product • Comprehension level of content on the page
  26. 26. Impact Factors • IOS desktop • IOS mobile • IOS tablet • Android mobile • Android tablet • Desktop • IE • Firefox • Chrome • Safari • Vision • Hearing • Mobility • Learning • Cognitive • JAWS • NVDA • VoiceOver • Narrator • ZoomText • WindowEyes • Magnifier • Claro • ReadSpeaker TTS • Read&Write • Kurzwell Part II : Accessibility Testing
  27. 27. Screen Readers • JAWS • NVDA • VoiceOver • Narrator Part II : Accessibility Testing Source: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/
  28. 28. Screen Reader/ Browser Combinations Part II : Accessibility Testing Source: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/
  29. 29. Mobile Screen Readers Part II : Accessibility Testing Source: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/
  30. 30. Screenreader Standard Navigation Part II : Accessibility Testing Source: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/
  31. 31. Compatibility: Magnification, Color checkers • Keyboard Ctrl + • ZoomText • Windows Magnifier • Mobile device built-in accessibility • Webaim Contrast Checker • Invert colors Part II : Accessibility Testing
  32. 32. Compatibility with Learning Tools • Kurzweil 3000 • Read & Write • ClaroRead, ClaroSpeak • ReadSpeaker Part II : Accessibility Testing
  33. 33. Usability Testing Where the Rubber meets the Road
  34. 34. Success • Interviews, Focus groups • Surveys • Hands-on observation • Encourage feedback/Compensation • Partnerships - Disabilities office • Partnerships – Vendors, providers • Partnerships – Faculty Part II : Accessibility Testing
  35. 35. Library Digital Publishing Accessibility Challenges Part II : Accessibility Testing
  36. 36. Accessibility Challenges • Multiple E-book platforms to maintain and support • More unusual type of content (i.e. tableau data, animation, video and audio) • Lack of accessibility expertise in open publishing platform by developers and library staff Accessibility testing knowledge is important... When adressing the accessibility issues in the publishing workflow as well as encouraging authors to follow accessibility best practice
  37. 37. WCAG Heading Violation : Skipped heading directly from H1 to H3 Open Monograph Press Part II : Accessibility Testing Accessibility Bookmarklet Tool
  38. 38. Keyboard Trap : Cannot access sub menu items with only a keyboard Publishing Platform: Scalar Part II : Accessibility Testing Manual Testing
  39. 39. Focus lost in Keyboard navigation: Unable to find where the focus is: to activate the link or the button Publishing Platform: Pressbooks Part II : Accessibility Testing Manual Testing
  40. 40. Provide E-resources for Inclusive Learning and Research Desirable Accessibility Knowledge Preference to "Born Accessible" digital content Understanding (in)accessibility and conveying that knowledge to the authors Auditor guidance for e-book, Request accessibility roadmap beyond VPAT Accessibility testing methods, tools (and guidelines) Part II : Accessibility Testing Feedback loop beyond bug tracking system with eBook publisher/developer​
  41. 41. "Born Accessible" Digital A11yFirst Editor Project
  42. 42. Demo: https://a11yfirst.library.illinois.edu/ • U of I library Innovation Fund Project • Open Source WYSIWYG Editor which can be added to an e-platform • Accessibility is embedded in the design to create accessible contents (Heading, Link, Image, Style, Accessibility help content) • Also utilizes the CKEditor Source Accessibility Checker tool A11yFirst Editor Part II : Accessibility Testing
  43. 43. Decorative images do not require alt text (e.g., icons, borders and corners, an image that is part of a text link) Decorative Image Type Part II : Accessibility Testing
  44. 44. Simple image require Alt text (a short description), less than 100 characters Simple Image Type Part II : Accessibility Testing
  45. 45. Complex images such as graphs, diagrams, and charts require both a text alternative and a long description Complex Image Type Part II : Accessibility Testing
  46. 46. Accessibility Help: Why and How to make accessible images Accessible Image Plugin Part II : Accessibility Testing
  47. 47. Thank you! Presenters • Emma Waecker: ewaecker@ebsco.com • Melissa Fulkerson: m.fulkerson@elsevier.com • JaEun Jemma Ku: jku@Illinois.edu • Jill Power: jpower@ebsco.com

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