Risk Based Analysis Of Boating Safety Education Standards

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A little over a decade ago, the National Boating Education Standards were finalized after a number of years were spent analyzing the accident and fatality data and determining what minimum content must be included in boating safety courses in order to reduce the risks to boaters. As the 10-year anniversary approached, NASBLA determined it was time to analyze the current statistics to determine whether the Standards are still meeting their goal of addressing and reducing risks. The researchers involved in the original research have returned to work with NASBLA on this project.

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  • Main Point: Alcohol Use is less common as a cause of accidents among those who have completed NASBLA approved courses
  • Risk Based Analysis Of Boating Safety Education Standards

    1. 1. Risk-Based Analysis of the National Boating Education Standards Research Team Dr. Stuart Cottrell, Colorado State University Dr. Alan Graefe, The Pennsylvania State University Dr. Bill Hug, California University of Pennsylvania September 30, 2009
    2. 2. Task Overview Outline of Tasks Timeframe Task 1: Collect statistics from the last ten years for the boating accidents, fatalities and violations that occurred as well as citations that were issued. July 2008 – March 2009 Task 2: Conduct a risk-based analysis of the standards with the data collected. October 2008 – April 2009 Task 3: Develop a new set of content standards that will further the goal of reducing fatalities, injuries and property damage for recreational boaters. April – July 2009 Task 4: Develop a set of best practices for boating safety courses. April – December 2009 Task 5: Survey the advisory group of stakeholders to gather their opinions as to whether the proposed standards and best practices should be included in the final document. July – September 2009 Task 6: Determine how the new set of standards should be weighted in the questions on the final exams for the boating safety courses. September – December 2009
    3. 3. Task 1: Collect Statistics <ul><li>Data/information sources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BARD Data from 1997 to 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charge 1 final report – June 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education Standards, January 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paddlesports Standards – 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ERAC SRS Interim Report 07-08 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USCG Counts reports 1995-2004 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FY 2007 Performance Data Excel sheets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various web sources and publications </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Task 2: Risk-based Analysis <ul><li>BARD data transfer MS Access to SPSS (statistical package) </li></ul><ul><li>Examined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of all USCG reportable accidents 97-07, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of Fatal Accidents 97-07 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of Non-Fatal Accidents that involve at least one injury 97-07 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Fatal accidents with reportable damages or loss of vessel 97-07 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A table matrix tool was created of the standards for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis by year, boat type, education type, experience, etc. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Task 3: Revise Standards <ul><li>Initial Focus Group April 18 th in Panama City with the education committee </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group June 29 th in Lexington reviewing revised standards with Education Committee, followed by a survey of standards with the committee by email as part of Task 5 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Task 4: Best Practices <ul><li>Task revised at June 29 th Education committee meeting to develop a list of Successful Instructional Strategies for Face-to-Face Basic Boating Safety Education Courses, to complete by December 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary listing of best practice examples for course delivery based on research team expertise </li></ul>
    7. 7. Task 5: Advisory Group Survey <ul><li>Internet Review of Revised Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Final changes incorporated in standards </li></ul>
    8. 8. Task 6: Exam Question Weighting <ul><li>Moved ahead in schedule – already completed </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in emphasis following risk-based analysis and revised standards </li></ul>
    9. 9. Outcomes <ul><li>Revised set of boating education standards based on a risk based analysis of BARD data – Approved </li></ul><ul><li>Revised Test Weighting - Approved </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Instructional Strategies for Face-to-Face Basic Boating Safety Education Courses – due December, 2009 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Trend line chart of BARD accident data 1997 to 2007 <ul><li>Since the standards went into effect in September of 1999, there has been a general decrease in all USCG reportable accidents, non-fatal accidents that involved at least one injury, and non-fatal accidents with reportable damages or loss of vessel up to 2004, which have leveled off to relative consistency in numbers through 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of fatal accidents has remained consistent between 1997 and 2007 with an average of 579 fatal accidents per year for the past 11 years. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Cause of All USCG reportable accidents 1997 to 2007 <ul><li>The number of accidents reported was at the lowest in 2004 with general increases from 2005 to 2007 for all the categories except for hazardous conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Operator inattention remain the primary cause of accidents followed by Careless and reckless operation, passenger/skier behavior and excessive speed </li></ul><ul><li>There was an increase in passenger and skier behavior related accidents, alcohol use </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol related accidents have been on a general increase since 2003 along with excessive speed </li></ul><ul><li>The largest decrease is noted for accidents resulting from hazardous conditions </li></ul>
    12. 12. Causes of fatal accidents 1997 to 2007 <ul><li>Alcohol use is the number cause of fatal accidents with an increase since 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Many causes of fatal accidents are unknown or not recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Other, careless operation, operator inexperience and passenger/skier behavior causes increased in 2007 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Cause of Accident by Boater Education All Reported Accidents (1997 – 2007) Boater Education
    14. 14. Cause of Accidents by Boat Length (n=42,846)
    15. 15. Example of Standard Change Merging of Standards Standard 6.6 - Accident Reports The course will describe what kinds of boating accidents require an accident report as well as how, when, and where to file the report. Deleted and merged with 8.2.12. Rationale – Accident reports are legally required when the accident involves: 1) loss of life; or 2) personal injury requiring medical treatment beyond first aid; or 3) property damage in excess of current state or federal thresholds; or 4) complete loss of the boat. Proper filing of accident reports provides information that can be used to assist boating safety professionals to address the most serious concerns to boater safety. Standard 6.7 - Boating Accident Report Form The course will include a sample accident report form, which can be included in the textbook or as a separate handout. Deleted and merged with 8.2.13 . Rationale – U.S. Coast Guard reports indicate that only a small fraction of non-fatal boating accidents are reported. Most accidents are not reported because of ignorance of the law and difficulty in enforcing the law. Every effort to assist boaters to report accidents may increase the rate of compliance in reporting accidents. The Coast Guard recently created a new accident report form, but states are free to use their own forms as well.
    16. 16. Example of Standard Change Wording Change Old Standard Revised Standard Standard 2.1 - Personal Flotation Device Types and Carriage The course will describe the types of U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices (PFDs) and their respective uses, advantages, and disadvantages. The course will also describe the number and types of PFDs that must be carried on the boat according to applicable regulations and will discuss/describe label restrictions. The course will explain that there are different classifications, types and sizes of U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices (PFDs), including inflatable life jackets and throwable Type IV devices, and will feature examples of their respective uses, advantages, and disadvantages based upon the activity for which they are intended. The course will also describe the number and types of PFDs that must be carried aboard the boat according to applicable regulations, discuss and clarify label restrictions, and emphasize that the best life jacket is the one that will be worn all the time. Rationale - U. S. Coast Guard statistics show approximately seventy (70) percent of all fatal boating accident deaths are caused by drowning. Of those who drowned, approximately ninety (90) percent of the victims were not wearing their life jacket. Citations and fines are issued to those boat operators who are found carrying improper PFDs for the number and types of passengers on board. Special attention must be given to the use of hybrid Type 5 inflatable PFDs and special restrictions for totally inflatable PFDs. Rationale - U. S. Coast Guard recreational boating statistics show approximately seventy (70) percent of all fatal boating accident deaths are caused by drowning. Of those who drowned, approximately ninety (90) percent of the victims were not wearing their life jacket. Citations and fines are issued to boat operators who fail to carry sufficient PFDs or are found carrying improper PFDs for the number and types of passengers on board . It is important for boaters to understand that some PFDs are also referred to as life jackets and that they can be designed for different uses or activities, such as inflatable PFDs. It is also important for boat operators to read and understand the information on the PFD label and apply that to the intended wearer. The best life jacket is the one people will wear.
    17. 17. Test Weighting Revision Standard Current Test Weight Proposed Test Weight Boating Equipment Current Total: 20% Proposed Total: 16% Standard 2.1 - Personal Flotation Device Types and Carriage 2% Standard 2.2 – Personal Flotation Device Sizing and Availability 2% Standard 2.3 - Wearing Personal Flotation Devices 4% Standard 2.4 - Personal Flotation Device Serviceability 2% Standard 2.5 – Fire Extinguisher Equipment 2% Standard 2.6 – Back-Fire Flame Control Device 0 Standard 2.7 – Ventilation Systems 0 Standard 2.8 – Navigation Light Equipment 2% Standard 2.9 - Sound Signaling Equipment 0 Standard 2.10 – Visual Distress Signal Equipment 2% Trip Planning and Preparation Current Total: 15% Proposed Total: 12% Standard 3.1 - Checking Local Weather And Water Conditions 2% Standard 3.2 - Checking Local Hazards 2% Standard 3.3 - Filing a Float Plan 0 Standard 3.4 - Boat Preventive Maintenance 2%
    18. 18. Remaining Tasks <ul><li>Task 4: July – December 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a set of instructional strategies practices for boating safety courses based on a content analysis of course materials from Power Squadron, Safe Boating Council, American Canoeing Association, Boat US, U.S. Sailing Association, Coast Guard Auxiliary, and other safe boating course websites </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Gail Kulp, Education Director </li></ul><ul><li>NASBLA Education and Awareness Committee </li></ul>
    20. 20. Thank you for your attention <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>

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