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Life Jacket Wear in the Presence of Risky Conditions & Case Study on Life Jacket Loaner Stations - 2018 LJA Annual Conference

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2018 LJA Annual Conference

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Life Jacket Wear in the Presence of Risky Conditions & Case Study on Life Jacket Loaner Stations - 2018 LJA Annual Conference

  1. 1. Life Jacket Wear Rates When Boaters Encounter An Increasing Number of Risks Thomas W. Mangione Senior Research Scientist JSI Research & Training Institute Life Jacket Association Conference Ft. Lauderdale, Florida June, 2018
  2. 2. Methods • Data from National Life Jacket Observation Study from 1999 to 2017 • ~800,000 Boaters and ~250,000 boats observed during this period • 124 Sites in 30 states • Observations conducted by 2 person teams, on shore, with high powered, image-stabilizing, binoculars
  3. 3. Analyses to Determine Whether Boaters Respond to Encountered Risks by Using Life Jackets More Often • In addition to observing life jacket wear, gender and age of boaters, the observers recorded a variety of environmental and situational factors which could be considered “more risky” • Thirteen risky conditions were captured • Although we did look at the influence of each individual risk factor, the most interesting findings emerge by counting up number of risks and looking at how wear rates change.
  4. 4. Risk Factors Not Captured • Alcohol/Drug Use • Inexperience (boating and boat type) • Lack of training • Swimming Ability • Any family history with boating fatalities
  5. 5. Condition “RISKY” vs. “NON-RISKY” Classification** Justification Water Temperature COLD WATER (<65°F) vs. WARM WATER (≥65°F) Increased chances of hyperventilation, swimming fatigue, loss of function, hypothermia Air Temperature COLD AIR (<70°F) vs. WARM AIR (≥70°F) Risks similar to cold water, particularly hypothermia Visibility POOR vs. GOOD/FAIR Difficulty navigating and operating boats, responding to obstacles or other boats, finding boaters who have fallen overboard Wave Height CHOPPY/ROUGH vs. CALM Increased chances of capsizing, falling overboard, swimming fatigue General Weather RAINING/STORMY vs. SUNNY/CLOUDY Risks related to visibility and wave height. Strength of Current STRONG vs. WEAK/MODERATE Increased chances of loss of control, capsizing, falling overboard, boater/swimming fatigue Wind Speed HIGH WIND vs. LOW WIND Increased chances of unpredictable weather changes, capsizing, falling overboard Children on Board CHILD PRESENT vs. NO CHILD Increased chances of entering water (to rescue child), boater distraction, unpredictable movements that contribute to capsizes or falls overboard Size of Boat SMALL vs. LARGE Reduced stability, increased chances of capsizing and falling overboard Boater Activity FISHING/RACING/WHITE WATER vs. OTHER (pleasure) Increased chances of standing, loss of balance, entering water, capsizing, falling overboard Boat Movement MOTORING/PADDLING/SAILING vs. OTHER (drifting/anchored) Increased chances of loss of control, capsizing, falling overboard Number of Boaters SINGLE vs. 2+ BOATERS Less likely to be rescued if falling overboard (no one to throw flotation, search and rescue, report accident) Boater Position PASSENGER vs. OPERATOR Passengers less aware of boating hazards
  6. 6. Risky conditions significantly associated with higher rates of adult life jacket use – SAILBOATS Cabin Sailboat Day Sailor Cold Water <65˚F   Cold Air <70˚F  Poor Visibility Choppy Waves   Rain / Storms  Strong Current Windy ≥ 6 knots   Child on Board Boat Size < 26 feet < 16 feet Fishing or Racing Activity   Sailing or Motoring Movement  Single Boater  Passenger Position # of Significant Risks 8 6
  7. 7. Risky conditions significantly associated with higher rates of adult life jacket use – SAILCRAFT Sailboard Day Sailor Cabin Sailboat Cold Water <65˚F   Cold Air <70˚F   Poor Visibility Choppy Waves   Rain / Storms  Strong Current Windy ≥6 knots   Child on Board No test Small Boat Size No test < 16 feet < 26 feet Fishing/Racing Activities   Movement sail/motor Single Boater  Passenger Position No test Number of Significant Risks 1 6 10
  8. 8. Risky conditions significantly associated with higher rates of adult life jacket use – PADDLECRAFT Paddled Inflatable / Raft Rowboat Canoe Kayak Paddleboard Cold Water <65˚F      Cold Air <70˚F     Poor Visibility   Choppy Waves      Rain / Storms    Strong Current     Windy ≥4 knots    Child on Board    Boat Size ≥ 16 feet < 16 feet < 16 feet ≥ 16 feet Activity (WW = White Water) Fish/WW Fish/WW Fish/Race/WW Movement paddle paddle/motor paddle/motor paddle/motor paddle Number of Boaters single boater single boater 2+ boaters Passenger Position # of Significant Risks 11 6 12 11 4
  9. 9. Risky conditions significantly associated with higher rates of adult life jacket use – POWER BOATS Skiff/Utility Pontoon Cabin Cruiser Runabout Powered Inflatable/Raft Cold Water <65˚F      Cold Air <70˚F      Poor Visibility   Choppy Waves   Rain / Storms      Strong Current      Windy ≥6 knots    Child on Board      Boat Size < 16 feet < 21 feet < 26 feet < 16 feet ≥ 16 feet Activity (WW = White Water) Fish/Race Fish/Race Fish/Race/WW Fish/Race/WW Motor Movement  Single Boater     Passenger Position    # of Significant Risks 10 10 11 11 7
  10. 10. Conclusions • Boaters in all types of boats increase life jacket wear behavior as the number of encountered risks increases. (that is a good thing). • The rate of increase varies from boat type to boat type. • However, many boating drownings occur in non-risky conditions and therefore we need to keep reminding boaters to ALWAYS wear their life jackets
  11. 11. A Second Study
  12. 12. How Life Jacket Loaner Boards Impact Wear Rates When Boaters Encounter Risky Conditions Thomas W. Mangione, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc.
  13. 13. Funded by Washington State Parks Boating Program • Washington State Boating Program Project Officers • Alonzo Wade • Derek VanDyke • Life jacket observations at 34 sites across Washington State • 15 sites had active loaner boards at access points near location of observations • 19 sites had no loaner boards at access points
  14. 14. JSI’s 2014 Washington State Life Jacket Wear Study • July and August, 2014 • 10,434 boaters observed • 4,380 at loaner board sites • 6,054 at non-loaner board sites • Observe from shore with high- powered, image-stabilizing binoculars • Using same methods as National Life Jacket Observation Study • Record characteristics of site, boat, boaters and life jacket use
  15. 15. Standard Loaner Board Promoted by Washington Boating Program
  16. 16. Some Non-standard Loaner Boards at Sites
  17. 17. Eight Risky Conditions Assessed • Child present on boat • Activity was fishing or towed sport or high speed • Boat size under 16 feet • Strong current • Water temperature under 70 degrees • Air temperature under 70 degrees • Wind speed 2 knots or greater • Weather Not Sunny (Wave height and visibility not considered because of little variation)
  18. 18. Adult Wear Rates for Risky Conditions at Loaner Board Sites and Non-Loaner Board Sites Child On-Board 7.1% 14.7% +7.6% Boat Activity 17.9% 27.0% +9.1% Boat Size 50.8% 63.9% +13.1% Current Strength 7.4% 19.5% +12.1% Water Temperature 13.4% 21.2% +7.8% Air Temperature 4.9% 19.7% +14.8% Wind Speed 14.0% 18.1% +4.1% Weather 5.7% 12.7% +7.0% Non-Loaner Loaner Risk Present Boards Boards Advantage
  19. 19. Adult Wear Rate Differences by NUMBER of Risky Conditions at Loaner Board Sites and Non-Loaner Board Sites 0 – 1 Risk 9.3% 9.7% + 0.4% 2 Risks 15.6% 18.2% + 2.6% 3 Risks 12.6% 18.6% + 6.0% 4 Risks 12.3% 25.8% + 13.5% 5 – 7 Risks 19.8% 42.3% + 22.5% Non-Loaner Loaner # of Risks Boards Boards Influence
  20. 20. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0-1 Risks 2 Risks 3 Risks 4 Risks 5-7 Risks Non-Loaner Boards Loaner Boards Differences Adult Wear Rate Differences by NUMBER of Risky Conditions at Loaner Board Sites and Non-Loaner Board Sites Graphical Presentation
  21. 21. Discussion Issues Loaner Boards are associated with increased wear rates for all age groups but significantly higher for ADULT boaters. However, the increased adult wear rates are greater than the number of life jackets available for use; therefore, loaner boards seem to also provide a reminder function “to wear the life jacket that you already have on your own boat.” In general, boaters are more likely to wear life jackets under encountered risky conditions but this is particularly true when a loaner board is at the site.

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