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Cold Water Rescue, Recover and Rewarm


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Following the success of Cold Water Boot Camp, a sequel was created. Titled Beyond Boot Camp: The 3 “R’s” Rescue, Recover and Rewarm, this production is designed to provide educators with tools to better inform themselves and their students about the risks of cold water immersion. In addition, first responders will learn how to be more successful in recovering and re-warming any persons suffering from cold water immersion or hypothermia. This presentation will highlight a sampling of the DVD and web materials.

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Cold Water Rescue, Recover and Rewarm

  1. 2. <ul><li>Executive Producer Cecilia Duer National Water Safety Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Producer: Ted Rankine, Playsafe Productions </li></ul><ul><li>NASBLA </li></ul><ul><li>Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, September 13, 2010 </li></ul>
  2. 4. How many have seen…
  3. 5. Question on Survival If you fell in ice water in normal clothing, how long do you think you would last before you became hypothermic?
  4. 6. Hypothermia – the public
  5. 7. Hypothermia – professionals Estimates from 480 medical, paramedical and SAR personnel on how long a person can survive in ice water % minutes
  6. 8. Hypothermia – REALITY An hour or more may be required for a person to become unconscious due to hypothermia IF a lifejacket or some other device eliminates the need for vigorous exercise and the airway is kept clear to keep from drowning. Another hour before the heart stops.
  7. 9. Hypothermia – the past.
  8. 10. Hypothermia – the past. You can die from Hypothermia in 5 to 10 minutes
  9. 11. So why should we care
  10. 12. Some drowning stats 2006 U.S. Drownings In water under 49 F / more than 50% of all boating accidents had a fatality U.K. / Dr. M. Tipton 55% drowned within 10 feet of safety Lifesaving Study / Canada 2000 – 2004 Boaters 60% drowned in water under 50 F 38 % in water 50 - 70 C 43 % were less than 6 feet from safety
  11. 13. <ul><li>So what happens ? </li></ul><ul><li>3 Effects of Cold Water Immersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incapacitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Circum-Rescue Collapse) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Recognized an Opportunity … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make people aware of the risks of accidental cold water immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To encourage and promote life jacket wear </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Reason behind the concept </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that many people (still) </li></ul><ul><li>believe that hypothermia can kill in 5 to 10 </li></ul><ul><li>minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that people don’t wear their </li></ul><ul><li>lifejacket because for a variety of reasons </li></ul><ul><li>including … ‘It won’t happen to me’ </li></ul>
  14. 17. Q: Which of the following reasons describe why you don’t always wear a PFD or lifejacket when boating? Reasons for not always wearing PFD/ Lifejacket Why don’t you wear a lifejacket ? Video PSA Poster I'm a good swimmer 46% 42% 48% I can put a lifejacket on if i need it 39% 45% 60% A A lifejacket restricts my activity on the boat 33% 36% 44% A pfd/lifejacket is not comfortable 35% 27% 44% B I don't need to wear a lifejacket in shallow water 28% 18% 32% B I don't go far enough from shore to need a lifejacket 22% C 21% C 8% I don't need to wear a lifejacket when the boat isn't moving 17% 9% 20% I don't think i will ever fall into the water and need a lifejacket 7% 21% AC 4% I am a skilled boater and don't need a lifejacket 15% B 3% 8% I don't think a lifejacket will help me if i go into the water 2% 3% 4% Other 9% 6% 8% None of these 9% 9% 4%
  15. 18. <ul><li>Accomplish the goal by convincing the viewer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re not weak, deficient, unmanly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>un - whatever ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not their fault… it’s environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It CAN happen to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To help people better understand and be more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prepared to survive a cold water immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing a lifejacket will help you survive </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Premise Group of volunteers immersed in cold water Record their responses Create compelling multi media programming Present messaging to the public meets
  17. 20. The boot campers Fit, water smart, geographic representation, role models
  18. 21. Dr G. Giesbrecht <ul><li>AKA Professor Popsicle </li></ul><ul><li>World’s leading authority on freezing to death </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothermic > 40 times </li></ul>
  19. 22. lifejackets
  20. 23. Cold Water Immersion 1 – 10 – 1 The first three effects / Shock, Incapacitation and Hypothermia
  21. 24. Cold Shock !
  22. 25. Cold Shock ! <ul><li>1 - 10 – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Expect about 1 minute to get control of your breathing </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T PANIC </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on getting control of your breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out where you are and what you need to do to rescue yourself </li></ul>
  23. 26. At 43 seconds
  24. 27. Cold Water for ‘fun’
  25. 28. Cold Water for ‘fun’
  26. 29. Reality for most people
  27. 30. Reality for Canucks / Buckeyes
  28. 31. Reality for Canucks / Buckeyes
  29. 32. There is a risk of heart failure due to cold shock particularly if the person has an underlying heart condition. Cold Shock Induced Heart Failure
  30. 33. Cold Shock Induced Heart Failure
  31. 34. Cold Incapacitation 1 - 10 – 1 You have 10 minutes of meaningful movement to self rescue or prepare to wait it out to be rescued.
  32. 35. Cold Incapacitation <ul><li>Body tries to decrease heat loss and increase heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction of blood vessels in the limbs to decrease heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Shunting of blood to the core to maintain core body temperature </li></ul>
  33. 36. Cold Incapacitation <ul><li>Muscular failure </li></ul><ul><li>Lose the ability to swim </li></ul><ul><li>Lose the ability to maintain posture in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Lose use of hands to perform survival tasks </li></ul>
  34. 37. Cold Incapacitation
  35. 38. Cold Incapacitation
  36. 39. Hypothermia 1 - 10 – 1 Even in ice cold water (32 degrees F), an hour or more may be required for a person to become unconscious due to hypothermia IF a lifejacket or some other device eliminates the need for vigorous exercise to keep from drowning.
  37. 40. Hypothermia Once a victim is unconscious, another hour or more may be required for the heart to stop if the head is kept above water (lifejacket worn) and the water is calm enough for waves not to wash over the mouth.
  38. 41. Our water is not cold !
  39. 42. Alcatraz ‘ for killers too tough for steel walls alone to cage’ ‘ surrounded by freezing waters and hazardous currents’ ‘ most escapees never made it to the mainland, and usually turned back to be rescued from the freezing waters’ Frank Lee Morris Inmate 1441 John Anglin Inmate 1476 Clarence Anglin Inmate 1485 The Great escape on June 11 1962 … (and again with Clint Eastwood )
  40. 43. Our water is not cold Lake Mead: Dec. through April average is under 60 F
  41. 44. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  42. 45. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  43. 46. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  44. 47. Our water is not cold Hawaii wins. Average temperature ranges from 75 in winter to 82 in summer.
  45. 48. Our water is not cold Hawaii wins. Average temperature ranges from 75 in winter to 82 in summer. Jim Howe: Operations Chief, Ocean Safety Division. “ Most people associate hypothermia with cold climates. But hypothermia is possible in Hawaii, despite our warm waters and weather. People don't realize you can get hypothermia in our waters,&quot; It's not as severe as in cold climates, but it happens all the time.“ Dr. Libby Char, director of Emergency Services &quot;That's why in the ocean, you can (get) hypothermia so fast, just being wet.&quot;
  46. 49. Just how cold IS cold water ? <ul><li>Can be as warm as 68 to 77 F </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature is 98.6 F </li></ul><ul><li>Real ‘at risk’ temperature is 68 F </li></ul><ul><li>Cold shock prevalent at under 59F </li></ul><ul><li>Shock increases as temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>decrease </li></ul>
  47. 50. How has Boot Camp done ? Research <ul><li>Persuasion – Behavour & Attitude Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in lifejacket usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in attitudes to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lifejackets and cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Engagement & Entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific likes/ dislikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional and entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop watching points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational /education attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount and type of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of “cold” water temp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unaided main message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided specific message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message believability / importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message clarity </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. The CWBC program has a big impact on attitudes towards lifejackets, with the biggest shift regarding wearing of a lifejacket while boating . Shift 1.29 1.16 1.13 -0.85 -0.94 0.78 0.49 Mean 10 – Strongly agree 1 – Strongly disagree =Sig. Dif. Q: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? Base: Total (147) Attitude Shift – PFD/ Lifejacket
  49. 52. The biggest shift post viewing of the video is increased concern about cold water regardless of the season/ time of year . Respondents also feel more prepared about the event of a cold water immersion. Attitude Shift – Cold Water Shift -2 1.15 0.79 -0.78 -0.7 Mean 10 – Strongly agree 1 – Strongly disagree =Sig. Dif. Q: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? Base: Total (147)
  50. 53. Claimed PFD/ lifejacket usage improves following viewing of CWBC, with a significant increase in respondents saying they will always wear a PFD when boating . =Sig. Dif. Q: How often do you personally wear a PFD when boating? Base: Total (147) PFD Usage Pre Viewing Post Viewing Always/ Usually 78% 89% Rarely/ Never 10% 3%
  51. 55. <ul><li>Ontario Ministry of Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Resources +2,500 vessels on </li></ul><ul><li>the water </li></ul><ul><li>CWBC is mandatory viewing </li></ul><ul><li>for all on or near-water staff </li></ul>
  52. 58. <ul><li>ALL teams Hyper-prepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue Swimmer / Recue Diver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boat crew </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Medical Personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air and Land Transport Teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unknowns: Reaction of “Boot Camper” at entry </li></ul><ul><li> Deterioration levels </li></ul><ul><li> Condition at exit </li></ul>
  53. 61. <ul><li>Your awareness tools correlate well to expected presentations during Sea kayak / Canoe rescues and will be adapted into our rescue training - well done. </li></ul><ul><li>Our SAR team has a very active Water Rescue component; the info from this video would be very informative in training our members regarding cold water immersion of victims and our own personnel . </li></ul>
  54. 62. <ul><li>Approximately 20 % of severely hypothermic </li></ul><ul><li>victims die during or shortly after rescue </li></ul><ul><li>In WW 11, German Air Sea Rescue Services noted how aircrew who had ditched in the channel and were conscious and even aided in their own rescue became unconscious and died shortly after rescue. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixteen Danish fishermen were in the North Sea for 2-3 hours before being rescued. They walked across the deck of the rescue vessel and went down into the galley to warm up. Each and everyone collapsed and died in the galley. </li></ul>
  55. 63. <ul><li>There is no precise core temperature at which </li></ul><ul><li>the human body perishes from cold </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest recorded core temperature in a surviving adult is 60.8 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, a two-year-old girl in Saskatchewan wandered out of her house into a minus-40 night. She was found near her doorstep the next morning, limbs frozen solid, her core temperature 57 degrees. She lived. </li></ul><ul><li>No one should be considered dead until they are warm and dead </li></ul>
  56. 64. <ul><li>Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarm </li></ul>Taking boot camp “beyond” getting people into lifejackets by providing a hands on educational tool for first responders and the accidental rescuer
  57. 65. <ul><li>No previously healthy person should die from a cold water immersion or hypothermic incident if they have been rescued, recovered and re-warmed appropriately and properly and in a timely manner. </li></ul>
  58. 66. <ul><li>Weather report for our shoot dates. </li></ul><ul><li>An intense winter storm tracked across the Midwest on December 8 and 9.  This storm produced widespread blizzard conditions.  As the low tracked into the Great Lakes, a strong cold front swept through the Ohio Valley, dropping temperatures and bringing very gusty winds to much of the region. Highest Measured Wind Gusts 61 mph </li></ul>
  59. 68. on Location: the rescue crew
  60. 69. <ul><li>United States Coast Guard and Auxiliary </li></ul><ul><li>Public Safety Water Rescue Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial / Industry Vessel Operators </li></ul><ul><li>State Boating Law Enforcement Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Army Corps of Engineers Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘accidental rescuers ‘… the public </li></ul>
  61. 70. <ul><li>Triage and Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Fireside Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal protection realities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Notes For Recreational Boating Public </li></ul></ul>
  62. 76. <ul><li>Cold Water Survival / Rescue Recover </li></ul><ul><li>Re-warming hands-on course offered with Continuing Education credits. by the National Water Safety Congress </li></ul><ul><li>DVD's for distribution direct to Boating and Water Safety Educators and First Responders </li></ul><ul><li>Web delivery and downloading </li></ul>
  63. 77. <ul><li>Cecilia Duer Executive Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor Trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Director </li></ul><ul><li>National Water Safety Congress </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Ulrich Jerry Craddock </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor Trainers </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>