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20 Years of National Life Jacket Wear Observation Study

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Presenter: Natalie Spitzer, JSI Training & Research Institute, Inc.

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20 Years of National Life Jacket Wear Observation Study

  1. 1. Presenting 20 Years of Data: National Life Jacket Wear Rate Observational Study Natalie Spitzer Research Associate Thomas W. Mangione Senior Research Scientist JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. Life Jacket Association 2019 Annual Conference St. Pete Beach, Florida May 14-15, 2019
  2. 2. National Life Jacket Wear Rate Observation • 124 Sites in 30 states; • 675,000 adult recreational boaters and nearly 140,000 boats observed • Comparison of life jacket wearing behaviors among 8 different boat types
  3. 3. Dynamic Risk Factors: Water temperature Air temperature Wind speed Wave height Current Weather Visibility Boat movement Boater position Boater activity Boater Impairment Static Risk Factors: Boat size Life jacket regulations Fishing tournament rules Boater experience Boater training Perceived Risk of Capsizing or Falling Overboard Perceived Negative Consequences of Entry into the Water Decision to Wear Life Jacket Beliefs in Benefits/Drawbacks of wearing Life Jackets # of passengers Presence of children Boater swimming ability Boat type
  4. 4. Condition “RISKY” vs. “NON-RISKY” Justification Visibility POOR vs. GOOD/FAIR Difficulty navigating and operating boats, responding to obstacles or other boats, finding boaters who have fallen overboard General Weather RAINING/STORMY vs. SUNNY/CLOUDY Risks related to visibility and wave height. Strength of Current STRONG vs. WEAK/MODERATE Increased chances of loss of control, capsizing, falling overboard, boater/swimming fatigue Water and Air Temperature* COLD WATER (<65°F) and/or COLD AIR (<70°F) vs. WARM WATER (≥65°F) and WARM AIR (≥70°F) Increased chances of hyperventilation, swimming fatigue, loss of function, hypothermia Wave Height and Wind Speed†* CHOPPY/ROUGH WAVES and/or HIGH WIND vs. CALM WAVES and LOW WIND Increased chances of capsizing, falling overboard, swimming fatigue Children on Board CHILD PRESENT vs. NO CHILD Increased chances of entering water (to rescue child), boater distraction, unpredictable movements that contribute to capsizes or falls overboard Size of Boat† SMALL vs. LARGE Reduced stability, increased chances of capsizing and falling overboard Boater Activity† FISHING/RACING/WHITE WATER vs. OTHER (pleasure) Increased chances of standing, loss of balance, entering water, capsizing, falling overboard Boat Movement† MOTORING/PADDLING/SAILING vs. OTHER (drifting/anchored) Increased chances of loss of control, capsizing, falling overboard Number of Boaters† SINGLE vs. 2+ BOATERS Less likely to be rescued if falling overboard (no one to throw flotation, search and rescue, report accident) Boater Position PASSENGER vs. OPERATOR Passengers less aware of boating hazards *Combined variables for analysis due to high correlation; †Risk classification varies by boat type Categorizing Binary Risks
  5. 5. For each boat type: which risky conditions are significantly related to higher rates of adult life jacket use? – Chi-square test for equality of proportion Risky condition present? Life Jacket Use? No Yes No a% A% Yes b% B%
  6. 6. Runabout Cabin Cruiser Pontoon Skiff/ Utility Canoe Kayak Day Sailor Cabin Sailboat Cold Water and/or Cold Air         Poor Visibility   o o   o o Choppy Waves and/or High Wind o o  o     Raining       o o Strong Current   o     Bivariate analysis: Environmental conditions associated with increased adult life jacket wear rates : chi square test p<0.05 where presence of risk -> higher wear rate o: risk not recognized - chi square test p≥0.05 or presence of risk -> lower wear rate
  7. 7. Runabout Cabin Cruiser Pontoon Skiff/ Utility Canoe Kayak Day Sailor Cabin Sailboat Small Boat Size      *   Dangerous Activity   o      Dangerous Movement o o o      Children on Board       o o Single Boater     o *  o Passenger Position    o o  o o Bivariate analysis: Boat/Boater conditions associated with increased adult life jacket wear rates * Opposite condition considered risky based on literature : chi square test p<0.05 where presence of risk -> higher wear rate o: risk not recognized - chi square test p≥0.05 or presence of risk -> lower wear rate
  8. 8. For each boat type: As the number of risky conditions present increases, what happens to the adult life jacket wear rate? – Cochran-Armitage linear trend test (one-sided)
  9. 9. 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 risks 1 risk 2 risks 3+ risks LifeJacketWear(%) Number of Boating Risks Skiff / Utility* Runabout* Cabin Cruiser* Pontoon* Canoes* Kayaks* Day Sailors* Cabin Sailboats* Adult life jacket wear rate, by cumulative risk count * One-sided Cochran-Armitage linear trend test significant at p<0.0001
  10. 10. For each boat type: What are the top 4 risky conditions that (in combination with one another) are most significantly related to higher rates of adult life jacket use? – Automated stepwise logistic regression model selection
  11. 11. Boat type First OR P-value Second OR p-value Third OR P-value Fourth OR P-value Runabout Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 1.9 **** Dangerous activity 1.9 **** Child present 1.7 **** Small boat 2.0 **** Cabin Cruiser Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 3.7 **** Small boat 1.5 **** Child present 1.7 **** Poor visibility 2.5 **** Pontoon Child present 2.1 **** Small boat 1.5 **** Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 1.5 **** Raining or stormy weather 1.8 **** Skiff / Utility Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 2.1 **** Boating alone 1.6 **** Dangerous activity 1.3 **** Child present 1.4 **** Canoe Choppy waves and/or high wind 2.7 **** Child present 3.2 **** Small boat 1.9 **** Dangerous activity 2.8 **** Kayak Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 2.3 **** Strong current 3.1 **** More than one boater 1.7 **** Choppy waves and/or high wind 1.4 **** Day Sailor Small boat 2.9 **** Boating alone 2.2 **** Dangerous activity 38.8 **** Choppy waves and/or high wind 1.4 **** Cabin Sailboat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) 3.0 **** Small boat 1.9 **** Dangerous activity 2.5 **** Sailing or motoring 1.6 *** Multivariate Analysis: Automated stepwise model selection “Top 4 priority” risky conditions significantly associated with adult life jacket use Wald Chi-Square for MLE estimate: ****p<0.0001; *** p<0.001
  12. 12. First Second Third Fourth Runabout Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Dangerous activity Child present Small boat Cabin Cruiser Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Child present Poor visibility Pontoon Child present Small boat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Raining or stormy weather Skiff / Utility Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Boating alone Dangerous activity Child present Canoe Choppy waves and/or high wind Child present Small boat Dangerous activity Kayak Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Strong current More than one boater Choppy waves and/or high wind Day Sailor Small boat Boating alone Dangerous activity Choppy waves and/or high wind Cabin Sailboat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Dangerous activity Sailing or motoring Multivariate Analysis: Automated stepwise model selection “Top 4 priority” risky conditions significantly associated with adult life jacket use Wald Chi-Square for MLE estimate: ****p<0.0001; *** p<0.001
  13. 13. Boat type First Second Third Fourth Runabout Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Dangerous activity Child present Small boat Cabin Cruiser Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Child present Poor visibility Pontoon Child present Small boat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Raining or stormy weather Skiff / Utility Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Boating alone Dangerous activity Child present Canoe Choppy waves and/or high wind Child present Small boat Dangerous activity Kayak Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Strong current More than one boater Choppy waves and/or high wind Day Sailor Small boat Boating alone Dangerous activity Choppy waves and/or high wind Cabin Sailboat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Dangerous activity Sailing or motoring Multivariate Analysis: Automated stepwise model selection “Top 4 priority” risky conditions significantly associated with adult life jacket use Wald Chi-Square for MLE estimate: ****p<0.0001; *** p<0.001
  14. 14. Boat type First Second Third Fourth Runabout Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Dangerous activity Child present Small boat Cabin Cruiser Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Child present Poor visibility Pontoon Child present Small boat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Raining or stormy weather Skiff / Utility Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Boating alone Dangerous activity Child present Canoe Choppy waves and/or high wind Child present Small boat Dangerous activity Kayak Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Strong current More than one boater Choppy waves and/or high wind Day Sailor Small boat Boating alone Dangerous activity Choppy waves and/or high wind Cabin Sailboat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Dangerous activity Sailing or motoring Multivariate Analysis: Automated stepwise model selection “Top 4 priority” risky conditions significantly associated with adult life jacket use Wald Chi-Square for MLE estimate: ****p<0.0001; *** p<0.001
  15. 15. Boat type First Second Third Fourth Runabout Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Dangerous activity Child present Small boat Cabin Cruiser Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Child present Poor visibility Pontoon Child present Small boat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Raining or stormy weather Skiff / Utility Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Boating alone Dangerous activity Child present Canoe Choppy waves and/or high wind Child present Small boat Dangerous activity Kayak Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Strong current More than one boater Choppy waves and/or high wind Day Sailor Small boat Boating alone Dangerous activity Choppy waves and/or high wind Cabin Sailboat Cold temperatures (water and/or air) Small boat Dangerous activity Sailing or motoring Multivariate Analysis: Automated stepwise model selection “Top 4 priority” risky conditions significantly associated with adult life jacket use Wald Chi-Square for MLE estimate: ****p<0.0001; *** p<0.001
  16. 16. Situational Awareness Discussion • Risky conditions associated with higher rates of adult life jacket use varies by boat type – First step of Situational Awareness: boaters evaluate/respond to risks based on the type of boat they are on • The bivariate and cumulative risk analysis shows that despite differences by boat type, boaters are more likely to wear their life jacket when risky conditions are present • These associations strongly suggest that boaters understand the connection between: – Awareness of perceived risk  Unexpected water entry – Unexpected water entry  drowning – Wearing a life jacket  drowning prevention
  17. 17. • Multivariate analysis: Lower priority risks are still important! – Many also associated with higher rates of life jacket use – Some risks not recognized: not significant; related to other “higher priority” risks; opposite association – Worth trying to understand why these risks are not in the top 4 in order to tailor educational campaigns / interventions that prevent drowning • Framing is important: drownings occur in all situations. – How to teach adult boaters how to become more situationally aware and to respond to risk by wearing a life jacket? While ALSO understanding that: – No matter what the perceived risks are, boaters should ALWAYS wear a life jacket while boating because risks can change? Situational Awareness Discussion, continued

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