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  1. 1. Baselining the Schedule What’s the Big Deal? NASA Project Management Challenge 2010 Galveston, Texas February 9-10, 2010 Romeo Mitchell & Dhanu Kothari Project Reset & Recovery - PR2 Consulting LimitedKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 Used with Permission 1
  2. 2. The Universe is hostile to the success of your projects. What are you doing about it? Baseline Schedule ???Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 2
  3. 3. Scheduling … It’s All About People & Process Classic Mistakes Category % Projects1. Poor estimation and/or scheduling (Process) 54%2. Ineffective stakeholder management (People) 51%3. Insufficient risk management (Process) 47%4. Insufficient planning (Process) 39%5. Shortchanged quality assurance (Process) 37%6. Weak personnel and/or team issues (People) 37%7. Insufficient project sponsorship (People) 36%8. Poor requirements determination (Process) 31%9. Inattention to politics (People) 29%10. Lack of user involvement (People) 29%11. Unrealistic expectations (People) 27%12. Undermined motivation (People) 26%Based on research by Prof. Ryan Nelson, McIntyre School of Commerce, Univ. of Virginia (7 years, 74 org, 99 IT projects) Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 3
  4. 4. Scheduling …What’s the Big Deal? Lack of buy-in from the key stakeholders and the team Lack of full understanding of the project Lack of clarity of the activities Failure to communicate schedule information Schedule is too complex Over estimating capabilities Moving forward with too many assumptions Schedule not being followed Lack of progress validation from the team Inaccurate schedule updates
  5. 5. Causes of schedule failure! No confidence in the schedule Team members are not sure about task or action Team members are not sure about what to make of it The schedule key information is not getting through Too much data and too granular Unrealistic time and effort estimates Too many assumptions Lack of clear instructional guidance Team feedback not being solicited or acknowledged Inaccurate schedule updates
  6. 6. PM Role as a Communicator • SOW, WBS, Milestones, Stakeholder • Dependency, Critical Path, Schedule • Risk Management, Expectation Mgt. • Change Control, Communication … Project Management Language Walk the Talk! Mediator Facilitator Implementer Communicator Change Agent Project ManagerKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 6
  7. 7. Scheduling Process & Managing Client Expectations • Business Case Project • Return on Investment 90% Scope • Priorities & Risks • Sponsorship .9x.9x.9 Project • Budget 90% 70% Objectives • Formal Approval Alignment Project The project must be aligned 90% Goals with Business Goals and Strategies to ensure management support Business Project and commitment. Goals CharterKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 7
  8. 8. Scheduling - Lesson 1… Know the Players Mgt./ Project Business Steering IT Strategy Committee Strategy Vendor Executive Project Sub- Sponsor Champion ContractorInternal Project Client Stake- Client Manager Organizationholders External Stake- holders Project Client Team Team Consultant Team Team Solution. Team ArchitectKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 8
  9. 9. UnderstandingSchedule characteristics Must be done by! Must be done on! Absolute deadline schedule Can be completed Relative deadline schedule between X & Y date! Event driven Focus on output or results, not Mission critical schedule process! All activities are critical!
  10. 10. Baseline Schedule: It’s a Journey!Business Scope Sequence Integrate Need Plan Activities Schedules Activity List Scope DependencyInitiate StatementProject Diagram Preliminary Activity Schedule Scope DefinitionProject Estimate ScheduleCharter Definition Duration Baseline Work Negotiate and Breakdown Critical Adjust for Time, Structure Path Resource & Cost Constraints Resource List Cost Work Baseline Packages Resource Resource Estimate & Cost Definition Resources EstimatesThe baseline schedule is a result of the planning process Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 10
  11. 11. Ten Steps to a Baseline Schedule1. Establish the Business Need (Strategy, Goals and Objectives)2. Prepare a Statement of Work (SOW)3. Define the high level solution and approach4. Plan the work and activities (WBS, Work Packages and Activities)5. Sequence activities and identify dependencies6. Establish major milestones for the project.7. Estimate the effort and duration for each activity.8. Integrate the schedule based on time, resource and budget constraints (iterative planning and facilitation)9. Estimate cost based on the schedule, prepare a budget with run rate10. Obtain commitments … Now you have a Baseline Schedule.Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 11
  12. 12. Lesson 2 – Follow the Process Business Need (Strategy, Goals, Objectives) SOW (Statement of Work) Solution Definition (RFP or Internal Work) Planning (Definition, WBS, Work Package, Activities) Sequencing & Dependencies (Network Diagram) Danger Zone Estimating (Effort & Duration) Do Not Scheduling (Project Schedule) Rush! Cost Estimating *** Baseline Schedule *** Iterative Planning Execution & Change Mgt. Finish Follow the process to “Baseline” the schedule, then Use automated tools to execute & monitor the scheduleKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 12
  13. 13. Scheduling non-technical attributes Persuasiveness Imagery A technical Culturally oriented schedule alone Communicative will not ensure a successful Participative baseline and Opportunistic outcomes Deterministic Non-Technical attributes are critical to influencing successful scheduling!
  14. 14. Baseline Schedule - 7 Attributes1. Persuasive: Should influence others to act and do the right thing towards a successful project outcome!2. Culturally Oriented: Present it so that it influences action by triggering positive emotional responses!3. Communicative: Getting the right message across simply and effectively4. Participative: Getting all critical stakeholders involved in the scheduling decision process5. Opportunistic: Should facilitate and influence to deal with uncertainty, while creating a productive window!6. Deterministic: Understand and share criteria for creating an event-driven schedule7. Integrated: Understanding integration points among schedule components and developing an integrated scheduleommitments Integrated Schedule + Resource Commitments + Signoffs = Baseline Schedule
  15. 15. Lesson 3 – Make it Visual An Example of a Project Roadmap Define XP Hardware Planning & Delivery Security Develop User Conduct User Template Training Training Project Develop ProjectApproval Initiate Contract for Define XP Install Complete Hardware Acquisition User Policies Scripts Train Help DeskAssemble Hold Gather Identify Prepare Conduct Conduct Develop Test Conduct Conduct SW Del. Project Kick-off Apps High Pr. Pilot User Method for Apps App Test User Test Object Team Meeting Inventory Apps Migration Migration Define  Repeat process for Each App  Conduct COE for Post Gather/Analyze Office, Test & Finalize SW Impln. HW Assets Info. XP and Distribution Method Review Upgrades, Outlook New & Refresh Set Up Test Lab Install & Test Define Publish For App.Testing Data Migrn & Migration Migration Backup Tools Process Schedule Focus on the Critical Path, Major Milestones, Deliverables, Dependencies and Activities
  16. 16. Lesson 4 – Make it Formal 1. Project CharterIf it’s not documented, 2. Project Organization it doesn’t exist! 3. 4. Work Breakdown - WBS Major Milestones 5. PERT/ Dependency 6. Detailed Estimates/ Schedule 7. Deliverables/ Responsibility 8. Resource Plan 9. Financial Plan 10. Risk Management Plan 11. Project Quality Plan 12. Project Control Plan 13. Project Communication Plan 14. Change Management Plan 15. Acceptance Plan 16. Contract Mgt. Plan 17. Work Assignments 18. Status Reports 19. Minutes of Meetings 20. Escalations & Issue Mgt. 21. Sign-offs/ Completion Reports 22. Business Benefits Validation 23. Supporting DocumentationKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 16
  17. 17. Lesson 5 – Make It Easy Manage Deliverables with the “RACI” Chart Work Package/ Deliverable Work Pkg # 1 - Deliverable 1 A R I C MM/DD $ - Deliverable N I C A R $ Work Pkg # 2 - Deliverable 1 C I R A $ - Deliverable N A C I R $ Work Pkg # N - Deliverable 1 R A C I $ - Deliverable N R A I C $ R : Responsible for the Deliverable A : Accepts/ Approves the deliverable C : Must be Consulted I : Needs to be InformedKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 17
  18. 18. Lesson 6 – Communicate & SellCommunication Challenges 5 Ps - People, Personalities, Politics, Protocol, Perceptions 4 Is - Inadequate (Too much, Too little), Ineffective, Irrelevant, Instantaneous 3 Cs – Culture, Content, Closing Acid Test: Will the communication help to move the project forward?Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 18
  19. 19. Communication Challenges Shoot the Willful Messenger Deception & Filtering Wishful Info. Thinking Psychology of Denial Org. Suppress Culture Bad News Failure to Speak Up Psychology of DenialKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 19
  20. 20. Lesson 7: Make It Work For You How We Communicate Non- Verbal Written E-Devices Visual Aids Verbal• Body Language • Project Kickoff • Project Documents • PDA’S • Graphs• Expressions • Client Review Requirements thru • Data Devices • Charts• Hand Shake • Project Review Final Assembly, • Intranet/ • Slides• Posture • Performance Test & Operations Internet • Pictures• Eye Contact Review • Manuals for User, • Project Servers • Posters• Listening • Status Update Operations & Trng. • Web-based Rpt. • Video Clips• Dress/ Attire • Presentations • Change Requests • Cell phone • Logos• Interest/ Attention • Project Selling • E-Mail Messages • Pager • Conference Call • Management Reports • Phone Call • Contracts • Interviews • Agendas • Meeting Minutes • Status Reports • Newsletters • Promotion/ Publicity Leverage the different modes & styles
  21. 21. Lesson 8 – Integrate the Schedule 1. Business Case & Project Charter 2. Project Organization Chart 3. Work Breakdown Structure 4. Dependency Chart & Critical Path 5. Major Milestones, Work Packages, Deliverables & Updated Schedule 6. RACI Chart (Responsibility Matrix) 7. Risk Assessment & Risk Plan (Top 3 Risks) 8. Financial Plan with the Six Measures (TBC, CBC, CAC, CEV, ETC, VAR) 9. Change Order Requests (Most Critical) 10. Status Reports, Issues & Escalations If you are not using these, then what exactly are you using to manage your project?Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 21
  22. 22. Lesson 9 – Make It Personal Insulate the Team from Organizational Politics & Management Issues  Client interface responsibility  Focus on individual deliverables  Awareness of stakeholder expectations  Continually sell the project  Manage internal & external politics - Budget, Buy-in, Approvals, Resources - Dept. Goals, Priorities, CommitmentKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 22
  23. 23. Lesson 10: Make It Fun … Enjoy the Politics “Having the organizational savvy to get your ideas and recommendations accepted” Good politics . . . the art of meeting members’ needs, solving problems & communicating recommendations It’s the ability to influence project direction towards its intended outcome.Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 23
  24. 24. Scheduling: Avoid the Ratholes  Project Management is equated with speed and proficiency in using a Project Management tool  The planning process is confused with the “doing” activity  Lack of time for planning is an acceptable excuse in the organization  There is no team or client involvement in the planning process  There is no consensus nor common understanding of the requirementsKothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 24
  25. 25. Best Practices for Baselining Learn and use the Business, Technology and Project Management languages Follow the planning, estimating, scheduling process – the schedule is the final product, not the starting point! Get your team actively involved in planning. There are no tools that will do the thinking for you. Invite the client to participate in the process. Participation and involvement leads to “buy-in” Invest time and effort into the scheduling exercise – after all, what’s critical is how you arrived at the schedule, not the schedule itself.Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 25
  26. 26. “If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up the men to gather up the wood, divide the work and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea.” - Antoine De Saint-Exupery What are you communicating? What is your team yearning for?Kothari@D2i.Ca NASA PM Challenge 2010 26