Garg.sanjay

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Garg.sanjay

  1. 1. Working Effectively with Line Managers Dr. Sanjay Garg Chief, Controls and Dynamics Branch Ph: (216) 433-2685 FAX: (216) 433-8990 email: sanjay.garg@nasa.gov http://www.lerc.nasa.gov/WWW/cdtb Presented at: NASA PM Challenge 2011, Feb. 9-10, 2011 Long Beach, CA Glenn Research Center Controls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  2. 2. Outline  Matrix Organization – Purpose and Challenges  Role of a Line Manager  Role of a Project Manager  Effective Partnership Between LM and PM  Dos and Don’ts of PM – LM Perspective  Dos and Don’ts of LM – PM Perspective Discussion  Summary Disclaimer: My knowledge of Project Management and PM Role is based on my limited experience in working with PMs in the Aeronautics Research and Space Exploration Technology Development projects, and a week long Project Management class I had early in my career.Glenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  3. 3. Matrix Organization Mission Center Program Program Directorate Directorate 1 2 1 2 Division Division Project Project Perform Task, Provide A B A B People, Facilities Branch Branch Branch X Y Z Sub- Project XDefine Goals, Allocate Sub-Resources – Project Y FTEs, $s Sub- Project Z Focus is on interaction at the task performance level where “the rubber hits the road” Glenn Research Center Controls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  4. 4. Matrix Organization: NASA Example Framework for ARMD Program Management Structure and working Relationships with Performing Centers Program Chain Center Chain Center Director is responsible for implementation of program AA Step 6 - Approval at center, and could delegate that authority as appropriate Step 5 - Negotiate Program PD Plan signed by PD and Center CD Director Step 4 - Approval PI POCProject Step 3 - Negotiate Project Plan signed by PI, PM, andManagem Center Center POC ent PS PM Project Team Management Support Step 2 - Approval API Division MgrAssocia Step 1 - Negotiate Task Plan te signed by API, APM, and Division/Branch Manager Branch MgrProjectManagem APM ent Team Chain of Command
  5. 5. Why Matrix Organization?  Matrix Organization Structure came about in the early 1970s as a way of combining the best of the Functional and Product organizations  NASA was the first organization to design and implement a formal matrix structure for its space program (Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed.  Functional Organization: Departmentalize the work force and other resources by key functions/disciplines  Results in efficient specialization of labor, easy to comprehend, roles responsibilities are clearly defined, reduces duplication of work  Can lead to “silos”, departments become self-serving, poor communication across the organization  Product Organization: Semiautonomous units and profit centers based on activities, or “projects”  Increases accountability – direct relation between activity and objective, decentralized decision making, loyalty to the project  Can lead to duplication of effort, lack of communication across units  Matrix Organization – Agile, responsive to shifting priorities, focused on company goals, maintains discipline specializationGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  6. 6. Matrix Organization – Pros & Cons Strengths:  Flexibility - facilitates rapid response to changes  Improves communication and creates efficient exchange of information – people across various departments are working on common goals and information is exchanged both horizontally and vertically  More efficient use of resources – highly specialized skills and equipment can be shared across multiple objectives.  Improved motivation – empowered teams have direct impact on day to day decisions and have greater commitment to the goalsWeaknesses:  Confusion about who is in charge – staff perceives having too many “bosses”  Constant conflict about roles and responsibilities  Complex and sometimes duplicative reporting requirements  Conflicting goals (Line and Project) creates interpersonal conflict and “finger pointing”  Increased costs – more managers and more reporting Glenn Research Center Controls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  7. 7. Matrix Organization What can go wrong? From “Project Management – A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling” by Harold Kerzner. Figure author unknownGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  8. 8. Line Manager Role Upward Responsibility • Provide information as requested • Participate in management team activities – workforce planning, addressing issues such as office/lab space, strategic direction of the work group, etc. • Keep management informed of issues andOrganizational Responsibility seek guidance on critical issues Customer Responsibility• Maintain awareness of organization • Maintain effective communicationstructure and ensure work group’s with the customers and respondactivities are aligned with organization appropriately to any issuesgoals. • Understand customer needs and• Keep up to date on the latest Line Manager assist work-group members indevelopments in the group’s area of developing task plans that areexpertise responsive to customer needs• Establish collaborative relationship with • Ensure work-group activities areother groups within the organization consistent with customer needs• Establish collaborative relationship withexternal organizations – govt. agencies, People Responsibilityindustry and academia • Ensure that Safety is the first priority in all of the• Ensure broad dissemination of work group’s workgroup’s activities and accomplishments • Ensure each staff member has meaningful work,within the appropriate technical and responsibilities are aligned with skills Need for strongcommunity • Ensure current work is aligned with long term LM/PM• Ensure that the work groups resources objectives for the work group Collaborative(people, lab, facilities) are adequate to • Take active role in skills and career development of Partnershipmeet current and future needs each staff member • Ensure employees receive appropriate recognition for their accomplishments • Ensure employee performance level is commensurate with their skills and capabilities • Listen actively to employee issues and put the best effort in addressing them • Treat employees equitably and fairly © Copyright Garg R&D Solutions LLC – no portions can be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes without prior permission
  9. 9. Project Manager Role  “The project manager’s role in a nutshell is the overall responsibility for the successful planning, execution, control and closure of a project”  PM role can conceptually also be defined along 4 responsibility lines: Upward Responsibility: • Report out on project progress, issues • Implement changes as directed Process Responsibility: • Identifying, tracking, managing and resolving project issues – budget, people, schedule etc. • Defining metrics to track project progress and ensure that deliverables are acceptable • Managing overall schedule to ensure work is assigned and completed on time and within budget People Responsibility: • Ensuring that the project is properly staffed with the right skill mix • Leadership skills – having teams, individuals work towards the project goals Organizational Responsibility: • Stay proficient in the skills needed for successful execution of project • Maintain open communication and collaborative relationship with line managementGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  10. 10. Top 10 Qualities of a Project Manager*  Inspires Shared Vision  Good Communicator  Integrity  Enthusiasm  Empathy  Competence  Ability to Delegate Tasks  Cool Under Pressure  Team-Building Skills  Problem Solving Skills How are these different from the Top 10 Qualities of a Line Manager?* From PROJECTSMART.CO.UK – by Timothy R. BarryGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  11. 11. LM vs. PMTopic Area Project Manager Line ManagerPeople - Treat as just another resource, - Consider the person as a whole, pay only for what is needed consider long term career objectives - Want “ready” skills - Develop skills through trainingMetrics - Limited to specific project - Project milestones PLUS milestones, deliverables organizational goals eg. PublicationsFacilities - Pay only for what is needed for - Need to cover complete operational the project costsScope - Near term, pay for only those - Long term health of the organization technologies needed to meet the - Development of core technology project goals capability to support future projects • The apparent differences in Objectives can lead to conflict between Project Manager and Line Manager – an “US vs. THEM” Culture • Detrimental to Project and ultimately to the Organization as a wholeGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  12. 12. The Case for LM/PM Collaboration  A Collaborative Partnership between Line Managers and Project Managers can:  Leverage the strengths of the Matrix Organization to the Max  Minimize the impact of weaknesses of the Matrix Organization  Create a “Balanced Matrix” where LM/PM are working in harmony to cchieve Project and Organization Goals  What a Line Manager brings to the Partnership:  Knowledge of the discipline work being done across Projects  Help leverage the investment across projects  Assess how changes in one Project might impact another Project  Discipline expertise and technical knowledge to ensure that Project Goals are achievable within allocated resources  Knowledge to assign the right people to the Project  Balance Project Goals with individual interests, skills and career objectives  Manage the performance of the technical staff to ensure Project Goals are being met  Broad Organizational knowledge to be able to identify and help address issues in a timely mannerGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  13. 13. LM/PM Collaboration – Motivating the Technical Staff Motivated Staff Achieves Results • Top Motivators of Scientists and the Technical Staff - Acknowledgement, Recognition & Respect - Trust, Freedom & Independence - Growth & Development: Tech & Touch - Meaningful & Challenging Work - Empowerment & Control: Decision Making/Recommendary Authority - To be Listened to & Taken Seriously - Supportive Relationships - Sufficient Resources to Accomplish Goals - Self Actualization • Only by Working Collaboratively Can the Line Manager and Project Manager Expect to Keep the Staff Motivated • Neither can Achieve this by ThemselvesGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  14. 14. Characteristics of a Healthy LM/PM Collaboration  A Collaborative Partnership between Line Managers and Project Managers can:  Leverage the strengths of the Matrix Organization to the Max  Minimize the impact of weaknesses of the Matrix Organization  Create a “Balanced Matrix” where LM/PM are working in harmony to cchieve Project and Organization GoalsGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  15. 15. Dos and Don’ts of PM – LM Perspective This chart will provide a LM perspective on what they will like to see the PM do (emphasize in the collaborative partnership) and things that PM should not doGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  16. 16. Dos and Don’ts of LM – PM Perspective This chart will be used interactively to get the PM perspective on what they will like to see the LM do and what they don’t want LM doing. An intial list will be provided based on my discussions with the PMs that we work with.Glenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field
  17. 17. Summary The Summary chart will list the major benefits of LM/PM collaboration and will summarize the key expectations of each other to develop and maintain a strong partnershipGlenn Research CenterControls and Dynamics Branch at Lewis Field

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