Systems Engineering     ImplementationIn Launch Vehicle Development          Programs              Timothy T. Chen  Spacec...
Launch Vehicle Project Challenges•   Design of a new launch vehicle is a large complex system development    project.•   I...
Project Manager’s Headaches•   The Project Manager’s challenge is further aggravated when faced with    the following issu...
How can System Engineering help?•   The Systems Engineer      is your technical manager for the Project      Defines the...
Systems Engineering Functions•   Engineer the System        •   Planning and Control       •   Produce the System      Re...
Systems Engineering throughout                        the Product Life Cycle and at each                                  ...
NASA Systems Engineering Process•   NASA Guiding Documents     NPR 7123.1A - NASA Systems Engineering Processes and      ...
NASA Governing DocumentsFrom: “NPR 7123.1A Overview”                                                   Page 8
NASA Systems Engineering                      Framework•   Three elements that make up NASA systems engineering capability...
NASA Systems Engineering EngineNPR 7123.1A, Figure 3.1                                     Page 10
Application of SE Engine Processes                               within System StructureNPR 7123.1A, Figure 3.2           ...
Recommendations for Project                                                                                               ...
Recommendations•   Trade, trade, trade …. Then trade some more      No “point design”      No “show stoppers”          ...
Technical Recommendations•   Minimize Technology Development in a Launch Vehicle Project     Require component/ subsystem...
Questions?             Page 15
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Chen.tim

  1. 1. Systems Engineering ImplementationIn Launch Vehicle Development Programs Timothy T. Chen Spacecraft & Vehicle Systems Department Marshall Space Flight Center
  2. 2. Launch Vehicle Project Challenges• Design of a new launch vehicle is a large complex system development project.• Its probability of success is often handicapped by:  Complex requirement development (creep) process.  Conflicting stakeholders’ expectations that often surfaced late in the project design cycle.  Acquisition strategy.  Inherent nature of technology development risks in the project.  Complex technical integration & interfaces across major elements.  High initial non-recurring cost for capital investments  Often higher than what the stakeholders are willing to tolerate.  Limited schedule to demonstrate success before the project is in risk of being cancelled. Page 2
  3. 3. Project Manager’s Headaches• The Project Manager’s challenge is further aggravated when faced with the following issues:  Lack of experienced and knowledgeable staff.  Launch vehicle design projects come once in a couple, to several, decades. Experienced & seasoned professionals, especially in project management & systems engineering with proven success in executing projects at the level of technical complexity, are limited.  Limited supply chain available from prime contractors to component suppliers.  Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and “Heritage” hardware do not mean “Plug-n-Play”.  Iterations and “spiral” design approach can be very costly to the Project Manager.  Antiquated in-house processes and procedures  Do not keep up with the advances in project management & acquisition practices. Page 3
  4. 4. How can System Engineering help?• The Systems Engineer  is your technical manager for the Project  Defines the phases the scope of the total effort  Establishes the technical baseline and future modifications (upgrades)  Provides qualified personnel and processes to Systems Engineering & Integration (SE&I) in all top level system activities• So, you as Project Manager can focus on other tough problems!  A juggling act ! Time Scope Cost Stakeholders Communication Project Manager Quality Sub-contracts Risk Contracts Staff/ HR Page 4
  5. 5. Systems Engineering Functions• Engineer the System • Planning and Control • Produce the System  Requirements  Organizing & Planning  Integrated across Analysis / Definition /  SEMP, IMP/IMS all systems and Validation  Requirements components  Functional Analysis Management  Product Life & Allocation  Interface Management Cycle  Synthesis of  Baseline Management  Product Designs  Integration  Affordability  Evaluation of  Verification  Decision Making Alternatives  Validation  Risk Management  Requirements  Trade Studies  Transition Verification  TPMs  Metrics Management  ReviewsDrive Technical Solution Technical Management Realize Product
  6. 6. Systems Engineering throughout the Product Life Cycle and at each Level MISSION DEFINE CONCEPT CONCEPT PRELIMINARY DETAILED FIRST PRODUCTION OPERATIONS/ ANALYSIS MISSION DEFINITION DEVELOPMENT DEFINITION DEFINITION ARTICLE SUPPORT DEFINITION REQUIREMENTS MCR ACR SRR SDR PDR CDR FRR/PRR ORR DR1 SYSTEM 2 SEGMENT 3 SUBSYSTEM MAJOR MILESTONES MCR Mission Concept Review ACR Alternative Concept Review 4 ELEMENT SRR System Requirements Review SDR System Design Review PDR Preliminary Design Review CDR Critical Design Review FRR Flight Readiness Review PRR Production Readiness Review 5 COMPONENT ORR Operational Readiness Review DR Decommissioning ReviewSE process used at each system level and throughout the product life cycle. Page 6
  7. 7. NASA Systems Engineering Process• NASA Guiding Documents  NPR 7123.1A - NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements w/Change 1 (11/04/09)  Systems Engineering NPR Implementation Plan  SP-2007-6105 NASA Systems Engineering Handbook  Project System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) Page 7
  8. 8. NASA Governing DocumentsFrom: “NPR 7123.1A Overview” Page 8
  9. 9. NASA Systems Engineering Framework• Three elements that make up NASA systems engineering capability  Common Technical Processes  Tools and Methods  Workforce NPR 7123.1A, Figure 1.1
  10. 10. NASA Systems Engineering EngineNPR 7123.1A, Figure 3.1 Page 10
  11. 11. Application of SE Engine Processes within System StructureNPR 7123.1A, Figure 3.2 Page 11
  12. 12. Recommendations for Project Managers • Hire Experienced & Knowledgeable Staff  Multidisciplinary SEs (domain/mission/product experts)  Apply the “TRL” process to your key personnel  Get expert advices  Non-Advocate Reviews, industry advisory groups, etc.  Not just technical, but also on management practices • Plan, plan, plan … then plan some more  Failure to plan = Plan to fail  Unrealistic schedule = cost over-run Launch Systems (Level II) Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (SBS) TEMPLATE SBS Indentured No. (2nd Lvl) Space Transportation Vehicle SBS Indentured No. (3rd Lvl) SBS Indentured No. (4th Lvl) SBS Indentured No. (1st Lvl) SBS Indentured No. (5th/6th Generic Design Disciplines Space Transportation Propulsion Subsystems (Level VI) Architectural Concept Propulsion Subsystems (Level VI) Generic Function Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Element FBS Generic Function Description (SBS 5th/6th Lvl)VEHICLE 1.0 Level) System Architectural Concept Name 1.3.1 Propulsion Subsystem 1.1 Vehicle Element (e.g., Booster, Orbiter, Payload element, repeat as needed for elements) Hardware C D E F G H I 1.1.1 Airframe Structure & Mechanisms 229 1.1.2 Propulsion 1.1.2 Propulsion 230 1.1.2.1 Booster/Planetary Ascent Propulsion 1.1.3 Power Management 231 1.1.2.1.1 Fill & Drain 1.3.1.3 1.3.1.5 1.3.1.7 1.1.4 Thermal Management 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2 Pressurization 1.3.1.4 Propellant Feed 1.3.1.6 Thermal Control 1.3.1.8 232 1.1.2.1.1.1 Oxidizer F&D system Tankage Thrusters Fill/Drain System Instrumentation Ancillary Hardware 1.1.5 Guidance, Navigation and Control System System System 233 1.1.2.1.1.2 Fuel F&D system t 1.1.6 Communications, Control and Health ManagementINTERFACE 1.1.7 1.1.8 Life Support Environmental and Safety Management 234 235 1.1.2.1.2 On-Board Propellant Storage 1.1.2.1.2.1 Oxidizer tank 1.3.1.1.1 1.3.1.2.1 Orbital 1.3.1.3.1 1.3.1.4.1 1.3.1.5.1 1.3.1.6.1 1.3.1.7.1 Active Thermal 1.3.1.8.1 Power Distribution 236 1.1.2.1.2.2 Fuel tank Pressurant Tank Maneuvering Latch Valves Fill/Drain Valves Latch Valves Pressure Sensors Control & Harness 1.2 Vehicle Elements Integration (Booster, Orbiter, TLI element, Planet or Moon Decent/Ascent element) Engine 237 1.1.2.1.3 Cryogenic On-Board Propellant and hardware Conditioning for Engine Start 1.2.1 Element to element structural attachment 238 1.1.2.1.3.1 Oxidizer bleed or bubbling system to provide thermal conditioning 1.3.1.2.2 1.3.1.6.2 1.3.1.8.2 1.3.1.1.2 1.3.1.3.2 1.3.1.4.2 1.3.1.5.2 1.2.2 Element to element communication 239 1.1.2.1.3.2 Fuel bleed and fluid circulating system to provide thermal conditioning Reaction Control Temperature Secondary Propellant Tank Pyro Valves Filters Filters 1.3.1.7.1.1 Engine Sensors Structure 1.2.3 Provide monitoring & control of safe environment between elements 240 1.1.2.1.4 Storable Propellant Conditioning for Engine Start HeatersGROUND 1..3 1.2.4 Element to Element Separation Ground Infrastructure Element(s) 241 242 1.1.2.1.4.1 Engine oxidizer feed system fill & bleed 1.1.2.1.4.2 Engine fuel feed system fill & bleed 1.3.1.1.2.1 1.3.1.2.3 Engine Controllers 1.3.1.3.3 Filters 1.3.1.4.3 Fill/Drain Lines 1.3.1.5.3 Propellant Feed Lines 1.3.1.7.2 Propellant Tank Passive Thermal 1.3.1 Flight Element Processing 243 1.1.2.1.5 On-Board Purge Structure Control 1.3.2 Payload Element Processing 244 1.1.2.1.5.1 Engine oxidizer system purge & conditioning to remove contamination 1.3.1.3.4 1.3.1.5.4 1.1.2.1.5.2 Engine fuel system purge & conditioning to remove contamination 1.3.1.1.2.2 1.3.3 Integrated Processing 245 Propellant Pressure Feed Subsystem 1.3.4 Flight and Ground Traffic Control and Safety Management 246 1.1.2.1.6 Pressurization Management Regulators Valve Drivers 1.3.1.7.2.1 247 1.1.2.1.6.1 Oxidizer tank pressurization Device Insulation/Blankets 1.3.5 Ground Infrastructure Support and Management 248 1.1.2.1.6.2 Fuel tank pressurization 1.3.1.3.5 Pressurant Lines 1.3.1.3.6 Pressurization Subsystem Valve Drivers Page 12 Page 12
  13. 13. Recommendations• Trade, trade, trade …. Then trade some more  No “point design”  No “show stoppers”  Technical, cost & schedule  Challenge technical teams on “what – if’s”• Manage stakeholder expectations & requirements “creep”  Establish early, seek inputs• Execute, execute… and execute  Make decision !  Indecisiveness causes schedule delay, cost-over run with no accomplishments  Streamline Control Board Process  Requirements & Change Management Latency• Communicate, communicate, and more  Keep the team informed  Listen to the team (feedback) Page 13
  14. 14. Technical Recommendations• Minimize Technology Development in a Launch Vehicle Project  Require component/ subsystem technology at TRL > 6• Get decisions made between elements (Payload, LV, and Ground Systems)  Lack of decision makers delay schedule & increase cost• Allow technical teams to communicate  Avoid “silos” mentality• Do not manage by Spec and ICDs  Manage by decision – making, not by documentation• Design-to-Requirements, not Design-to-Performance  Control technical metrics, affordability, and schedule Page 14
  15. 15. Questions? Page 15

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