Carol Jarvis, Ph.D., LCSW and Aileac Deegan, BSW 14th Annual National Alliance for Grieving Children Symposium, June 24, 2...
1) Provide an overview of the project. 2)Identify the principles of case study design. 3) Provide the results of the study...
<ul><ul><li>Established in 1894 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private, coeducational, residential  </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Non-profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services: Peer-to-peer sessions, Survivors of Suicide, Anticipatory grie...
<ul><ul><li>Longstanding connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grief Seminar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board involvement ...
<ul><ul><li>Indiana is home to the world’s third largest Amish population </li></ul></ul>S. M. Nolt & T. J. Meyers,  Plain...
<ul><ul><li>Emerged from an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique phenomenon  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researc...
<ul><ul><li>Outreach to other to other underserved populations in Michiana area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach to oth...
<ul><ul><li>Grief is a sensitive topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of privacy and confidentiality  </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Establishing a trusting relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at the beginning of the research pr...
 
 
<ul><ul><li>Six Sources of Evidence </li></ul></ul>R.K. Yin , Case Study Research: Design and Methods , (2008)  <ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>Non-Amish (N=18) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names obtained through Ryan’s Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
Semi-Structured Interviews &  Focus Groups
<ul><ul><li>Reading – becoming familiar with the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Level Coding – Open Coding </li></u...
 
1) Data triangulation  - using multiple sources of evidence 2) Investigator triangulation  – using more than one researche...
<ul><ul><li>Factors leading to Amish participation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships and interactions with the...
<ul><ul><li>Amish facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken barbecue fundraiser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip to P...
<ul><ul><li>“ I think having an Amish couple as facilitators has increased the likelihood of Amish attending Ryan’s Place....
<ul><ul><li>“ Board members transported Amish people to Nappanee with coolers full of chicken. ‘The Amish would then go ho...
<ul><ul><li>Amish participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Through my mom-from her friends.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>The Dougy Center Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryan’s Place is a safe place </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Amish Participants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Talking with other people with the same experience as us- peo...
<ul><ul><li>“ We appreciated going out of town for Ryan’s Place because there was safety in being among people not from [o...
<ul><ul><li>Church Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misperceptions by other...
<ul><ul><li>“ They tell you to just read the Bible. They say, ‘Jesus is our counselor.’” –Amish participant </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Amish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They think you have mental problems.”  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They th...
<ul><ul><li>Providing transportation through gas vouchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating misperceptions of Ryan’s ...
<ul><ul><li>“ Some people are scared of Ryan’s Place: it’s opening something they don’t want opened.” (related incident of...
<ul><ul><li>Term: The “Amish Strategy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging concept from the data </li></ul></ul></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Personal contact, comfort levels and establishing relationships in target groups  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><ul><li>Time : “We need to build trust and that takes time.”  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With time, trust was buil...
<ul><ul><li>Explore the concept of the “Amish strategy”  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal or Unique? </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>Builds collaborative relationships with the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides answers to research ...
<ul><ul><li>Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R. I. & Shaw, L. L. (1995).  Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes.  Chicago: University of Ch...
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  • A combination of manual and electronic methods was used to organize and analyze data generated from the interviews (N=18 non-Amish individuals; N=5 Amish families) as well as data from the analysis of agency documents and participant observations. Over 200 pages of data were produced from the five sources of evidence used for the study. First, using grounded theory, interview data and fieldnotes were manually coded, with the research question serving as a guide for the identification of codes (Yin, 2009). In addition, this study used an explanation building technique for data analysis. Explanation building induces theory from data and seeks to explore “why” or “how” something happened. This exploration of the research question and data seemed to fit the study very well, as the researchers were seeking to understand why the Amish have utilized social services outside their community (Yin, 2009). Next, the documents were imported into NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software package, and organized into categories (referred to as “nodes” in NVivo). Second-level coding involved organizing the nodes into themes, referred to in NVivo as “trees” and collapsing the tree nodes into other categories. Six parent tree nodes were identified: Amish, Barriers, Elkhart site, Other, Other groups to outreach, and Outreach.
  • The annual chicken barbecue was another common theme among non-Amish participants. The chicken barbecue has been a successful fundraiser for Ryan’s Place over the years. Carloads of Ryan’s Place supporters – both Amish and non-Amish— would work together and sell barbecued chicken around the countryside of the Elkhart area.  This specific event was identified multiple times when non-Amish participants were asked about their interactions with the Amish.
  • Another common theme that emerged from the data pertaining to relationships and interactions with the Amish was word of mouth communication. At the Amish focus group gathering, they were asked, “How did your family become involved in Ryan’s Place?”
  • Another distinct theme that emerged and pertained to factors leading to participation was sensitivity to the Amish. This sensitivity was shown through The Dougy Center model, and Ryan’s Place being seen as a safe place.
  • An emphasis on Ryan’s Place being a safe place was made at the Amish gathering as well
  • 303 a Jarvis Deegan presentation

    1. 1. Carol Jarvis, Ph.D., LCSW and Aileac Deegan, BSW 14th Annual National Alliance for Grieving Children Symposium, June 24, 2010
    2. 2. 1) Provide an overview of the project. 2)Identify the principles of case study design. 3) Provide the results of the study. 4) Describe the benefits of research collaboration.
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Established in 1894 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private, coeducational, residential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian college of the liberal arts and sciences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rooted in the Anabaptist-Mennonite tradition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Non-profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services: Peer-to-peer sessions, Survivors of Suicide, Anticipatory grief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dougy Center Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goshen and Elkhart locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One paid employee, the rest volunteer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amish participation </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Longstanding connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grief Seminar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student internships </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Indiana is home to the world’s third largest Amish population </li></ul></ul>S. M. Nolt & T. J. Meyers, Plain Diversity: Amish Cultures & Identities, (2007) <ul><ul><li>Symbols of separateness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of “Glassenheit” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with the “English” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of community </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Emerged from an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Question: “What factors led the Amish community to become involved with Ryan’s Place?” </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Outreach to other to other underserved populations in Michiana area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach to other hard-to-reach populations such Native Americans residing on reservations </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Grief is a sensitive topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of privacy and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive nature of data collection </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Establishing a trusting relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at the beginning of the research process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning meeting held </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation throughout the process: defining the research question, selecting data collection method, informed consent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case study protocol developed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency throughout the process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><ul><li>Six Sources of Evidence </li></ul></ul>R.K. Yin , Case Study Research: Design and Methods , (2008) <ul><ul><li>Existing agency documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical artifacts </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><ul><li>Non-Amish (N=18) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names obtained through Ryan’s Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amish (N=5 Families) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names obtained through Ryan’s Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups (Gathering, July 25, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Consent </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Semi-Structured Interviews & Focus Groups
    14. 16. <ul><ul><li>Reading – becoming familiar with the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Level Coding – Open Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Level Coding – Focused Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Collection: over 200 pages of fieldnotes </li></ul></ul>R. M. Emerson , Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes , (1995)
    15. 18. 1) Data triangulation - using multiple sources of evidence 2) Investigator triangulation – using more than one researcher 3) Documenting researcher reflections- ethnographic field notes, reflection and analysis of interviews Yin , R. K. (2008). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4th ed.).
    16. 19. <ul><ul><li>Factors leading to Amish participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships and interactions with the Amish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to the Amish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to participating and elimination of barriers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other findings </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><ul><li>Amish facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken barbecue fundraiser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip to Pennsylvania following the Nickel Mines shooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Compassionate Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word of mouth in the Amish community </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><ul><li>“ I think having an Amish couple as facilitators has increased the likelihood of Amish attending Ryan’s Place.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amish Facilitators were key players in Ryan’s Place being accepted by the Amish. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><ul><li>“ Board members transported Amish people to Nappanee with coolers full of chicken. ‘The Amish would then go house to house to sell this chicken.’ The first time they did this fundraiser. They brought good connections .” </li></ul></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><ul><li>Amish participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Through my mom-from her friends.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ My sister-in-law.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ A couple of different people.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Friend.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Amish participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“… Word spreads fast in the Amish community. Amish people would tell other Amish about the agency.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><ul><li>The Dougy Center Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryan’s Place is a safe place </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><ul><li>Amish Participants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Talking with other people with the same experience as us- people who care.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Confidentiality” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Going around the circle and rating where we were from one to ten, and using the ‘I pass’ rule.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Facilitators who had similar experiences to us: ‘They knew exactly where you were at’; having a facilitator who can relate to you.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pizza and crafts </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><ul><li>“ We appreciated going out of town for Ryan’s Place because there was safety in being among people not from [our] community” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Everyone shares the same mutual concerns and feelings about death. ‘Ryan’s Place is very non-threatening to the Amish community.’” </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. <ul><ul><li>Church Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misperceptions by others; not knowing the agency </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. <ul><ul><li>“ They tell you to just read the Bible. They say, ‘Jesus is our counselor.’” –Amish participant </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. <ul><ul><li>Amish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They think you have mental problems.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They think it’s counseling.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others perceive that they are attending R.P. because the support from their church is insufficient: “It’s not that at all.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People tell us we can handle it, but they haven’t been through it. The people who want to give you advice [often] haven’t been down that alley themselves.” </li></ul></ul>
    27. 30. <ul><ul><li>Providing transportation through gas vouchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating misperceptions of Ryan’s Place; increasing awareness of agency </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. <ul><ul><li>“ Some people are scared of Ryan’s Place: it’s opening something they don’t want opened.” (related incident of staffing an information table and people walking away after learning the purpose for Ryan’s Place) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Make sure they (new families) understand that Ryan’s Place is free.” </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. <ul><ul><li>Term: The “Amish Strategy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging concept from the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often used in response to further outreach to other demographics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><ul><li>Personal contact, comfort levels and establishing relationships in target groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and eliminating barriers to participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally sensitive to the target group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit members from target group for leadership roles </li></ul></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><ul><li>Time : “We need to build trust and that takes time.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With time, trust was built and Amish participation grew. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method : “Grief breaks down barriers that would not occur in everyday circumstances” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Dougy Center Model and common ground grief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Death knows no cultural difference.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued cultural sensitivity & diversified leadership: “Those two are a ‘bridge.’” </li></ul></ul>
    32. 35. <ul><ul><li>Explore the concept of the “Amish strategy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal or Unique? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory testing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the “Amish strategy” apply to other grief centers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can these principles be useful to other grief centers? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 36. <ul><ul><li>Builds collaborative relationships with the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides answers to research questions you have wanted to explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual expertise, shared resources </li></ul></ul>
    34. 37. <ul><ul><li>Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R. I. & Shaw, L. L. (1995). Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinnell, R. M. & Unrau, Y. A. (2005). Social Work Research and Evaluation: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, (7th ed.) New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yin, R.K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4th ed.), Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. </li></ul></ul>

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