SUPPORTING STUDENTS   TO PRODUCE QUALITY WORK NAF Institute for Professional Development July 2008 Orlando, FL FACILITATED...
OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Consider what “quality” means and how we know what quality student work looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Un...
WHAT IS “QUALITY”? <ul><li>How do  YOU  know what quality work is? </li></ul><ul><li>How do  STUDENTS  know what quality w...
STARTING WITH OURSELVES <ul><li>Teachers who are  </li></ul><ul><li>“ expecting—and getting—success with ALL students”  </...
QUALITY TAKES COMMITMENT <ul><li>Addressing  “the incredible gravitational pull of  school as usual .”  </li></ul><ul><li>...
WORKING ON OUR PRACTICE <ul><li>Focus  on specific, targeted student learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration  (t...
A FOCUS ON LEARNERS AND LEARNING <ul><li>Learning, in the end, is about LEARNER attempts to learn, more than about teacher...
TWO TYPES OF STUDENTS vs. Reluctant (won’t) Struggling (can’t)
SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS”   (“WON’Ts”) ENGAGING CURRICULUM,  STUDENT VOICE &  OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES,  SUPPORT SERVI...
WHAT OUR STUDENTS NEED <ul><li>Four Foundational Mindsets: </li></ul><ul><li>I am Capable  - How the learner perceives her...
WHAT OUR STUDENTS NEED <ul><li>I Make a Difference  -  Empowerment for being a respected participant (team member/ student...
THREE CONSTRUCTS REQUIRED BY LEARNERS <ul><li>Social Supports  -  Emotional support, guidance, and recognition through car...
SUPPORTING STUDENTS TO PRODUCE QUALITY WORK <ul><li>How can we  motivate  students to produce quality work? </li></ul><ul>...
ENGAGING INSTRUCTION: THE “THREE R’s” <ul><li>RIGOR  = challenge students! </li></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE  = answer the “so w...
<ul><li>NAF’s new curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Six A’s </li></ul><ul><li>Daggett’s Rigor & Relevance Framework </li></ul><...
Six A’s of Quality Projects <ul><li>AUTHENTICITY </li></ul><ul><li>ACADEMIC RIGOR </li></ul><ul><li>APPLIED LEARNING </li>...
ENGAGING INSTRUCTION: USE THE TOOLS!
ENGAGING INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES Five observable classroom strategies… <ul><li>Facilitation of student conversation </li><...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>Identifying Similarities and Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Representations </l...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>Identifying Similarities and Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Marzano’s Essential 9 2. Nonlinguistic Representations
Marzano’s Essential 9 Authentic work  =  Teachers  coach  students to learn how to learn.  Students know  why  they are do...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>4. Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-view concepts, texts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hig...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>5. Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs, trios, groups  (foster  student conversatio...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>6. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>7. Generating and Testing Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to… </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>8. Homework and Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain purpose of HW – prep or practice </li...
Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>9. Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can change beli...
Student Voice & Ownership <ul><li>How can students “own” their learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated curriculum </li></ul...
SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS”   ( “WON’Ts”) ENGAGING CURRICULUM,  STUDENT VOICE &  OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES,  SUPPORT SERV...
SUPPORTING T HE  “STRUGGLING” (“CAN ’T S ) PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRIC...
HELPING STUDENTS TO RECOGNIZE QUALITY 1) USE MODELS & EXEMPLARS  Deconstruct exemplars w/ inductive lesson 2) BRING IN EXP...
HELPING STUDENTS  RECOGNIZE QUALITY <ul><li>“ We need to involve students by making the targets clear to them and having t...
USING M ODELS & EXEMPLARS “ When my class begins a new project ,a new venture, we begin with a taste of excellence. I pull...
USING MODELS & EXEMP LARS “ I’ve been criticized at times by educators for using models so much. All of the work will be c...
USING MODELS & EXEMP LARS “ Deconstructing” Professional Work <ul><li>What makes the work good? </li></ul><ul><li>What fea...
BRING IN EXPERTS Ideas for Connecting with Experts <ul><li>Guest speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Students interview experts out...
USE RUBRICS RUBRICS 101: What is a Rubric? A = 90-100  B = 80-89  C = 70-79
RUBRICS 101 <ul><li>“ A rubric is not a grading system.  It is a lesson in what constitutes quality.  It is a declaration ...
What do these levels of performance look like?
 
4 levels left side student check box right side teacher check box scoring line allows for weighting of  elements
RUBRIC TIPS <ul><li>Build rubrics  with  students </li></ul><ul><li>Show  work samples  along with rubrics </li></ul><ul><...
http://rubistar.4teachers.org
PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRICS RESPONSE   REASON   INTERVENTION Struggli...
SKILL T RAINING 1) IDENTIFY AND TEACH SKILLS  Avoid assumptions about student skills 2) PROVIDE FEEDBACK  Formative assess...
A CLOSER LOOK AT SKILLS THE TASK: “ Gavin, go brush your teeth.”
BRUSHING YOUR TEETH <ul><li>Locate and go to bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Locate light switch, turn on light </li></ul><ul><...
BRUSHING YOUR TEETH,  CONTINUED… <ul><li>Remove brush from case; open toothpaste tube </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze right amou...
BRUSHING YOUR TEETH,   CONTINUED … <ul><li>Locate cup </li></ul><ul><li>Fill cup half full with water, turn faucet off </l...
BRUSHING YOUR TEETH,  CONTINUED… <ul><li>Remove brush from case; open toothpaste tube </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze right amou...
PREREQUISITE COMPONENT SKILLS (PCS’s) <ul><li>=  Individual Skills Needed to Complete a Complex Task </li></ul><ul><li>Ski...
PCS’s: THE BOTTOM LINE If students need to do it, you need to teach it.
PBL ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>HEALTH PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Required Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop family medical histor...
NEWSLETTER PCS’s Research Topic Write Articles Edit Articles Design Layout Produce Layout Type Articles Take Photos Digiti...
NEWSLETTER LAYOUT   PCS’s Designing a Newspaper  Layout Columns Font Sizes Font Styles Formatting Headlines Headers/Footer...
BALANCED FEEDBACK <ul><li>COLLECT EVIDENCE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE WORK </li></ul><ul><li>USE A VARIETY OF METHODS: </li>...
BALANCED FEEDBACK: ASSESSMENT vs. EVALUATION <ul><li>ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Latin root  “assidere”   </li></ul><ul><...
PROVIDING FEEDBACK <ul><li>“ (For learning purposes)… a test at the end of a unit….is pointless; it’s too late to work wit...
PROVIDING FEEDBACK: ASSESSING  FOR  LEARNING <ul><li>“ When they assess FOR learning, teachers use the classroom assessmen...
“ SCAFFOLDING” FOR SUCCESS Content Academic foundation for work Training Explicit skill-building in all required productio...
“ SCAFFOLDING” FOR SUCCESS Documents Descriptors, calendars, rubrics to explain and organize work Tools Technological reso...
In Review… SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS”   ENGAGING CURRICULUM,  STUDENT VOICE &  OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES,  SUPPORT SERVI...
In Review… SUPPORTING THE “STRUGGLING” PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRICS RE...
THE RESULT: vs. WON’T CAN’T ENGAGED STUDENTS WHO  CAN & WILL!
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  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • KEY: Deconstruct exemplars through inductive lesson – SHOW them what quality looks like! Show example of how to do this Poetry Video
  • KEY: Deconstruct exemplars through inductive lesson – SHOW them what quality looks like! Show example of how to do this Poetry Video
  • KEY: Deconstruct exemplars through inductive lesson – SHOW them what quality looks like! Show example of how to do this Poetry Video
  • KEY: Deconstruct exemplars through inductive lesson – SHOW them what quality looks like! Show example of how to do this Poetry Video
  • If participants desire more instruction on rubrics, this and the following slides can be used to highlight some of the key features and considerations in developing rubrics. This slide simply asks them to consider the definition of “rubric” Uncover the question “what is a rubric”, then uncover the grading scale and ask if the grading scale is a rubric. Uncover the “little man” icons, used by the SF Chronicle to review movies and plays, and ask if this scale represents a rubric. (Or, ask if the “five-stars” rating system represents a rubric. What if it includes descriptive words such as one star is poor, two is OK, three is good, four is excellent, etc.?)
  • Here’s a nice definition of rubrics from the Heidi Hayes Jacobs “Redefining Assessment” article.
  • This “rubric” is a sample taken from Drake’s Engineering Academy. Ask: Is this a rubric? Answer: Yes, but not a very helpful one. (But it’s better than just giving grades alone) Ask: As a student, does this help you get a picture of quality? Answer: Only somewhat. The problem is that we still don’t know the difference between “excellent,” “good” and “reasonable” craftsmanship. What is the difference between “some” and “extensive” innovation? The descriptors simply are not specific enough. You may want to point out that this is a HOLISTIC RUBRIC – one that lumps together all of the different grading areas (plans, innovation &amp; creativity, etc.) into one general category. Students could very well be given a “B”, but really have scored higher on their craftsmanship but lower on their plans. The question is: Does this tool really help students modify their performance so that they can improve next time? Probably not.
  • Another Academy X (Drake High) rubric. OK, so nobody can read the text on this rubric either. However, you can use this slide to point out that this is an ANALYTIC rubric which breaks down the different elements of the assignment into explicit performance levels and indicators. You may point out that this can be taken down another level as well. For instance, the “Oral Presentation Skills” category could be turned into its own rubric – which then breaks oral presentations down into the categories of voice level, body language, visual aids, etc…. The pros of this type of rubric is that it provides explicit feedback that students really can use to understand and improve their performance. On the other hand, look at it: 24 different boxes, 3 pt. font – who wants to read (or write) this? It may overwhelm kids. The “so what” is that rubrics need to find a balance between being specific enough to help and concise enough to be teacher and student friendly.
  • Some general tips on building rubrics Many people question the suggestion that you include an even number of levels. The reasoning is that with an odd number of levels, scores tend to cluster in the middle. Using an even number forces the scorer to place the work in the upper or lower half.
  • Naf quality work ppt v[1].6.08

    1. 1. SUPPORTING STUDENTS TO PRODUCE QUALITY WORK NAF Institute for Professional Development July 2008 Orlando, FL FACILITATED BY Theron Cosgrave Swanson & Cosgrave Consulting www.swansonandcosgrave.com
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Consider what “quality” means and how we know what quality student work looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Understand instructional strategies that help motivate students to produce quality work </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about strategies, approaches, and tools that teachers can use to help students improve work quality </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT IS “QUALITY”? <ul><li>How do YOU know what quality work is? </li></ul><ul><li>How do STUDENTS know what quality work is? </li></ul><ul><li>What would it look and feel like in your classroom if students were CONSISTENTLY doing high-quality work? </li></ul>
    4. 4. STARTING WITH OURSELVES <ul><li>Teachers who are </li></ul><ul><li>“ expecting—and getting—success with ALL students” </li></ul><ul><li>have a deep belief in and consistently act as if </li></ul><ul><li>ALL STUDENTS CAN LEARN </li></ul><ul><li>AND IT’S THEIR JOB TO </li></ul><ul><li>SEE THAT THEY DO. </li></ul>
    5. 5. QUALITY TAKES COMMITMENT <ul><li>Addressing “the incredible gravitational pull of school as usual .” </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding learner perspectives (Why reluctant learners feel the way they do.) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding learner behaviors (Why reluctant learners act the way they do.) </li></ul><ul><li>Believe you have the power and responsibility to reach and teach reluctant learners! </li></ul>
    6. 6. WORKING ON OUR PRACTICE <ul><li>Focus on specific, targeted student learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration (teachers working together, professional learning communities) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular writing across the disciplines (non-fiction) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent formative assessment & feedback (daily/weekly) </li></ul>
    7. 7. A FOCUS ON LEARNERS AND LEARNING <ul><li>Learning, in the end, is about LEARNER attempts to learn, more than about teacher attempts to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-create a classroom culture where both teachers and students believe in the capacity of all to learn, succeed, & work together to reach targeted learning goals. </li></ul>
    8. 8. TWO TYPES OF STUDENTS vs. Reluctant (won’t) Struggling (can’t)
    9. 9. SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS” (“WON’Ts”) ENGAGING CURRICULUM, STUDENT VOICE & OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES, SUPPORT SERVICES, “ CULTURE OF CARING” RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION NOT INTERESTED LIFE ISSUES Reluctant
    10. 10. WHAT OUR STUDENTS NEED <ul><li>Four Foundational Mindsets: </li></ul><ul><li>I am Capable - How the learner perceives her/himself. (Am I capable of doing this? If I feel capable, I act capable.) </li></ul><ul><li>Today Connects with Tomorrow / Future - Empowerment to Find Motivations (How will efforts I am investing today connect with desired outcomes tomorrow/ in my future?) </li></ul>
    11. 11. WHAT OUR STUDENTS NEED <ul><li>I Make a Difference - Empowerment for being a respected participant (team member/ student) (Do I have a say? Can I impact potential outcomes? Do you respect and believe in me?) </li></ul><ul><li>Someone Believe in Me - Pays Attention to My Progress and Growth </li></ul><ul><li>(If I struggle or even fail, will it matter to anyone else? Is it safe to try? Will your expectations stay high? Will you continue to believe I can do this?) </li></ul>
    12. 12. THREE CONSTRUCTS REQUIRED BY LEARNERS <ul><li>Social Supports - Emotional support, guidance, and recognition through caring relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation - Internal desire to attain goals, enhanced through voice, that influences the journey along the way -- building persistence & commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy - One’s belief in one’s ability to accomplish things -- a level of confidence -- attributing success &/or failure to EFFORT rather than ABILITY. </li></ul>
    13. 13. SUPPORTING STUDENTS TO PRODUCE QUALITY WORK <ul><li>How can we motivate students to produce quality work? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student voice & choice </li></ul><ul><li>Employ an engaging curriculum where students do the work of learning & thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Turn your classroom into a high performance learning community </li></ul>
    14. 14. ENGAGING INSTRUCTION: THE “THREE R’s” <ul><li>RIGOR = challenge students! </li></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE = answer the “so what?” question with authentic assignments </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS = take advantage of SLC structure to create caring, high performance environments with high expectations & high support </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>NAF’s new curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Six A’s </li></ul><ul><li>Daggett’s Rigor & Relevance Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano’s Essential 9 </li></ul>ENGAGING INSTRUCTION: USE THE TOOLS!
    16. 16. Six A’s of Quality Projects <ul><li>AUTHENTICITY </li></ul><ul><li>ACADEMIC RIGOR </li></ul><ul><li>APPLIED LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE EXPLORATION </li></ul><ul><li>ADULT RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT PRACTICES </li></ul>
    17. 17. ENGAGING INSTRUCTION: USE THE TOOLS!
    18. 18. ENGAGING INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES Five observable classroom strategies… <ul><li>Facilitation of student conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-led instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Seatwork/centers w/ teacher engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Seatwork/centers w/ teacher disengaged </li></ul><ul><li>Total disengagement </li></ul>
    19. 19. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>Identifying Similarities and Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing & Note Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Generating and Testing Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Homework and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition </li></ul>ENGAGING INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
    20. 20. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>Identifying Similarities and Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors and analogies </li></ul><ul><li>“ How are stocks like lottery tickets?” </li></ul><ul><li>T-charts </li></ul>Stocks Bonds
    21. 21. Marzano’s Essential 9 2. Nonlinguistic Representations
    22. 22. Marzano’s Essential 9 Authentic work = Teachers coach students to learn how to learn. Students know why they are doing the work and what quality looks like. 3. Summarizing & Note Taking
    23. 23. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>4. Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-view concepts, texts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text structures, categories, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime the pump - connect & personalize info </li></ul>Ex: Fill-in-the-______ note sheets
    24. 24. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>5. Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs, trios, groups (foster student conversation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structure of roles, task specifics </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for individual & collective responsibility </li></ul>
    25. 25. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>6. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this unit, I want to learn… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance, direction, suggestions for improvement – can be given by peers, teachers, other adults, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use exemplars and rubrics! </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>7. Generating and Testing Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict what would happen if… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think what would be different if… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply what they know to a new and different context </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>8. Homework and Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain purpose of HW – prep or practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary HW delivery methods/formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on all HW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track speed and accuracy during practice </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Marzano’s Essential 9 <ul><li>9. Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can change beliefs about their effort and performance – be explicit about effort and progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause, Prompt, Praise </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Student Voice & Ownership <ul><li>How can students “own” their learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Project design teams </li></ul><ul><li>Topic options w/in boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Product/performance options </li></ul><ul><li>Solve classroom problems with students </li></ul>
    30. 30. SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS” ( “WON’Ts”) ENGAGING CURRICULUM, STUDENT VOICE & OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES, SUPPORT SERVICES, “ CULTURE OF CARING” RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION NOT INTERESTED LIFE ISSUES Reluctant
    31. 31. SUPPORTING T HE “STRUGGLING” (“CAN ’T S ) PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRICS RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION Struggling MAY NOT YET HAVE NEEDED SKILLS MAY NOT KNOW WHAT QUALITY IS
    32. 32. HELPING STUDENTS TO RECOGNIZE QUALITY 1) USE MODELS & EXEMPLARS Deconstruct exemplars w/ inductive lesson 2) BRING IN EXPERTS Show & discuss professional standards 3) USE RUBRICS (including student- designed rubrics)
    33. 33. HELPING STUDENTS RECOGNIZE QUALITY <ul><li>“ We need to involve students by making the targets clear to them and having them help design assessments that reflect those targets. Then we involve them again in the process of keeping track over time of their learning so they can watch themselves improving. That’s where motivation comes from.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Rick Stiggins </li></ul>
    34. 34. USING M ODELS & EXEMPLARS “ When my class begins a new project ,a new venture, we begin with a taste of excellence. I pull out models of work by former students, videotapes of former students presenting their work, models of work from other schools, and models of work from the professional world. We sit and admire. We critique and discuss what makes them powerful: what makes a piece of creative writing compelling and exciting, what makes a scientific or historical research project significant and stirring, what makes a novel mathematical solution so breath-taking.”
    35. 35. USING MODELS & EXEMP LARS “ I’ve been criticized at times by educators for using models so much. All of the work will be copies, they say…But I don’t mind at all. In fact, I encourage imitation as a place to begin. As a student, I learned to write by copying the styles of great authors; I learned to paint by copying the styles of great painters…. I encourage this practice so regularly that I explicitly describe and present what I call “tribute work.” Tribute work is the work of a student who built off of, borrowed ideas from, or imitated the work of a particular former or current student.”
    36. 36. USING MODELS & EXEMP LARS “ Deconstructing” Professional Work <ul><li>What makes the work good? </li></ul><ul><li>What features do you notice? </li></ul><ul><li>How might work have been created? </li></ul>
    37. 37. BRING IN EXPERTS Ideas for Connecting with Experts <ul><li>Guest speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Students interview experts outside of class </li></ul><ul><li>Phone interviews </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail interviews </li></ul>
    38. 38. USE RUBRICS RUBRICS 101: What is a Rubric? A = 90-100 B = 80-89 C = 70-79
    39. 39. RUBRICS 101 <ul><li>“ A rubric is not a grading system. It is a lesson in what constitutes quality. It is a declaration of expectations and a means of self-assessment for the student.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Heidi Hayes Jacobs, Ed.D., in “Redefining Assessment” </li></ul>
    40. 40. What do these levels of performance look like?
    41. 42. 4 levels left side student check box right side teacher check box scoring line allows for weighting of elements
    42. 43. RUBRIC TIPS <ul><li>Build rubrics with students </li></ul><ul><li>Show work samples along with rubrics </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: Less is more! </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators: Describe what it looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Levels: Use an even number </li></ul><ul><li>Have students self-assess w/ rubrics </li></ul>
    43. 44. http://rubistar.4teachers.org
    44. 45. PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRICS RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION Struggling SUPPORTING THE “STRUGGLING” (“CAN’T S ”) MAY NOT YET HAVE NEEDED SKILLS MAY NOT KNOW WHAT QUALITY IS
    45. 46. SKILL T RAINING 1) IDENTIFY AND TEACH SKILLS Avoid assumptions about student skills 2) PROVIDE FEEDBACK Formative assessment is critical 3) SCAFFOLD FOR SUCCESS Provide multiple types of support
    46. 47. A CLOSER LOOK AT SKILLS THE TASK: “ Gavin, go brush your teeth.”
    47. 48. BRUSHING YOUR TEETH <ul><li>Locate and go to bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Locate light switch, turn on light </li></ul><ul><li>Locate stool, place in front of sink, stand on stool without falling </li></ul><ul><li>Open medicine cabinet (no handles!) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify personal brushing equipment (toothbrush, toothpaste) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove equipment from cabinet, balance on sink edge </li></ul>
    48. 49. BRUSHING YOUR TEETH, CONTINUED… <ul><li>Remove brush from case; open toothpaste tube </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze right amount of paste onto brush (without spilling) </li></ul><ul><li>Replace toothpaste cap </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly brush all tooth surfaces with proper motion </li></ul><ul><li>Keep excess paste in mouth w/out swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Spit excess paste into sink </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on faucet (cold water side) </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse off toothbrush </li></ul>
    49. 50. BRUSHING YOUR TEETH, CONTINUED … <ul><li>Locate cup </li></ul><ul><li>Fill cup half full with water, turn faucet off </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse mouth w/out swallowing; spit in sink </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe mouth with correct towel </li></ul><ul><li>Return brush to medicine cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off light on way out! </li></ul>
    50. 51. BRUSHING YOUR TEETH, CONTINUED… <ul><li>Remove brush from case; open toothpaste tube </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze right amount of paste onto brush (without spilling) </li></ul><ul><li>Replace toothpaste cap </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly brush all tooth surfaces with proper motion </li></ul><ul><li>Keep excess paste in mouth w/out swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Spit excess paste into sink </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on faucet (cold water side) </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse off toothbrush </li></ul>
    51. 52. PREREQUISITE COMPONENT SKILLS (PCS’s) <ul><li>= Individual Skills Needed to Complete a Complex Task </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled teachers naturally identify and teach to PCS’s </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom instruction must be aligned to PCS’s to ensure success </li></ul>
    52. 53. PCS’s: THE BOTTOM LINE If students need to do it, you need to teach it.
    53. 54. PBL ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>HEALTH PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Required Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop family medical histories </li></ul><ul><li>Write proposal to study health issue of personal or community interest </li></ul><ul><li>Keep research log, including citations </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Develop lesson plans and materials for underserved population </li></ul><ul><li>Present to real audience </li></ul>PCS’s???
    54. 55. NEWSLETTER PCS’s Research Topic Write Articles Edit Articles Design Layout Produce Layout Type Articles Take Photos Digitize Photos Print & Copy Newsletter Distribute Newsletter PCS’s???
    55. 56. NEWSLETTER LAYOUT PCS’s Designing a Newspaper Layout Columns Font Sizes Font Styles Formatting Headlines Headers/Footers Icons/Images White Space
    56. 57. BALANCED FEEDBACK <ul><li>COLLECT EVIDENCE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE WORK </li></ul><ul><li>USE A VARIETY OF METHODS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Reports </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. BALANCED FEEDBACK: ASSESSMENT vs. EVALUATION <ul><li>ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Latin root “assidere” </li></ul><ul><li>= to sit beside </li></ul><ul><li>Formative </li></ul><ul><li>Along the way </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>Latin/Old French </li></ul><ul><li>“ valere”= to value </li></ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul><ul><li>At the end </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul>
    58. 59. PROVIDING FEEDBACK <ul><li>“ (For learning purposes)… a test at the end of a unit….is pointless; it’s too late to work with the results… The feedback on tests, seatwork, and homework should give each pupil guidance on how to improve, and each pupil must be given help and an opportunity to work on the improvement.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Black and William </li></ul>
    59. 60. PROVIDING FEEDBACK: ASSESSING FOR LEARNING <ul><li>“ When they assess FOR learning, teachers use the classroom assessment process and the continuous flow of information about student achievement that it provides in order to advance , not merely check on, student learning . They do this by continuously adjusting instruction based on the results of classroom assessments.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Stiggins </li></ul>
    60. 61. “ SCAFFOLDING” FOR SUCCESS Content Academic foundation for work Training Explicit skill-building in all required production areas Expertise Professional-level training and consultation provided by experts Oversight Structured times for teachers to meet, motivate, and mentor students
    61. 62. “ SCAFFOLDING” FOR SUCCESS Documents Descriptors, calendars, rubrics to explain and organize work Tools Technological resources needed for production Time In-class opportunities to meet, research, produce, exhibit, and evaluate
    62. 63. In Review… SUPPORTING THE “RELUCTANTS” ENGAGING CURRICULUM, STUDENT VOICE & OWNERSHIP SLCs, ADVISORIES, SUPPORT SERVICES, “ CULTURE OF CARING” RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION NOT INTERESTED LIFE ISSUES Reluctant
    63. 64. In Review… SUPPORTING THE “STRUGGLING” PROVIDE SKILL TRAINING, FEEDBACK, & SCAFFOLDING USE EXAMPLES, EXPERTS, & RUBRICS RESPONSE REASON INTERVENTION Struggling MAY NOT YET HAVE NEEDED SKILLS MAY NOT KNOW WHAT QUALITY IS
    64. 65. THE RESULT: vs. WON’T CAN’T ENGAGED STUDENTS WHO CAN & WILL!

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